Michael W. Eysenck

Michael W. Eysenck
Royal Holloway, University of London | RHUL · Department of Psychology

About

93
Publications
206,165
Reads
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8,398
Citations
Citations since 2017
11 Research Items
1645 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Additional affiliations
March 2010 - present
University of Roehampton
Position
  • Professorial Fellow

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
This study investigated the characteristics of two distinct mechanisms of attention - stimulus enhancement and stimulus suppression - using an event-related potential (ERP) approach. Across three experiments, participants viewed sparse visual search arrays containing one target and one distractor. The main results of Experiments 1 and 2 revealed th...
Chapter
Allan Hobson’s lectures on Dream Consciousness represent an impressive contribution to our understanding of dreaming and consciousness, being both intellectually coherent and comprehensive. I agree with his central assumption that there are strong correlations between the brain and the mind. It is surely correct that identifying the precise pattern...
Article
Subjects were presented with rare words, and required to define them. Feeling-of-knowing judgements were made with respect to meaning of words that could not be defined accurately. It was found that subjects’ feeling-of-knowing judgements accurately predicted their performance on semantic-differential and related-word tasks designed to measure conn...
Article
The theoretical approach to problems of memory proposed by Craik & Lockhart (1972) is evaluated critically. Their conceptual framework has the advantage of directing attention to mental events and processes, but there are several difficulties. They suggested that retentivity is a function of the depth and spread of processing, but there are no suit...
Article
In his theory of anxiety disorders, Eysenck (1997) argued that focus on one's own behavior is associated with social phobia, whereas focus on future-oriented threat cognitions is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. These foci occur in part because social phobics tend to be introverted and obsessive-compulsives either perceive themselves...
Article
Full-text available
Investigating problem-solving performance, Ishida (2005) found high levels of perfectionism were associated with lower efficiency. Aiming to replicate and further explore this finding, the present study investigated how two dimensions of perfectionism (high standards, discrepancy between expectations and performance) predicted efficiency in proof-r...
Article
Full-text available
A vigilance–avoidance theory of the repressive coping style (low trait anxiety and high defensiveness) is presented. The new theory attempts to account for several key findings, including the discrepancy between low self-reported anxiety and high behavioural and physiological indicators of anxiety shown by individuals with a repressive coping style...
Article
Fifty-two subjects were assigned to one of four groups on the basis of scores on the Extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory and on the General Activation scale of the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List. The subjects learned two lists composed of categorically related groups of words, with the number of categories and the...
Article
This article focuses on differences between anxiety and depression. The first study is concerned with the timing (past, present, future) of negative events associated with high levels of anxiety and depression in normal participants. Depression was associated more with past events than future events, whereas the opposite was the case with anxiety....
Article
Following in the footsteps of Donald Broadbent, the authors of this text (G. Matthews et al; see record 2000-02445-000 ) argue that it is important to consider the ways in which performance is influenced by various stressors and by individual differences in personality and in ability. Further, the authors use the term human performance psychology t...
Article
Full-text available
We counted the citations received in one year (1998) by each staff member in each of 38 university psychology departments in the United Kingdom. We then averaged these counts across individuals within each department and correlated the averages with the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) grades awarded to the same departments in 1996 and 2001. The...
Article
There were four groups of participants: low-anxious (low anxiety-low defensiveness), repressors (low anxiety-high defensiveness), high-anxious (high anxiety-low defensiveness), and defensive high-anxious (high anxiety-high defensiveness). They were exposed to self-focus and other-focus conditions, and self-report, physiological, and behavioural mea...
Article
Cognitive psychology is a large and expanding area within psychology as a whole. However, there are certain topics, such as perception, memory, language and reasoning, which are generally regarded as being of fundamental importance. It is this central core of cognitive psychology which is the focus of this book. This book provides an up-to-date a...
Article
A cognitive approach to trait anxiety can account for many phenomena (e.g. failures of concordance). According to the four-factor theory, the experience of anxiety depends on the processing of four sources of information: external stimuli; internal physiological stimuli; one's own behaviour; and one's own cognitions (e.g. worries about the future)....
Article
This study used contextual stress measurement to look at the occupational sequelae of stress. One hundred and five civil aviation pilots were interviewed. Events and difficulties were dated and rated for contextual threat; dating information was also obtained for distress symptoms and air traffic incidents. There were significant relationships betw...
Article
