Michael Gilek

Michael Gilek
Södertörn University | sh · Environmental Studies

Professor

About

83
Publications
16,394
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Introduction
Michael Gilek currently works at the School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Sweden. Michael does research on marine environmental governance in the Baltic Sea and beyond. Additional research interests include science-policy interactions and challenges of delay and science denial in environmental policy.
Additional affiliations
April 2001 - March 2016
Södertörn University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Full-text available
A number of commentators have argued that up until now marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP) research and practice have been dominated by blue economy and environmental concerns and have tended to neglect what might be regarded as social sustainability concerns. To gain more insight into the character and extent of such a gap, as well as how to ad...
Article
Full-text available
Festering ocean conflict thwarts efforts to realize the Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. This paper explores transformations of ocean conflict into situated sustainability pathways that privilege human needs, justice and equity. We first outline the promise and limits of prevailing ocean/coastal governance practices, with a focus on marin...
Article
Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) has been heralded as the key means of achieving a more integrated approach to marine use across sectors and spatial scales. Achieving greater integration and coherence in MSP governance arrangements is seen as a way to resolve current problems of marine governance (such as fragmentation) and address future resource dem...
Article
Full-text available
This article elaborates a conceptual framework to examine social sustainability in marine spatial planning (MSP). Based on a critical literature review of key texts on social sustainability in MSP and the broader sustainable development literature we show the need to elaborate a cogent and comprehensive approach for the analysis and pursuit of soci...
Article
Full-text available
Gaps between public policy goals and the state of the environment are often significant. However, while goal failures in environmental governance are studied in a number of disciplines, the knowledge on the various causes behind delayed goal achievement is still incomplete. In this article we propose a new framework for analysis of delay mechanisms...
Article
Full-text available
Marine spatial planning (MSP) has emerged as a radical approach to achieving sustainable development objectives at sea. While critics challenge its avowed radicalness, often through highlighting dominative processes, more insidious mechanisms of restricted agency remain under-elaborated, as are the productive power and potential of planning. This p...
Chapter
Full-text available
While there is growing critique emerging to address social sustainability in marine/maritime spatial planning (MSP), overwhelmingly attention has been on governance, economic and environmental aspects. This chapter redresses this by proposing a conceptual framework to elucidate key features of social sustainability in MSP. The ambition is to both n...
Article
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This article develops an integration framework to analyse MSP practices across several Baltic Sea Region cases studies as well as cases studies from Australia (Great Barrier Reef) and the US (Rhode Island). While integration has been universally adopted as a policy principle to strive for, there is confusion about what it means, how to do it and wh...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter develops an analytical framework, drawing on the multidimensional role of integration, to explore how the Ecosystem Approach (EA) is variously conceived and practiced in marine spatial planning (MSP) in the Baltic Sea region (BSR). This framework is used to examine how EA practices reflect differing conceptions of sustainable developme...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domest...
Chapter
While modern society is highly dependent on chemicals, numerous substances also turn out to be hazardous and many give rise to severe risks and problems in the marine environment. In response, national, regional and global chemical policies, often focusing on the land-based sources to marine pollution, have been developed, as outlined in the articl...
Article
Full-text available
Denial of scientific findings is neither a new nor an unexplored phenomenon. In the area of environmental science and policy though, the research on denial has not been systematically summarized and analyzed. This article reviews 161 scientific articles on environmental and climate science denial published in peer reviewed international journals in...
Article
How science and policy interact has been a major research focus in the International Relations (IR) tradition, using the epistemic community (EC) concept, as well as in the alternative perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Should science be autonomous and as apolitical as possible in order to ‘speak truth to power’, as suggested by E...
Chapter
The Baltic Sea ecosystem is subject to a wide array of societal pressures and associated environmental risks (e.g. eutrophication, oil discharges, chemical pollution, overfishing and invasive alien species). Despite several years of substantial efforts by state and non-state actors, it is still highly unlikely that the regionally agreed environment...
Chapter
This study zooms in on public governance in the Baltic Sea region of three generations of notorious hazardous substances, namely, PCBs, PBDEs and PFOS/PFOA. Following regulation, PCB concentrations in the Baltic Sea have decreased substantially although they are still above pre-industrial levels. PBDE levels have also decreased in some places, but...
