Michael D Freeman

Michael D Freeman
Maastricht University | UM · CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care

MedDr PhD MPH MScFMS DLM

About

150
Publications
77,248
Reads
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2,953
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2020 - present
Maastricht University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2011 - present
Oregon Health and Science University
Position
  • Affiliate Professor of Psychiatry
December 2009 - present
Umeå University

Publications

Publications (150)
Article
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Traffic crashes are a common cause of injury and death, and often result from the negligent actions of an inattentive, speeding, or impaired driver. In such cases, a civil legal action may be brought by an injured claimant for compensation for injuries resulting from a crash. Crash-related litigation is defended on various theories, one of which is...
Article
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Introduction Most findings of forensic pathology examinations are presented as written reports. There are currently no internationally accepted recommendations for writing forensic pathology reports. Existing recommendations are also varied and reflect the differences in the scope and role of forensic medical services and local settings in which th...
Article
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Investigating causation is a primary goal in forensic/legal medicine, aiming to establish the connection between an unlawful/negligent act and an adverse outcome. In malpractice litigation involving a healthcare-associated infection due to a failure of infection prevention and control practices, the medicolegal causal analysis needs to quantify the...
Article
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Background: Bone marrow lesions are a radiographic indication of bony pathology closely associated with advanced osteoarthritis of the adjacent joint. Injection of autologous orthobiologic products, including bone marrow concentrate and platelet-rich plasma, have demonstrated safety and efficacy in treating both advanced osteoarthritis (via intraa...
Article
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Motorcycle- and moped crashes are prevalent in motorised societies and carry a significant risk of serious injury. Whereas helmet use has reduced the frequency and severity of head injuries, the association between helmet use and neck injury risk is less clear. In the present retrospective study, we examined the relationship between helmet use and...
Article
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Injury claims associated with minimal damage rear impact traffic crashes are often defended using a “biomechanical approach,” in which the occupant forces of the crash are compared to the forces of activities of daily living (ADLs), resulting in the conclusion that the risk of injury from the crash is the same as for ADLs. The purpose of the presen...
Article
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PURPOSE: The purpose the present study is to perform a comprehensive scientific literature review and pooled data risk factor analysis of Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDS) and Agitated Delirium (AgDS). METHODS: All cases of ExDS or AgDS described individually in the literature published before April 23, 2020 were used to create a database of cases,...
Article
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A fundamental purpose of forensic medical, or medicolegal, analysis is to provide legal factfinders with an opinion regarding the causal relationship between an alleged unlawful or negligent action and a medically observed adverse outcome, which is needed to establish legal liability. At present, there are no universally established standards for m...
Article
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Objective The purpose of this study is to summarize the evidence for the association between exposure to a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and future low back pain (LBP). Literature survey Persistent low back pain (LBP) is a relatively common complaint after acute injury in a MVC, with a reported 1 year post-crash prevalence of at least 31 % of expo...
Article
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The primary aim of forensic medical analysis is to provide legal factfinders with evidence regarding the causal relationship between an alleged action and a harmful outcome. Despite existing guides and manuals, the approach to formulating opinions on medicolegal causal inference used by forensic medical practitioners, and how the strength of the op...
Article
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Background: Cervical spine injury is a common result of traffic crashes, and such injuries range in severity from minor (i.e. sprain/strain) to moderate (intervertebral disk derangement) to serious and greater (fractures, dislocations, and spinal cord injuries). There are currently no reliable estimates of the number of crash-related spine injurie...
Article
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A 17 year-old previously healthy male committed suicide approximately 1 day after ingesting isosorbide mononitrate, an organic nitrate drug used to treat symptoms of coronary artery disease. The drug had been mis-dispensed by a pharmacy in place of a prescribed anti-inflammatory. In the presented case study, a 3-step probabilistic causal analysis w...
Article
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Background Intervertebral instability is a relatively common finding among patients with chronic neck pain after whiplash trauma. Videofluoroscopy (VF) of the cervical spine is a potentially sensitive diagnostic tool for evaluating instability, as it offers the ability to examine relative intervertebral movement over time, and across the entire co...
Preprint
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Background Intervertebral instability is a relatively common finding among patients with chronic neck pain after whiplash trauma. Videofluoroscopy (VF) of the cervical spine is a potentially sensitive diagnostic tool for evaluating instability, as it offers the ability to examine relative intervertebral movement over time, and across the entire con...
Article
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Foodborne illness is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms, the majority of which are self-limiting and benign, although serious complications and sequelae occur in a minority of cases. Negligent or improper food processing, storage, and preparation are among the most prevalent risk factors for foodborne illness, and thus illnesses and outbre...
Preprint
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ABSTRACT Objective: To summarize the literature that has examined the association between a motor vehicle collision (MVC) related neck injury and future neck pain (NP) in comparison with the population that has not been exposed to neck injury from an MVC. Literature Survey: Neck injury resulting from a MVC is associated with a high rate of chronic...
Article
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Objective To summarize the literature that has examined the association between a motor vehicle collision (MVC) related neck injury and future neck pain (NP) in comparison with the population that has not been exposed to neck injury from an MVC. Literature Survey Neck injury resulting from a MVC is associated with a high rate of chronicity. Progno...
Article