The findings reported by Lewis provide reasonably strong evidence that the religiosity-psychoticism relationship is not 'contaminated' by social desirability. However, it may be important to consider separately the two factors of social desirability (self-deception and other-deception). There is also a need to proceed from description to explanatio...
Article
Four groups were identified on the basis of high or low scores on trait anxiety and defensiveness obtained under standard conditions. They subsequently completed the same questionnaires under "bogus pipeline" conditions designed to elicit honest responding. Trait anxiety scores did not change significantly for any group between the two test conditi...
Article
Three major personality dimensions were identified: extroversion, neuroticism and psychoticism. According to the theorizing, extraversion and psychoticism were predicted to be negatively related to religiosity, whereas neuroticism was positively related. The evidence has generally failed to support the predictions with respect to extraversion and n...
Article
German adolescents were administered three questionnaires to assess Trait Anxiety (STAI), psychological self, social- and sexual-self, self-adjustment and family relationships (Offer Self-image Questionnaire), as well as parental involvement, achievement orientation, family cohesiveness, obediency and parental conflict (Attitude towards Parents and...
Article
Eysenck (1984, Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22, 545-548) suggested that storage characteristics may be an important determinant of worry, and postulated that prolonged worry occurs in individuals who have tightly organised clusters of worry-related information stored in long-term memory. These clusters reflect areas or domains of worry. Bec...
Article
The time course of the bias in predictive inferencing as a function of anxiety was examined. Ambiguous sentences (concerned with ego-threat, physicalthreat, or nonthreat events) were presented, followed by disambiguating sentences in which a target word either confirmed or disconfirmed the consequences implied by the ambiguous context. High- and lo...
Article
Predicted and actual examination performance, beliefs in various possible examination outcomes and events, and worrying about examinations were assessed in four groups of students (low-anxious, repressor, high-anxious, and defensive high-anxious). The evidence indicated that the high-anxious and defensive high-anxious groups were unrealistically pe...
Article
Three experimentsinvestigated the tendency of high-anxiety individuals to interpretambiguous information in a threatening fashion. Priming ambiguous sentences (concerned with ego-threat, physical-threat, or non-threat events) were presented, followed by a disambiguating sentence in which a target word either confirmed or disconfirmed the consequenc...
Article
The present article reviews and evaluates the history of theory and research on the concept of repression and, its personality characteristic, the repressive coping style. The four-factor theory (Eyseneck, 1997), a comprehensive cognitive theory of repressors, attempts to provide evidence for the avoidant or defensive cognitive processors allegedly...
Article
Measures of trait anxiety, social desirability, and cross-situational variability were obtained with both self-reports and ratings. There was a highly significant positive correlation between self-reported and rated cross-situational variability. High trait anxiety and low social desirability were associated with high self-reported cross-situationa...
Article
Texts were presented sentence by sentence (Experiment 1) or word by word (Experiment 2) at a fixed rate to subjects high or low in test anxiety, under various conditions: no interference, concurrent articulatory suppression, and concurrent irrelevant speech (presented auditorily). High-anxiety subjects produced overt articulation more frequently th...
Article
In a large survey of U.K. senior police officers, the psychometric properties of two of the Occupational Stress Indicator's (OSI) scales, coping strategies and mental ill-health, were examined, as well as their degree of interrelationship. There was little evidence of there being six subscales of coping, nor indeed did the OSI's measure of mental i...
Article
"The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology" provides a comprehensive and in-depth account of the discipline, in over 140 alphabetically arranged entries. Entries, written by specialists in each field, are encyclopedic in style and written at considerable length to cover most of the more important areas to which cognitive psychology has mad...
Article
Full-text available
En condiciones de estrés (experimento 1) o no estrés (experimento 2), sujetos con ansiedad evaluativa elevada y sujetos con ansiedad baja leyeron varios textos con modalidad de autopresentacion palabra-palabra, mientras realizaban una tarea de supresión articulatoria, mientras oían una grabación distractora, o sin tarea concurrente alguna. No se pr...
Article
A principal components analysis of the ten scales of the Worry Questionnaire revealed the existence of major worry factors or domains of social evaluation and physical threat, and these factors were confirmed in a subsequent item analysis. Those high in trait anxiety had much higher scores on the Worry Questionnaire than those low in trait anxiety,...
Article
Eysenck (Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22, 545–548, 1984) has suggested that the degree to which an individual worries is determined by structural factors; for example, the number of schemata that organise negative information. However, it has proved extremely difficult to demonstrate knowledge base differences between worriers and non-worri...
Article
In the 1st of 2 experiments, currently clinically anxious, recovered clinically anxious, and normal control subjects were presented with a mixture of unambiguous and ambiguous sentences; both threatening and nonthreatening interpretations were possible for the latter. A subsequent recognition-memory test indicated that the currently anxious subject...