Chapter
This chapter investigates and compares the interactions between science and policy (risk assessments and risk management) in five cases of environmental governance of the Baltic Sea: eutrophication, fisheries, invasive alien species, chemical pollution and oil discharges. An efficient interplay between science and policy is important for successful...
Chapter
This study investigates if and how present institutional structures and interactions between scientifi c assessment and environmental management are suf-fi cient for implementing the ecosystem approach to management (EAM) in the case of Baltic Sea eutrophication. Concerning governance structures, a number of institutions and policies focus on issue...
Chapter
Governing marine environments is a highly complex and challenging enterprise. This applies particularly to the heavily exploited Baltic Sea for which despite extensive governance arrangements and a substantial scientific knowledge base, it is unlikely that the policy objective of 'good environmental status' is reached. Based on a review of governan...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Based on a literature review of over 160 journal articles and books, this paper examines the ecosystem management and environmental governance approaches, and looks for common topics and integrated research agendas. While scientific articles on environmental governance stem primarily from social science research, the ecosystem management a...
Book
This edited volume presents a comprehensive and coherent interdisciplinary analysis of challenges and possibilities for sustainable governance of the Baltic Sea ecosystem by combining knowledge and approaches from natural and social sciences. Focusing on the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) and associated multi-level, multi-sector and multi-a...
Article
Full-text available
Departing from previous theoretical and empirical studies on sustainable supply-chain management, we investigate organizational commitment (drivers and motivations) and capabilities (resources, structures, and policy instruments) in sustainable procurement of “noncore” products. By focusing on chemicals in textiles, the article explores the activi-...
Conference Paper
A great number of chemicals are used along the complex supply chains of textiles. Since many of these substances are hazardous to human health and the environment, dealing with knowledge-related challenges plays a central role for achieving a responsible governance of textile supply chains. Although previous research enables identification of gener...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions between scientific assessments and management decision-making are key determinants for the efficiency of environmental risk governance. This applies particularly to marine ecosystems like the Baltic Sea, where fisheries and eutrophication pose serious threats connected to environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainability. Us...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report focuses on IKEA’s management and communication surrounding sustainability in general and chemical risks specifically. IKEA’s work is analysed in relation to theoretical concepts around responsibility, supply chain, and governance . The report focuses on IKEA’s visions and organizational structures, its policy instruments to deal with ch...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents the results of a web survey distributed to stakeholders in the Baltic Sea marine sector regarding environmental communication on air pollution from shipping. The survey was carried out in the spring and summer of 2012. Drawing on the literature on risk communication and environmental governance, the main focus was placed on so-...
Chapter
Full-text available
This report presents the results of a web survey distributed to stakeholders in the Baltic Sea marine sector regarding environmental communication on air pollution from shipping. The survey was carried out in the spring and summer of 2012. Drawing on the literature on risk communication and environmental governance, the main focus was placed on so-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The management of social, environmental and health risks associated with products from global product chains is one of the most pressing task for contemporary society; a task that involves public as well as private actors and poses great challenges in terms of capabilities, knowledge, communication, collaboration, and policy instruments. In various...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to gain insights about the opportunities and challenges that private and public organisations face regarding the development of responsible procurement in a complex and uncertain issue. The paper focuses on chemicals in textiles, and uses a qualitative methodology with semi-structured interviews. Key elements of a pro...
Chapter
Full-text available
Technical Report
Full-text available
In the present study, we ask whether and how different organizations work with sustainable procurement and how this work relates to the complexity of the product chain. We have chosen to focus on chemical risks in relation to textiles – an issue that increasingly is becoming part of the public discourse and a target for journalists. In the case...
Article
Full-text available
Complex socio-environmental risks challenge society. In response to scientific uncertainty and sociopolitical controversies, environmental governance, precaution, and the ecosystem approach to management are held forward as complements to governmental risk-based sector-restricted regulation. We analyze this development for hazardous substances in t...
Chapter
In this chapter relatively recent European Commission risk assessment reports for three potential PBT/vPvB chemicals are used as examples to illustrate scientific uncertainty in the risk assessment process, and how science and policy interact when such uncertainty is handled. The studied risk assessment reports are for pentabromodiphenylether (Pent...
Book
This important contribution to the scientific understanding of chemical risk regulation offers a coherent, comprehensive and updated multidisciplinary analysis, written by leading experts in toxicology, ecotoxicology, risk analysis, media and communication, law, and political science. The text focuses in particular on the new European REACH regime...
