Michael James Furlong

Michael James Furlong
University of California, Santa Barbara | UCSB

PhD

About

349
Publications
216,723
Reads
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8,928
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - present
University of California, Santa Barbara
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
July 2016 - June 2018
University of California, Santa Barbara
Position
  • Head of Faculty
July 2015 - June 2016
University of California, Santa Barbara
Position
  • Head of Faculty

Publications

Publications (349)
Article
Full-text available
The Social Emotional Health Survey-Primary (SEHS-P) was originally developed to assess U.S. elementary students’ positive psychological traits: gratitude, zest, optimism, and persistence, and the higher-order latent construct of covitality. The present study evaluated the validity of a Chinese version of SEHS-P with a sample of 653 Chinese children...
Article
In an attempt to identify and intervene with students in need of services, the South Korean government has implemented national mental health screening. However, concerns raised about the unintended stigmatization of the screening assessment that focuses on student deficits prompts the need for additional research. This study evaluated the potentia...
Article
Full-text available
Student surveys are often used for school-based mental health screening; hence, it is critical to evaluate the authenticity of information obtained via the self-report format. The objective of this study was to examine the possible effects of mischievous response patterns on school-based screening results. The present study included 1,857 high scho...
Article
We report on the development of the Social Emotional Health Survey-Higher Education (SEHS-HE), a multidimensional measure of covitality (the combinatorial effects of multiple positive psychological constructs). Scale development was carried out over 18 months involving five phases: conceptual grounding and item pool generation; cognitive interviews...
Article
Social emotional health influences youth developmental trajectories and there is growing interest among educators to measure the social emotional health of the students they serve. This study replicated the psychometric characteristics of the Social Emotional Health Survey (SEHS) with a diverse sample of high school students (Grades 9–12; N =14,171...
Article
Full-text available
Measures of positive well-being are needed to support the shift away from a deficit-based approach to mental health. This study examined one measure, the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), as a measure of positive well-being used in school-based mental health monitoring efforts. This study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to explore the...
Article
Full-text available
The Social Emotional Health Survey-Secondary-2020 (SEHS-S-2020) is a well-studied option for assessing social emotional health to support students within a multitiered system of school support. While a growing body of literature supports the SEHS-S-2020 measure for assessing student covitality, there is less validation evidence specifically for mid...
Article
Social support is empirically linked to improved adolescent psychological and academic functioning. This study explored typologies characterized by family, peer, and school support among students in early (Grade 7; n = 27,399) and late (Grade 11; n = 27,984) adolescence. We assessed how each latent profile related to key aspects of psychological an...
Chapter
This chapter provides a review of dual-factor mental health research for use in schools along with a new, proposed adaptation for use in universal school-based mental health screening. Providing a historical perspective, the evolution of dual-factor approaches to assessment is discussed focusing on the importance of including a balanced approach to...
Article
Full-text available
Endeavors supporting college students' positive psychosocial development are gaining attention and investment in various countries and social contexts. Higher education experiences provide new academic, social, and vocational advancement opportunities at a critical developmental stage. However, higher education can also cause distress due to the ch...
Article
Full-text available
Many sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) experience bias-based bullying (i.e., bullying related to their minoritized social identities) at school. Compared to their straight and cisgender peers, SGMYs also report a disproportionately high prevalence of suicidal thoughts. This study used a sizeable, racially diverse, statewide sample of secondar...
Preprint
Full-text available
Heightened by the global Covid-19 pandemic, awareness of the need to monitor youths’ social and emotional health increased. The Social Emotional Health Survey-Secondary-2020 (SEHS-S-2020) is a well-tested option for assessing student social emotional health and promoting mental health prevention, intervention, and multitiered systems of support eff...
Article
Introduction: The investigation of school belonging is crucial due to its established significant associations with mental health, academic achievement, and risky behaviours coupled with the limited research documenting the configurations of children’s school belonging experiences. Objective: This study sought to better understand elementary stude...
Article
Full-text available
Students’ experiences of boredom at school are receiving increased research attention. Most inquiries to date have focused on how often students experience boredom in classroom situations and in specific subject areas. Despite its frequency, limited research efforts have explored how students’ boredom experiences might inform positive education ini...
Article
This study examined associations among a concurrent set of social-emotional strengths and school membership across the United States (N = 1,009) and Chinese (N = 747) students aged 9 to 11 years old. Results identified significant positive relations of school membership with four social-emotional strengths (i.e., gratitude, optimism, zest, and pers...
Article
Culturally responsive assessment practices include validated measures appropriate for use with diverse populations. Considering the increasing population of Latinx students in US schools, measures need co-validated English and Spanish (Social and Emotional Health Survey (SEHS)) language forms. This study examined the SEHS-Secondary with Latinx stud...