Article
Two experimental tasks were used to investigate the nature of a previously documented bias in attention associated with anxiety. Results from the first task failed to reveal any differences between anxious and nonanxious subjects, either in attention focusing or selective search for letters. The second task, with words as targets and distractors, s...
Article
Full-text available
In previous studies, we have established that anxiety states are characterized by an attentional bias that favors the processing of threatening stimuli. In the present study we extend this finding to ambiguous stimuli, specifically, homophones with spellings that correspond to either a threatening or a neutral meaning. As predicted, clinically anxi...
Article
A complete understanding of human memory will necessarily involve consideration of the active processes involved at the time of learning and of the organization and nature of representation of information in long-term memory. In addition to process and structure, it is important for theory to indicate the ways in which stimulus-driven and conceptua...
Article
Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence. By SternbergR. J.. (Pp. 411; £8.95.) Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. 1985. - Volume 16 Issue 3 - Michael W. Eysenck
Article
Words associated with high monetary incentive were better recalled than those associated with low incentive. This effect was found to depend on differential rehearsal, since it was eliminated or markedly attenuated when manipulations designed to minimize rehearsal were used. High-incentive words are more elaborately or extensively processed than lo...
Article
The hypothesis that retention differences between semantic and phonemic encodings are in part attributable to greater distinctiveness of semantic encodings was investigated in two experiments. The memory-enhancing effects of instructions designed to increase trace distinctiveness were much greater with phonemic than with semantic processing. The us...
Article
Revelle et al. have provided convincing evidence of interesting and replicable empirical relationships between the factors of time of day, caffeine administration, and impulsivity. Furthermore, their data suggest that differences between introverts and extraverts in time of day effects are due more to the impulsivity component of extraversion than...
Article
Individual differences in information processing were studied in the form of the hypothesis that arousal, as indexed by a personality measure of introversion-extraversion, affects the speed with which certain kinds of processing are completed. The Sternberg paradigm was used, and the results suggested that introverts and extraverts scanned for phys...
Article
Reviews the literature relating arousal and human learning and memory. It is argued that it is important to distinguish between effects of arousal on storage and those on retrieval. The distinction between item arousal and S arousal is also of importance, and more work is needed to consider the conjoint influence of these sources of arousal on perf...
Article
Subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of their scores on the extraversion scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory and the general activation scale of Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List. A prose passage was presented to subjects who then attempted to recall it under strict instructions to avoid errors. There were...
Article
Reviews the literature relating extraversion and human learning and memory. There appear to be several replicable differences in learning and memory between introverts and extraverts. Current theorizing emphasizes the concept of arousal and indicates that most of the obtained results are consistent with the notion that introverts are more chronical...
Article
Subjects were divided into four groups based upon the possible combinations of high or low Extraversion and high or low General Activation. They learned two lists of paired associates in an A-B, A-Br paradigm, with a record being kept of the number of errors and the latency of correct responses. The groups were found to differ considerably more in...
Article
Subjects low or high in activation, as measured by Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, participated in two semantic memory tasks, one involving speed of recall and the other speed of recognition. White noise at 80 db. re 20 muN/m-2 was presented on half the trials. There was an interaction between noise and activation under the r...
Article
Twenty-four subjects, 12 of whom were in the age range 18-30 years and 12 of whom were between 55-65 years, performed two semantic memory tasks. One task involved the recall of an instance from a designated category starting with a specified letter, and the second task required subjects to indicate whether a given work was or was not a member of a...
Article
Comprehension latencies of sentences varying in concreteness and meaningfulness were obtained under conditions of visual interference and verbal interference. Concrete sentences were consistently more rapidly comprehended than abstract sentences. There was a significant interaction between type of interference and sentence concreteness, in which th...
Article
psychometrics has achieved very much more by way of reliable description of individual differences than has psychophysiology / the aim of researchers in the psychophysiology of individual differences has typically been to draw the two approaches together, in order to identify the biological variables which correlate with or are causally related to,...
Article
Although there is an enormous amount of literature demonstrating socio-psychological determinants of suicide and self-injurious behaviour among adults or clinical samples of children and adolescents, there is a scarcity of studies focussing on non-clinical adolescent samples. The current study examined associations between self-reported data on sel...

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