Michael C Granatosky

Michael C Granatosky
New York Institute of Technology | NYIT · Department of Anatomy

Doctor of Philosophy

About

101
Publications
38,075
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
768
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - March 2016
Duke University
Position
  • PhD
January 2008 - August 2011
Florida Museum of Natural History
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
The ability to securely grasp substrates of variable diameter is critical to arboreal animals. Arboreal specialists have emerged across several vertebrate lineages – including mammals, lizards, and amphibians – and several attempts have been made to quantify their grasping performance, by measuring either gripping (i.e., forces generated about an o...
Article
Bite force represents a critical measure of an animal's feeding capabilities and has been analyzed in the context of ecology and body size in numerous vertebrate lineages. Among birds, bite force potential has been comprehensively quantified in finches; however, no in vivo data have been reported within parrots (order: Psittaciformes), and an anato...
Article
Full-text available
Positional behaviors have been broadly quantified across the Order Primates, and in several other mammalian lineages, to contextualize adaptations to, and evolution within, an arboreal environment. Outside of Mammalia, however, such data are yet to be reported. In this study, we present the first quantitative report of positional behavior within Av...
Article
Full-text available
Suction feeding in fishes is characterized by rapid cranial movements, but extant lungfishes (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi) exhibit a reduced number and mobility of cranial bones relative to actinopterygian fishes. Despite fusion of cranial elements, lungfishes are proficient at suction feeding, though the impacts of novel cranial morphology and reduced c...
Article
Full-text available
The morphology of the mammalian middle ear – including the size, shape, and stiffness of individual ossicles – controls their vibrational response to sound and, as such, is closely related to an animal's auditory capabilities. While the relationship between middle ear morphology and hearing frequency has been explored in living carnivorans, the siz...
Article
The biomechanical demands of arboreal locomotion are generally thought to necessitate specialized kinetic and kinematic gait characteristics. While such data has been widely collected across arboreal quadrupeds, no study has yet explored how arboreal substrates influence the locomotor behavior of birds. Parrots – an ancient arboreal lineage that ex...
Article
The locomotor behaviors of treeshrews are often reported as scurrying "squirrel-like" movements. As such, treeshrews have received little attention beyond passing remarks in regard to primate locomotor evolution. However, scandentians vary considerably in habitat and substrate use, thus categorizing all treeshrew locomotion based on data collected...
Article
Evolutionary analyses of joint kinematics and muscle mechanics suggest that, during cyclic behaviors, tetrapod feeding systems are optimized for precise application of forces over small displacements during chewing while locomotor systems are more optimized for large and rapid joint excursions during walking and running. If this hypothesis is corre...
Article
Few realized the extent of disruption that the Covid‐19 global pandemic would impose upon higher anatomical education. While many institutions were obliged to adopt a fully‐remote online model, the New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine strove to develop a curriculum that would allow medical students to receive an in‐perso...
Article
No vertebrate, living or extinct, is known to have possessed an odd number of limbs. Despite this ‘forbidden phenotype’, gaits that use odd numbers of limbs (e.g. tripedalism or pentapedalism) have evolved in both avian and mammalian lineages. Tripedal locomotion is commonly employed by parrots during climbing, who use their beaks as an additional...
Article
A key characteristic of primate above-branch arboreal locomotion is hindlimb-biased weight support, subverting the typical mammalian condition in which the majority of the body weight is supported by the forelimb. This shift is thought to reflect an adaptation toward the arboreal niches exploited by early primates. However, above-branch quadrupedal...
Article
Full-text available
The difficulty of quantifying asymmetrical limb movements, compared with symmetrical gaits, has resulted in a dearth of information concerning the mechanics and adaptive benefits of these locomotor patterns. Further, no study has explored the evolutionary history of asymmetrical gaits using phylogenetic comparative techniques. Most foundational wor...
Article
Full-text available
Speed regulation in animals involves stride frequency and stride length. While the relationship between these variables has been well documented, it remains unresolved whether animals primarily modify stride frequency or stride length to increase speed. In this study, we explored the interrelationships between these three variables across a sample...
Article
Full-text available
During the last decade, biomechanical and kinematic studies have suggested that a belly-dragging gait may have represented a critical locomotor stage during tetrapod evolution. This form of locomotion is hypothesized to facilitate animals to move on land with relatively weaker pectoral muscles. The Indonesian blue-tongued skink (Tiliqua gigas) is k...
Article
While red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) are most often observed in terrestrial forested areas, several studies report arboreal substrate use and climbing behavior. However, salamanders do not have any of the anatomical features commonly observed in specialized climbing species (e.g., claws, setae, suction cups). Instead, salamanders cling...