Article
Schools are an essential setting for mental health supports and services for students. To support student well-being, schools engage in universal mental health screening to identify students in need of support and to provide surveillance data for districtwide or statewide policy changes. Mental health data have been collected via anonymous and self...
Article
Objective: This study investigated the validity of the Social Emotional Health Survey–Primary (SEHS-P;Furlong et al., 2013), which assesses four wellness dispositions (gratitude, optimism, zest, and persistence) associated with positive youth development. Method: The sample included 995 Japanese elementary school students (Grades 4-6) attending one...
Article
Scholars and social commentators have noted the escalating rates of loneliness among global societies for more than a decade. The need to quarantine, self-isolate, and physically distance during the COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected the way we interacted with each other – exacerbating feelings of loneliness. A sense of belonging and loneliness...
Article
The Me and My School Questionnaire (M&MS) is a brief self-report measure of elementary school students’ (ages 8–12) social, emotional, and behavioral challenges. As there is a need for brief self- report screening measures for students in elementary, or primary, school, this study examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of the M&MS...
Chapter
The reduction of school violence requires a coordinated effort that enhances school climate and improves the sense of safety on campus. This chapter addresses the related topics of school violence, school safety, and school climate; provides an overview of the interactions among these constructs; and illustrates how they are directly linked to stud...
Article
Introduction to a special issue of the Australian Journal of Psychology, 2021, 73(1) Loneliness is the subjective sense of dissatisfaction that arises from a perceived disconnect between an individual’s relational wants and their relational reality or needs (Cacioppo et al., 2015). The related construct of ‘belonging’, especially in its social dim...
Article
Full-text available
Robust evidence links students’ positive mental health with academic achievement and provides a compelling rationale for developing and refining strength-based assessments. The Social Emotional Health Survey–Secondary (SEHS-S) assesses adolescents’ social and emotional skills and positive psychological dispositions. Previous studies provide reliabi...
Article
Schools are an essential setting for mental health supports and services for students. To support student well-being, schools engage in universal mental health screening to identify students in need of support and to provide surveillance data for district-wide or state-wide policy changes. Mental health data have been collected via anonymous and se...
Article
Full-text available
The protective role of students' perceptions of school climate against mental health problems has been supported in previous research, yet relatively little is known about the mechanism underlying school climate's influence on Chinese youths' depressive symptoms. Guided by the process-person-context-time model, this study examined the mediating eff...
Article
Full-text available
A dual approach to mental health in schools has been widely defended, where the assessment of psychological distress and the examination of strengths/well-being are two separate continua. In line with a well-being approach, school belonging has been referenced as an important indicator of mental health in children. This study explored the predictiv...
Article
Full-text available
The Social Emotional Health Survey-Secondary (SEHS-S), which is a measure of core psychological assets based on a higher-order model of Covitality, is comprised of 36 items and four latent traits (with three measured subscales): belief in self (self-efficacy, self-awareness, and persistence), belief in others (school support, family coherence, and...
Technical Report
Our UC Santa Barbara research team engages in ongoing efforts to enhance and validate the Social Emotional Health Surveys (Primary, Secondary, and Higher Education). The initiative to enhance the secondary version is supported by an Institute of Education Sciences grant (#R305A160157, 2016-2020), which provides funding to refine, standardize, and a...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary models emphasize linkages between malleable positive psychological orientations and enhanced quality of life. As such, it is important to consider if these positive orientations provide unique explanatory power beyond the long-established relations between quality of life and within-person, less malleable personality traits. This study...
Technical Report
This manual reports on the development and validation of the original Social Emotional Health Survey-Secondary (carried out between 2012 and 2017). We shared the first version of the SEHS-S because it had sufficient validation evidence based on research completed by 2015; hence, the form reported on in this manual is called the SEHS-S (2015) versio...
Article
Full-text available
Using latent profile analysis (LPA), this study empirically identified dual-factor mental health subtypes, with a goal of examining structural stability of emerging latent classes over three high school years. Profiles’ relations with distal indicators of well-being, psychosocial distress, and self-reported grades were examined to explore the valid...
Article
Objective: Bullying is characterized by differences in power between targets and aggressors. This study examines how experiences with power dynamics in childhood bullying are associated with symptoms of depression and anxiety in college. Participants: First-year college students (N = 470) at four universities reported on childhood bullying victimiz...
Article
Aims: The purpose of this 1-year case study was to identify how School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS) can be adapted to meet the needs of students in alternative schools and to evaluate the early impact of SW-PBIS on discipline outcomes. Methods: Suggestions for adaptations are provided at each stage of the interve...
