Michael F Egan

Michael F Egan
Merck & Co. | MSD · Clnical Neuroscience

MD

About

296
Publications
27,370
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35,223
Citations
Citations since 2017
25 Research Items
7297 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200

Publications

Publications (296)
Article
Purpose: The BACE inhibitor verubecestat was previously found to reduce amyloid load as assessed by 18F-flutemetamol positron emission tomography (PET) composite cortical standard uptake value ratio (SUVr) in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a substudy of the EPOCH trial. Here, we report on additional analyses relevant to...
Article
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In-clinic venous dried blood spot (DBS) pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling was incorporated into two phase 3 studies of verubecestat for Alzheimer's disease (EPOCH [NCT01739348] and APECS [NCT01953601]), as a potential alternative to plasma PK sampling. Initially, plasma and DBS PK samples were collected concurrently to better understand the DBS-plasma...
Article
The Down syndrome (DS) population is aging rapidly with a life expectancy of nearly 60 years of age compared to 25 years of age in 1980. There are approximately 210,000 people with DS in the USA and about 85,000 are >30 years of age.1 With longevity comes a high risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The lifetime risk of AD is estimated to be >90% ,2 an...
Article
In the phase 3 EPOCH trial (Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01739348), treatment with the BACE inhibitor verubecestat failed to improve cognition in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease, but was associated with reduced hippocampal volume after 78 weeks as assessed by MRI. The aims of the present exploratory analyses were to: (i) characterize t...
Article
Background: We performed exploratory analyses of retinal thickness data from a clinical trial of the AβPP cleaving enzyme (BACE) inhibitor verubecestat in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective: To evaluate: 1) possible retinal thickness changes following BACE inhibition; and 2) possible association between retinal thickness and brain...
Article
Introduction: The APECS and AMARANTH trials showed that beta-secretase (BACE) inhibitors verubecestat and lanabecestat failed to slow cognitive and functional decline in individuals with prodromal or early Alzheimer's disease. Here, the performance on secondary and exploratory cognitive measures in both studies is reported. Methods: APECS (verub...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Verubecestat, a BACE1 inhibitor that reduces Aβ levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of humans, was not effective in a phase 3 trial (EPOCH) of mild-to-moderate AD and was associated with adverse events. To assist in the development of BACE1 inhibitors, we report detailed safety findings from EPOCH. Methods: EPOCH was a randomized, doub...
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There is an urgent need to develop reliable and sensitive blood-based biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that can be used for screening and to increase the efficiency of clinical trials. The European Union-North American Clinical Trials in Alzheimer’s Disease Task Force (EU/US CTAD Task Force) discussed the current status of blood-based AD biom...
Article
Background Prodromal Alzheimer’s disease offers an opportunity to test the effect of drugs that modify the deposition of amyloid in the brain before the onset of dementia. Verubecestat is an orally administered β-site amyloid precursor protein–cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1) inhibitor that blocks production of amyloid-beta (Aβ). The drug did not prevent...
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Defining the environmental context in which genes enhance disease susceptibility can provide insight into the pathogenesis of complex disorders. We report that the intra-uterine environment modulates the association of schizophrenia with genomic risk (in this study, genome-wide association study-derived polygenic risk scores (PRSs)). In independent...
Article
Background Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques in the brain. Aβ is produced from the sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by β-site amyloid precursor protein–cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1) followed by γ-secretase. Verubecestat is an oral BACE-1 inhibitor that reduces the Aβ level in the cerebr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Early life events influence later susceptibility to many adult diseases and may contribute to define the environmental context in which genes enhance risk for complex disorder like schizophrenia. Here we analyze the role of intrauterine and perinatal environment in modulating the association of schizophrenia with genomic risk. Methods W...
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Introduction We evaluated the selective M1 muscarinic positive allosteric modulator, MK-7622, as adjunctive cognitive enhancing therapy in individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Methods A randomized, double-blind, proof-of-concept trial was performed. Participants with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease, being treated with an acetylcholinesterase...
Preprint
Full-text available
Defining the environmental context in which genes enhance susceptibility can provide insight into the pathogenesis of complex disorders, like schizophrenia. Here we show that the intrauterine and perinatal environment modulates the association of schizophrenia with genomic risk, as measured with polygenic risk scores (PRS) based primarily on GWAS s...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and amyloid ? (A?)42 accompany development of Alzheimer's brain pathology. Robust tau and A?42 immunoassays were developed to establish a tau/A?42 cutoff distinguishing mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects from healthy elderly control (HC) subjects. Methods A CSF tau/A?42 cutoff c...
Article
β-Amyloid (Aβ) peptides are thought to be critically involved in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aspartyl protease β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is required for the production of Aβ, and BACE1 inhibition is thus an attractive target for the treatment of AD. We show that verubecestat (MK-8931) is a potent,...
Article