Article
Full-text available
In terrestrial quadrupeds where the forelimbs are habitually used to push against the substrate, the ulna is subjected to cranial bending and develops a caudal curvature. During arboreal locomotion, the forelimbs are habitually used to pull on the substrate during climbing and clinging, and the ulna responds to this bending load by developing a cra...
Article
Vertebrates employ an impressive range of strategies for coordinating their limb movements while walking. Although this gait variation has been quantified and hypotheses for its origins tested in select tetrapod lineages, a comprehensive understanding of gait evolution in a macroevolutionary context is currently lacking. We used freely available in...
Article
Studies of positional behavior, gait, and habitat use are important for understanding how animals adapt to the challenges of their environment. In turn, this information is useful for advancing research on primate morphology, life history, and ecology. Data on eco-mechanical variables can be used to develop concrete conservation and management plan...
Article
Arboreal mammals have evolved a range of biomechanical adaptations that allow them to navigate trees effectively. One such feature that has received considerable attention is the importance of vision that helps arboreal animals assess gap distances, assure proper foot placement, and inspect potential risks. While there is considerable debate about...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The competing functional demands of diarthrodial joints, permitting mobility while retaining enough stability to transmit forces across the joint, have been linked with the shape and size of the joint's articular surfaces. A clear understanding of the relationship between joint morphology and joint movement potential is important for r...
Article
Urinary C-peptide (UCP) is a biomarker for insulin that can be used as a non-invasive physiological measure of energy balance. Previous research has validated the use of UCP to quantify energy balance in catarrhines; however, there have been no such studies in platyrrhines. Validation is necessary in this lineage of primates as divergent evolution...
Article
Full-text available
Quadrupedal animal locomotion is energetically costly. We explore two forms of mechanical work that may be relevant in imposing these physiological demands. Limb work, due to the forces and velocities between the stance foot and the centre of mass, could theoretically be zero given vertical limb forces and horizontal centre of mass path. To prevent...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Tetrapod musculoskeletal diversity is usually studied separately in feeding and locomotor systems. However, direct comparisons between these systems promise important insight into how natural selection deploys the same basic musculoskeletal toolkit—connective tissues, bones, nerves, and skeletal muscle—to meet the differing performance criteria of...
Article
Full-text available
Gaze-tracking techniques have advanced our understanding of visual attention and decision making during walking and athletic events, but little is known about how vision influences behavior during running over common, natural obstacles. This study tested hypotheses about whether runners regularly collect visual information and pre-plan obstacle cle...
Article
Some varanid lizards show a prominent and highly distinctive lateral calcaneal process. It has been posited that this structure serves as a lateral “heel” to increase the moment arm for m. peroneus longus, allowing it to function as a powerful propulsive muscle. However, to confirm that m. peroneus longus serves this function requires electromyogra...
Article
Full-text available
Jaw-muscle architecture is a key determinant of jaw movements and bite force. While static length-force and force-velocity relationships are well documented in mammals, architecture dynamics of the chewing muscles and their impact on muscle performance are largely unknown. We provide novel data on how fiber architecture of the superficial anterior...
Article
Full-text available
Comparative analyses of locomotion in tetrapods reveal two patterns of stride cycle variability. Tachymetabolic tetrapods (birds and mammals) have lower inter-cycle variation in stride duration than bradymetabolic tetrapods (amphibians, lizards, turtles, and crocodilians). This pattern has been linked to the fact that birds and mammals share enlarg...
Article
Tetrapod musculoskeletal diversity is usually studied separately in feeding and locomotor systems. However, comparisons between these systems promise important insight into how natural selection deploys the same basic musculoskeletal toolkit-connective tissues, bones, nerves and skeletal muscle-to meet the differing performance criteria of feeding...
Article
Arm-swinging is a locomotor mode observed only in primates, in which the hindlimbs no longer have a weight bearing function and the forelimbs must propel the body forward and support the entirety of the animal's mass. It has been suggested that the evolution of arm-swinging was preceded by a shift to inverted quadrupedal walking for purposes of fee...
Chapter
Full-text available
Greyhound racing is a competitive, organized sport in which bets are placed as greyhounds run around a track (Baker 1996; Thompson 2003). There are two forms of dog racing, which include track racing and coursing. Track racing utilizes an artificial lure that travels along a rail ahead of the dogs until the hounds cross the finish line. In contrast...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Speed-related gait transitions occur in many animals, but it remains unclear what factors trigger gait changes. While the most widely accepted function of gait transitions is that they reduce locomotor costs, there is no obvious metabolic trigger signalling animals when to switch gaits. An alternative approach suggests that gait transitions serve t...