Article
Full-text available
Despite increasing interest in the role of positive psychology in youth development, its application into school-based mental health care has been limited. The South Korean government has implemented a national mental health screening for primary and secondary schools, but this initiative focuses on the identification and treatment of distress symp...
Article
The current study examined the association between adolescent emotional competence, operationalized and measured at both the individual and the school levels, and gang membership. The study involved a sample of 12,040 students (51.4% females; mean = 16.9 years) participating in the biennial state department of education coordinated California Healt...
Article
Dual-factor models of mental health are increasingly supported but little is known about longitudinal trends in dual-factor mental health. The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to empirically identify dual-factor mental health classes at each of Grades 9 through 12 and latent transition analysis (LTA) to examine stability of classes...
Chapter
A recent national survey found that bullying and cyberbullying were the top health concerns of US parents (Freed et al., 2017). Worldwide, there has been a rapid increase in attention to bullying. Over the past two decades many states have enacted legislation addressing bullying, particularly in response to news stories and research evidence linkin...
Article
Students with learning disabilities (LD) represent a vulnerable population and are at higher risk for social and emotional challenges compared to their peers without LD. A strengths-based orientation is recommended to encourage building resilience factors to counteract the negative effects of LD over the lifespan. To identify areas of strength and...
Article
This study examined the risk and protective factors of responders and non-responders to the school-wide implementation of positive behavioral interventions and supports within an alternative school. Students completed self-perception measures of individual, school, community, and home systems. Using a one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of...
Research
Full-text available
The Social Emotional Health Survey System includes three conceptually linked measures that assess core psychological and social mindsets associated with positive youth development from childhood through the post-high school transition. Developed primarily for use in schools-the contexts in which most youth receive mental health services-the three f...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to explore and validate the use of the Social and Emotional Health Survey (SEHS) with a sample of Japanese Jr. High students. Japanese translation of the SEHS were administered to a sample of 975 Jr. High students (grades 7-9) in one region in Japan. A confirmatory factor analysis using half the sample confirmed the f...
Chapter
School violence has been a source of national concern since the early 1970s (Morrison, Furlong, & Morrison, 1994). With researchers from multiple professions (public health, juvenile justice, and later education) working to grasp the dynamics behind school violence and victimization, the understanding of the contributing factors has come a long way...
Article
The Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM) scale has been used for more than 20 years to measure students’ sense of school belonging, yet its psychometric properties have had limited examination with pre-adolescent children. This study investigated the utility and psychometrics of the PSSM in three primary school samples from the United St...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Drawing upon an ongoing school mental health survey being conducted in California, this article examines associations between high school students’ mental wellness, including covitality (as measured with the Social Emotional Health Survey–Secondary), and school safety perceptions and experiences. Student self-reports reveal a strong positive associ...
Article
Bullying is aggression that is intentional, repeated, and involves a power imbalance between target and aggressor. Studies find that the perception of power imbalance is associated with particularly negative outcomes for targets of bullying; however, limited research has focused on methods for assessing power imbalance, or how power is perceived by...
Chapter
Collaboration among education professionals is essential when developing truly integrated, schoolwide intervention and prevention programs that are necessary for building and maintaining safe school campuses. To fully appreciate each stakeholder’s role, it is helpful to identify which members of the school community make key contributions to the de...
Chapter
criteria for a formal mental health disorder in their lifetime (Costello, Mustillo, Keller, & Angold, 2004). Considering that approximately half of all mental disorders have onset by 14 years of age (World Health Organization, 2014), it is important to be mindful of how to identify, treat, and prevent symptoms in early adolescence. Recognizing the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is a one-page position statement, Call for Action to Prevent Gun Violence in the United States of America. It presents an eight-point plan to prevent gun violence prepared by an interdisciplinary group of 19 prevention scholars. The statement has been widely endorsed by professional organizations and scholars and practitioners. https://curry.v...
Article
Contemporary mental health assessment conceptualizations focus on both wellbeing and distress. This study presents initial validation information for the Social Emotional Distress Survey – Secondary (SEDS-S), which was designed for school-based complete mental health screening that employs brief self-report measures of wellbeing and distress. The S...
Article
Contemporary mental health assessment conceptualizations focus on both well-being and distress. This study presents initial validation information for the Social Emotional Distress Survey–Secondary (SEDS-S), which was designed for school-based complete mental health screening that employs brief self-report measures of well-being and distress. The S...
Chapter
This chapter presents a framework to guide school psychologists’ assessment strategies considering core psychological mindsets that emerge naturally in each child and that shape the foundations of flourishing well-being. Drawing upon research and applications in the United States, Korea, and Japan, a school psychology perspective for shaping the as...