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Background Cell-based therapies have shown promise for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The current study compared exercise therapy to autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) and platelet products for knee OA treatment. Methods Patients with symptomatic knee OA (N = 48) were randomized into either an exercise therapy control group or tr...
Article
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The scope, roles, and tasks of forensic medicine and forensic medical experts currently vary widely between countries and legal systems, which has resulted in barriers to organization, standard setting, and quality assurance for practice in forensic medicine, including for reporting. The legal fact finder is thus confronted with variability in the...
Article
Full-text available
The scope, roles, and tasks of forensic medicine and forensic medical experts currently vary widely between countries and legal systems, which has resulted in barriers to organization, standard setting, and quality assurance for practice in forensic medicine, including for reporting. The legal fact finder is thus confronted with variability in the...
Article
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The aims of this study were to assess the association between gabapentin and suicidality in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) and to determine whether the risk is greater relative to patients prescribed lithium. This retrospective observational study utilizes US population-based claims data assembled by PharMetrics Inc., comprising 47 9...
Article
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Background: Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) has shown promise in the treatment of several orthopedic conditions. This registry study investigated the use of autologous BMC and platelet products for percutaneous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) treatment. Methods: Twenty-nine patients presenting to a single outpatient interventional musculoskeletal...
Article
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There have been more than 40 studies published since 2003 which describe a biomechanical analysis of head impacts and concussion risk among football players. A number of the publications have attempted to use these data to extrapolate concussion risk in the general population. This information, in combination with a reconstruction of a head impact...
Article
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Background: Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are the most common pain management procedure performed in the US, however evidence of efficacy is limited. In addition, there is early evidence that the high dose of corticosteroids used can have systemic side effects. We describe the results of a case series evaluating the use of platelet lysate (PL)...
Article
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The published online version contains mistake in Acknowledgment Section. The author name "Steve Gorin, M.D." should have been "Steven Gorin, D.O, M.S.Ed.".
Article
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Background Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of lower back pain with radicular symptoms and has a significant socioeconomic impact given the associated disability. Limited effective conservative therapeutic options result in many turning to surgical alternatives for management, which vary in the rate of success and also carry an inc...
Article
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Objective. : Central sensitization (CS) with low peripheral pain thresholds (PPTs) is a common finding among patients with chronic pain after whiplash (CPWI). While it has been proposed that myofascial myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) may act as modulators of central sensitization, previously reported findings are conflicting and inconclusive. Th...
Article
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The medical examiner/coroner (ME/C) death scene investigation systems of the United States play a pivotal role in the current public health crisis created by the expanding drug dependency epidemic in the United States. The first point of recognition of a drug-related death in a community is often the local ME/C agency. This circumstance places thes...
Article
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Objectives: To analyze a cohort of 745 consecutive patients referred to a regional specialist clinic for evaluation of post-traumatic neck pain during a five-year period. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study of baseline assessments performed by multi-professional rehabilitation teams according to a standardized checklist. Results: The c...
Chapter
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Medical negligence legal actions require evidence of a causal association between the alleged act of negligence and the injury outcome that is deemed “more probable than not (>50% probable).” Very often the alternative explanation for the adverse outcome, aside from the alleged act of negligence, is the natural course of the disease process for whi...
Chapter
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The practice of forensic epidemiology (FE) relies on the reliable application of epidemiologic methods. In this chapter, fundamental concepts, practices, and metrics used in epidemiology are presented. Included are descriptions and examples of the measures of association used to estimate a comparative risk ratio, the basis for a calculation of the...
Chapter
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In this chapter, various techniques of assessing an individual's survival are presented, suitable for presentation in a forensic setting. The three techniques that are compared are the life table, Kaplan–Meier, and Weibull methods. Methods for assessing the uncertainty of a survival projection, as well as the bounds of what is “more probable than n...
Chapter
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Causality is not often disputed in criminal prosecutions because the nature of the exposure (eg, gunshot, knife, blunt trauma) is strongly associated with the injury outcome (penetrating wound, skull fracture, etc.) such that causality is determined as a matter of common sense. In some cases that are prosecuted criminally, however, there are questi...
Chapter
Causal analysis in traffic crash–related injury and death investigation is a common application of epidemiologic concepts and data. In combination with medical, biomechanical, and crash reconstruction principles, forensic epidemiology (FE) methods are used to quantify the efficacy of vehicle safety devices such as seat belts and air bags. This appl...
Chapter
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Human interaction with consumer products is a common source of injury in society, regardless of whether or not the product is dangerously defective. The investigation of the cause of injuries resulting from exposure to an allegedly defective product requires quantification of the proportion of injuries that resulted from the defect versus the injur...
Chapter
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In this contribution we focus on the role of experts in the assessment of tort damages from an economic point of view. We distinguish two different aspects. First, we examine the role which economists might play in assessing damages in tort cases. This approach focuses on the insights that Law and Economics provides regarding the correct assessmen...
Chapter
The investigation of probability of causation attributable to a defective automotive produce is described in this chapter. Case examples describe the investigation of alleged defects in seat belt and air bag design and function, as well as roof strength (in rollover collisions). Sources of data and methods for analysis are described in detail, as w...