Article
Six different lipid matrices (the intact lipid (IL), four lipid fractions with different polarity, and the free fatty acids (FFAs) obtained by hydrolysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) containing fraction) were obtained from salmon (Salmo salar) and eel (Anguilla anguilla), each collected at a contaminated and a comparatively uncontaminated catch sit...
Article
Effects of inputs of organic matter were studied on bioavailability and cycling of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in benthic ecosystems of the Baltic and Kattegat Seas. In laboratory experiments, effects of microalgae additions were studied on the bioaccumulation of HOCs (PCBs and PAHs) by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, the brittle star A...
Article
The occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by seven different national regulatory agencies of EU member states are compared with those of the European Commission (EC). The comparison concerned: (1) what chemicals have been selected, (2) the average level of exposure limits for all chemicals, and (3) the similarity between the OELs of diffe...
Article
The ERICA Integrated Approach requires that a risk assessment screening dose rate is defined for the risk characterisation within Tiers 1 and 2. At Tier 3, no numerical screening dose rate is used, and the risk characterisation is driven by methods that can evaluate the possible effects of ionising radiation on reproduction, mortality and morbidity...
Article
Like any complex environmental problem, ecological risk assessment of the impacts of ionising radiation is confounded by uncertainty. At all stages, from problem formulation through to risk characterisation, the assessment is dependent on models, scenarios, assumptions and extrapolations. These include technical uncertainties related to the data us...
Article
Settling organic matter (OM) is the major food source for heterotrophic benthic fauna. The high sorption affinity of many contaminants for OM implies that OM can influence both the distribution and bioavailability of contaminants. Here, we experimentally examine the role of settling OM of various nutritional qualities on the bioaccumulation of cadm...
Article
Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are used as an important regulatory instrument to protect workers' health from adverse effects of chemical exposures. The OELs mirror the outcome of the risk assessment and risk management performed by the standard setting actor. In this study we compared the OELs established by 18 different organisations or nati...
Article
Full-text available
This experimental study examined the interactive effects of bioturbation and settling organic matter (OM) on the fate (burial and remobilisation) of 2 surface-deposited contaminants in Baltic Sea sediment: the metal Cd and a hydrophobic organic pollutant, the flame retardant BDE-99. Three macrofaunal species with diverse feeding and bioturbation st...
Article
This study evaluated the potential effect of ionising radiation on population growth using simple population models and parameter values derived from chronic exposure experiments in two invertebrate species with contrasting life-history strategies. In the earthworm Eisenia fetida, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasi...
Article
Pesticides used in banana production may enter watercourses and pose ecological risks for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and effects of pesticides in a stream draining a banana plantation was evaluated using chemical characterization, toxicity testing and macrobenthic community composition. All nematicides studied were detected in the surface w...
Article
One of the goals of environmental risk assessment (ERA) is to understand effects of toxicant exposure on individual organisms and populations. We hypothesized that toxicant exposure can reduce genetic diversity and alter genotype composition, which may ultimately lead to a reduction in the average fitness of the exposed population. To test this hyp...
Article
The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated (51)Cr, (63)Ni and (14)C in three key benthic inverteb...
Article
The Baltic Sea is a species-poor, semi-enclosed, brackish sea, whose sediments contain a wide range of contaminants, including sediment-associated metals and radionuclides. In this study, we have examined and compared bioaccumulation kinetics and assimilation efficiencies of sediment-associated Cr-51 Ni-63 and C-14 in three key benthic invertebrate...
Article
By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an eco...
Article
Within the FASSET project, a review of existing programmes for the assessment of environmental risks from radioactive or hazardous substances was carried out in order to identify appropriate aspects that could be incorporated into the FASSET framework. The review revealed a number of different approaches, arising from the need to balance the inform...
Article
Stress responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis. L.) exposed to rganic pollutants were measured using several physiological measures and as changes in protein expression. Blue mussels from the Baltic Sea were exposed for 6 days in a flow-through system to two fractions of extracted Baltic sediments (containing primarily PAHs or PCBs) from one indu...
Article
The environmental transport and fate of a hypothetical discharge of radioactive 14C from the Swedish final repository for radioactive operational waste (SFR) was investigated using an ecosystem modelling approach. It involved identification, quantification and dynamic modelling of the main flows and storages of carbon both in the physical environme...