Chapter
This chapter presents a framework to guide school psychologists’ assessment strategies considering core psychological mindsets that emerge naturally in each child and that shape the foundations of flourishing well-being. Drawing upon research and applications in the United States, Korea, and Japan, a school psychology perspective for shaping the as...
Article
Effective self-report screening tools for emerging adults are understudied. The present study examined the latent structure of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) with U.S. undergraduates. Data were collected from 1,413 undergraduates surveyed online. Four models were tested: (a) a one-factor model; (b) the original correlated three...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relations between core psychological self-schemas and the subjective well-being (SWB) of Turkish and California (United States) adolescents. The participants were 2,242 high school students (1,123 from Turkey and 1,119 from California). Core psychological self-schemas were measured with the Social and Emotional Health Survey...
Article
This study examined the association between two characteristics of school climate (sense of community and teacher support, measured both at the individual and at the school level) and students’ feelings of being unsafe at school. The study involved a sample of 49,638 students aged 10–18 years who participated in the 2010–2012 California Healthy Kid...
Article
Research Findings: Public policy has increasingly focused on expansion of preschool access for underserved students and systematic evaluation of preschool quality and students’ readiness for school. However, such evaluation is limited by a lack of thoroughly validated assessments for use with preschool populations. The present study examined the me...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the psychometric properties of a Turkish language adaptation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey-Secondary (SEHS-S), a measure of core psychological assets hypothesized to be associated with adolescents' flourishing mental health. Convenience samples of students (Grade 9-12) from six Turkish high schools were used—one...
Article
As part of universal screening efforts in schools, validated measures that identify internalizing distress are needed. One promising available measure, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales–21 (DASS–21), has yet to be thoroughly investigated with adolescents in the United States. This study investigated the underlying factor structure of the D...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The Social Emotional Health Survey-Secondary(SEHS-S) was developed to assess adolescent’s core mindsets that are associated with positive development. The present study extended SEHS-S research by examining its use with Chinese adolescent sample (Grades 7-12; N=4100) and examined the invariance of the SEHS-S factor structure for males an...
Article
This study investigated whether five positive psychological constructs (self-efficacy, gratitude, grit, hope, and optimism) had a combined effect on levels of depression. The co-occurrence of these psychological factors, defined as an example of covitality, was examined in relation to predicting lower levels of depression. Participants were 278 ret...
Presentation
Full-text available
The presentation discussed the psychometric information (e.g., CFA and multigroup invariance analyses; e.g., Furlong et al., 2014; You et al., 2014) about the SEHS-S. The SEHS-S assesses core psychosocial strengths using a higher-order model that consists of four latent traits (each comprised of three measured subscales): belief-in-self (with subsc...
Article
Increasingly, schools are implementing school-based screening for risk of behavioral and emotional problems; hence, foundational evidence supporting the predictive validity of screening instruments is important to assess. This study examined the predictive validity of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening...
Article
This study examined the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile (KSEP) when used to rate the school readiness of children from different ethnic backgrounds (Latino or White, non-Latino), as well as from households where a different language was predominant (Spanish or English). Teachers rated the readi...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated associations between school-readiness patterns of Latino students and their subsequent academic achievement. After identifying a subgroup of students with academic risk at kindergarten entry who showed signs of later average or better academic skill development, academic data were gathered to explore how this group of “resil...
Article
Considering the many positive outcomes associated with adolescents’ sense of school belonging, including psychological functioning, it is possible that including an assessment of school belonging within a complete mental health screening process could contribute to the prediction of students’ future mental health status. This exploratory study used...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the effects of being bullied from a dual-factor lens, specifically examining the relation between victimization and constructs that contribute to social-emotional well-being. Prior to carrying out the main analyses, the factor structure of self-report items related to experiencing bullying and harassment from the California Heal...
Chapter
Full-text available
“The beginning of wisdom is the definition of terms”- Socrates Despite the prominence of the word bullying in educational settings and popular media, the term has been inconsistently defined. Many researchers and policymakers have called for greater precision in definition (Cornell & Bandyopadhyay, 2010; Felix, Sharkey, Green, Furlong, & Tanigawa,...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter includes five sections that examine core issues related to children’s well-being rights as articulated in the United Nations Convention on the Right of the Child (hereafter referred to as the Convention; UN General Assembly, 1989), which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1989. The first section addresses the importa...
Chapter
Full-text available
In keeping with defining happiness through the subjective well-being construct, this chapter describes popular methods for measuring life satisfaction in practice as well as notes how affect has been measured in research. Following is a description of the Social and Emotional Health Survey developed to assess the positive psychological building blo...