Article
Full-text available
During quadrupedal walking, most primates utilize diagonal sequence diagonal couplet gaits, large limb excursions, and hindlimb-biased limb-loading. These gait characteristics are thought to be basal to the Order, but the selective pressure underlying these gait changes remains unknown. Some researchers have examined these characteristics during ve...
Article
Objectives In this study, we explore whether ground reaction forces recorded during horizontal walking co‐vary with the shape of the long bones of the forelimb in strepsirrhines. To do so, we quantify (1) the shape of the shaft and articular surfaces of each long bone of the forelimb, (2) the peak vertical, mediolateral, and horizontal ground react...
Article
Full-text available
Locomotor diversity has meant many different things depending on the subject area or investigator. While no concrete definition of locomotor diversity is currently available, this has not stopped researchers from making a number of assertions about the underlying mechanisms that determine whether a species will have high or low locomotor diversity....
Article
Over the last decade, we have learned much about the anatomy, evolutionary history, and biomechanics of the extant sloths. However, most of this work has involved studying sloths in controlled conditions, and few studies have explored how these animals are behaving in a naturalistic setting. In this study, we integrate positional activities in natu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Adaptations for flight have greatly modified the forelimbs and hindlimbs of bats compared to other mammals so that terrestrial and/or above branch quadrupedal locomotion is awkward and unusual for most species. However, suspensory quadrupedal gaits are quite common for bats, but little is known about this type of movement and no data are available...
Article
During quadrupedal walking in most animals, the forelimbs play a net braking role while the hindlimbs are net propulsive. However, the mechanism by which this differentiation occurs remains unclear. Here we test two models to explain this pattern using primates and felines: (1) the Horizontal Strut Effect (in which limbs are modeled as independent...
Article
Objectives: Pygathrix is an understudied Asian colobine unusual among the Old World monkeys for its use of arm-swinging. Little data exists on the anatomy and mechanics of brachiation in this genus. Here, we consider this colobine to gain insight into the parallel evolution of suspensory behavior in primates. Materials and methods: This study co...
Article
Vertical climbing is an essential behavior for arboreal animals, yet limb mechanics during climbing are poorly understood and rarely compared to those observed during horizontal walking. Primates commonly engage in both arboreal walking and vertical climbing, and this makes them an ideal taxa in which to compare these locomotor forms. Additionally,...
Article
The evolution of primates is intimately linked to their initial invasion of an arboreal environment. However, moving and foraging in this milieu creates significant mechanical challenges related to the presence of substrates differing in their size and orientation. It is widely assumed that primates are behaviorally and anatomically adapted to move...
Article
The living sloths are the most suspensory of all extant mammals, and therefore represent ideal models for investigating the effects that suspensory behaviours have on bone and joint morphology. While the anatomy and kinematics of sloths are well known, no research has reported kinetic patterns of sloth locomotion. This study examines peak force pat...
Article
Gait mechanics in habitual quadrupedal primates has been explored thoroughly. However, little is known about the movements of quadrupedal primates that regularly engage in other, more specialized, forms of locomotion (e.g., suspensory or leaping). It is unclear whether the patterns of quadrupedal locomotion in these anatomically specialized species...
Chapter
Full-text available
Extinct lemurs exhibit tremendous heterogeneity in hand morphology, largely reflecting differences in locomotor behavior. While no extinct lemur can be described as exclusively arboreal or exclusively terrestrial, the Archaeolemuridae were likely highly terrestrial, the Megaladapidae were slow, vertical climbers, and the Palaeopropithecidae were hi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Primates are defined, in part, by the presence of a grasping hand that couples primitive anatomy with exceptional neuromuscular dexterity. This arrangement is maintained across the evolutionary history of primates, and is often seen as one of the key features that allow primates to make fluid transitions from one substrate to another, make kinemati...
Article
Indigo Snakes (genus Drymarchon) occur from northern Argentina northward into to the United States, where they inhabit southern Texas and disjunct populations in Mississippi, Florida and Georgia. Based on allopatry and morphological differences Collins (1991) hypothesized that the two United States taxa—the Western Indigo Snake, D. melanurus ereben...
Article
Objectives: Many primates exhibit a suite of characteristics that distinguish their quadrupedal gaits from non-primate mammals including the use of a diagonal sequence gait, a relatively protracted humerus at touchdown, and relatively high peak vertical forces on the hindlimbs compared to the forelimbs. These characteristics are thought to have ev...
Thesis
Full-text available
For primates, and other arboreal mammals, adopting suspensory locomotion represents one of the strategies an animal can use to prevent toppling off a thin support during arboreal movement and foraging. While numerous studies have reported the incidence of suspensory locomotion in a broad phylogenetic sample of mammals, little research has explored...