Article
Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were experimentally exposed to the genotoxic model substance benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) to study DNA adduct formation. The specific aims were (a). to examine where in the mussels the DNA adducts were formed, in gills or digestive gland; (b). to study the dose-response relationship between B[a]P exposure and DNA...
Article
Small scale spatial patterns of abundance, growth and condition of the mussel Mytilus edulis on sub-littoral boulders (approx. 1–2 m high) were investigated at the island of Ask in the northern Baltic proper. The effect of side (exposed/sheltered with respect to wave action and sunlight) of boulder and position (up/down) on boulder was investigated...
Article
Full-text available
Biodeposits of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and pelagic and near-bed settling particulate matter were collected in situ over a 1 yr period in a coastal area of the Northern Baltic proper. The amounts of carbon and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in the collected biodeposits were compared to those in pelagic and near-bed settling material and rat...
Article
Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, IUPAC congeners 47, 99, and 153) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners 31, 52, 77, 118, and 153) in a flow-through experimental setup for 44 d. After the exposure phase, the mussels were allowed to depurate in natural brackish water for 26 d. Af...
Article
Although dwarfed by the low saline conditions, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) is a biomass dominant in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea proper, owing to the lack of invertebrate predators and competitors for space. In the present study patterns of distribution of blue mussels on relatively smooth, moderately sloping rocky surfaces in the Asko a...
Article
A novel method was used to estimate assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dissolved and food associated PCBs (IUPAC 31, 49, and 153) by the Baltic Sea blue mussel (Mytilus edulis). Mussels were exposed to radiolabeled PCBs in a series of short-term toxicokinetic experiments at different algal food concentrations, both at apparent steady-state (ASS) an...
Article
Recolonisation of cleared patches (15×15 cm) on a Mytilus edulis-dominated rocky bottom was followed by photography from June 1992 to October 1994. An experiment was also performed to study movement of newly recruited mussels on ropes in cleared areas. Mussels recolonised the rock surfaces by moving in from the perimeter of the clearings. Juvenile...
Article
Annual budgets were established for the flows of three important groups of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), through the dense blue mussel population inhabiting the Swedish coastal zone of the Bal...
Article
Uptake and depuration kinetics of a tri, a tetra and a hexa chlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 31, 49 and 153) in Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) were determined at different algal food rations. Differences in food concentration markedly influenced the water pumping and filtration rates of the mussels. This indicates that physiologically-based (...
Article
The objective of this study was to examine if natural variations in the quantity of phytoplankton-derived particulate and dissolved organic carbon influences the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the tissues of Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). In a laboratory flow-through experiment we exposed M. edulis to the technica...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was designed to examine the influence of body size on the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis L. This was done, firstly, by establishing the relationship (as a power function: PCB tissue conc = a tissue dry wtb) between tissue concentration and body weight for seve...
Article
A physiological approach has been proposed for studying the ecological consequences of diseases and parasitism in bivalve molluscs. We investigated effects of some naturally occurring non-lethal parasites and histological changes in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., on some commonly used bivalve condition indices, viz the oxygen:nitrogen ratio, t...
Article
Six different lipid matrices (the intact lipid (IL), four lipid fractions with different polarity, and the free fatty acids (FFAs) obtained by hydrolysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) containing fraction) were obtained from salmon (Salmo salar) and eel (Anguilla anguilla), each collected at a contaminated and a comparatively uncontaminated catch sit...
Article
Proceedings of the 12th Baltic Marine Biologists Symposium, Helsingör, Denmark, 25-30 August 1991, ISBN 87-85215-25-2: eds. E. Björnestad, L. Hagerman, K. Jensen, 61-66 To valuate the toxicity of hydrophobic substances on aquatic organisms, e.g. mussels, in an ecologically relevant manner is associated with considerable methodological problems. The...
Article
Six different lipid matrices (the intact lipid (IL), four lipid fractions with different polarity, and the free fatty acids (FFAs) obtained by hydrolysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) containing fraction) were obtained from salmon (Salmo salar) and eel (Anguilla anguilla), each collected at a contaminated and a comparatively uncontaminated catch sit...
Article
Environmental fate and effects of bleached pulp mill effluents : proceedings of a SEPA Conference held at Grand Hotel Saltsjöbaden, Stockholm, Sweden 19-21 November 1991: ed. A. Södergren, Rapport / Naturvårdsverket, ISSN 0282-7298 ; 4031, 244 - 247 The effect of contamination on the health of ecosystems is a question of primary importance. Detecti...