Article
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Objective: To evaluate the interaction and contribution of maternal and fetal risk factors associated with neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI). Methods: In a case-control study, matched maternal and neonatal discharge records were accessed from US State Inpatient Databases for New Jersey (2010-2012), Michigan (2010-2011), and Hawaii (2010-2011...
Book
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Determination of the cause of injury or disease is a pivotal issue in virtually all criminal and civil actions, and one that is often vigorously contested. Despite this fact, there are no widely accepted standards regarding what constitutes scientifically valid evidence of causation in a forensic setting, nor is there a systematic means of quantify...
Article
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Introduction: The purpose of the present investigation is to report on detailed complications among a much larger group of 2372 orthopaedic patients treated with stem cell injections who were followed in a treatment registry for up to nine years. Methods: All patients underwent an MSC-based, percutaneous injection treatment of an orthopaedic con...
Article
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Objective: To evaluate the interaction and contribution of maternal and fetal risk factors associated with neonatal brachial plexus injury (BPI). Methods: In a case–control study, matched maternal and neonatal discharge records were accessed from US State Inpatient Databases for New Jersey (2010–2012), Michigan (2010–2011), and Hawaii (2010–2011)....
Article
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A population-based case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between genocide exposure and homicide perpetration in Rwanda. A sample of 150 homicide perpetrators who were charged with and confessed to having committed homicide between 1 May 2011 and 31 May 2013 and 450 controls were enrolled. Cases were matched to controls by neig...
Article
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Spinal injury following inertial loading of the head and neck (whiplash) is a common sequel of low speed traffic crashes. A variety of non-musculoskeletal injuries have been described in association with injury to the spine following whiplash trauma, including traumatic brain injury, vestibular derangement, and cranial nerve injury, among others. V...
Article
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Background: Prior studies describing the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis with injections of bone marrow concentrate have provided encouraging results. The relationship between the cellular dose contained within the bone marrow concentrate and efficacy of the treatment, however, is unclear. In the present study we describe clinical out...
Article
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The discipline of forensic epidemiology, a branch of forensic medicine, provides a systematic approach to the assessment of general and specific (individual) causation, with the results suitable for presentation in a court of law. In the present paper some of the methods utilized in forensic epidemiology are described, along with examples of how su...
Article
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Homicide is one of the leading causes of mortality in the World. Homicide risk factors vary significantly between countries and regions. In Rwanda, data on homicide victimization is unreliable because no standardized surveillance system exists. This study was undertaken to identify the risk factors for homicide victimization in Rwanda with particul...
Article
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This was a prospective case series designed to investigate treatment for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears using an injection of autologous bone marrow concentrate. Consecutive adult patients presenting to a private outpatient interventional musculoskeletal and pain practice with knee pain, ACL laxity on exam, and magnetic resonance imaging (M...
Article
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Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint in the general population. Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) injections offer promising potential as a minimally invasive approach for treatment of shoulder pain in degenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the clinical outcomes of the BMC injections for treatment of shoulder pain and disab...
Article
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In Rwanda, an estimated one million people were killed during the 1994 genocide, leaving the country shattered and social fabric destroyed. Large-scale traumatic events such as wars and genocides have been linked to endemic post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and suicidality. The study objective was to investigate whether the 1994 genocide e...
Article
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Introduction: We investigated the use of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC) with and without an adipose graft, for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Treatment registry data for patients who underwent BMC procedures with and without an adipose graft were analyzed. Pre- and posttreatment outcomes of interest included the lower...
Article
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A retrospective case series of three patients with chronic low back pain who received baseline MRI scans revealing multifidus muscle atrophy with fatty replacement is provided. Each patient received spinal manipulative therapy, and two were compliant with low back exercises targeting the multifidus. A follow-up scan performed >1 year later was comp...
Article
Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the...
Article
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Fatal falls often involve a head impact, which are in turn associated with a fracture of the skull or cervical spine. Prior authors have noted that the degree of inversion of the victim at the time of impact is an important predictor of the distribution of skull fractures, with skull base fractures more common than skull vault fractures in falls wi...
Article
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The field of forensic epidemiology was initially introduced as a systematic approach to the investigation of acts of bioterrorism. In recent years, however, the applications of forensic epidemiology have expanded greatly, covering a wide range of medicolegal issues routinely encountered in both criminal and civil court settings. Forensic epidemiolo...
Article
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In the present study, we describe six patients who received autologous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for symptomatic carpometacarpal (CMC) joint and hand osteoarthritis (OA). Six patients who received injections of adult autologous culture expanded MSCs in their thumb CMC joints were followed for 1 year posttreatment, and matched with four pr...
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Current autopsy practice in forensic pathology is to a large extent based on experience and individual customary practices as opposed to evidence and consensus based practices. As a result there is the potential for substantial variation in how knowledge is applied in each case. In the present case series, we describe the variation observed in auto...