The EU/US/CTAD Task Force, an international collaboration of AD investigators from industry and academia, met in Barcelona, Spain, on November 4th, 2015, to explore existing and planned patient registries and other clinical trial infrastructure meant to expedite recruitment of large numbers of participants into clinical trials and improve their pro...
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Previous studies of perceptual category learning in patients with schizophrenia generally demonstrate impaired perceptual category learning; however, traditional cognitive studies have often failed to address the relationship of different cortical regions to perceptually based category learning and judgments in healthy participants and patients wit...
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Studies of patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopamimetics report conflicting evidence for early learning of probabilistic cue–outcome associations that elicits frontal–striatal activity. Previous studies of probabilistic association learning in patients with schizophrenia administered antipsychotics have displayed conflicting evidence for...
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Background: Current antipsychotic treatments have little impact on the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. It has been proposed that agents which promote histamine release may enhance cognition. We evaluated whether the H3 inverse agonist MK-0249 might improve cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Outpatients...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate whether the T-type calcium channel antagonist MK-8998 was effective in treating acute psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. After a placebo lead-in, acutely psychotic inpatients with schizophrenia were randomized to 4 weeks of MK-8998 12/16 mg daily (N = 86)...
Article
Antagonism of the central opioid receptor like-1 receptor (ORL1) has been implicated in cognition, and has been a focus of drug discovery efforts to ameliorate the cognitive deficits that remain during the stable treatment of schizophrenia with current antipsychotics. In order to facilitate dose selection for phase II clinical testing an ORL1-speci...
Article
Research has implicated IQ and executive function (EF) as contributors to episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. However, it has been difficult to quantitatively apportion the respective contributions of these factors. We conducted a series of analyses to objectively parse the associated variance and to determine to what extent episodic memo...
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Full-text available
In 1983, reports of antibodies in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) to an as-yet uncharacterized infectious agent associated with meningoencephalitis in horses and sheep led to molecular cloning of the genome of a novel, negative-stranded neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus (BDV). This advance has enabled the development of new diagn...
Article
We performed a clinical trial to evaluate the effects of the histamine subtype-3 receptor inverse agonist MK- 0249 on cognition in AD patients. Mild-to-moderate AD patients were randomized 1:1 to 4 weeks of double-blind daily treatment with oral MK-0249 5-mg or placebo. Pharmacokinetic and PET data suggested that MK-0249 5-mg daily would achieve ap...
Article
IntroductionMethodological issuesEye tracking dysfunctionElectrophysiological/sensorimotor gating phenotypesNeuroimaging phenotypesCognitive phenotypesReceptors, neurotransmitters, and cell - base phenotypesOther phenotypesConclusions References
Article
Although patients with schizophrenia display an overall probabilistic category learning performance deficit, the extent to which this deficit occurs in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia is unknown. There are also discrepant findings regarding probabilistic category learning acquisition rate and performance in patients with schizoph...
Article
Complex genetic disorders such as depression likely exhibit epistasis, but neural mechanisms of such gene–gene interactions are incompletely understood. 5-HTTLPR and BDNF VAL66MET, functional polymorphisms of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SLC6A4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, impact on two distinct, but interacting signalin...
Article
Full-text available
Organized neuronal firing is crucial for cortical processing and is disrupted in schizophrenia. Using rapid amplification of 5' complementary DNA ends in human brain, we identified a primate-specific isoform (3.1) of the ether-a-go-go-related K(+) channel KCNH2 that modulates neuronal firing. KCNH2-3.1 messenger RNA levels are comparable to full-le...
Article
Schizophrenia is associated with subtle developmental compromise, but the degree to which this is also associated with heritability and genetic risk is uncertain. The goal of the current study was to investigate the childhood, adolescent, and early adulthood social and academic function of patients with schizophrenia, their healthy siblings, and no...
Article
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Functional neuroimaging studies of probabilistic category learning in healthy adults report activation of cortical-striatal circuitry. Based on previous findings of normal learning rate concurrent with an overall performance deficit in patients with schizophrenia, we hypothesized that relative to healthy adults, patients with schizophrenia would di...
Article
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Author Summary Schizophrenia is a major mental illness affecting 1% of the population. It is known that genetics plays a role in the disease susceptibility, and it is thought that the illness is a complex disorder involving multiple genes. We show that the schizophrenia susceptibility gene, PRODH, conveys its risk through a variation that increases...
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Article
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There is comparatively little information about premorbid maturational brain abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ). We investigated whether a history of childhood enuresis, a well-established marker of neurodevelopmental delay, is associated with SCZ and with measures of brain abnormalities also associated with SCZ. A Diagnostic and Statistical Manu...
Article
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Verbal and visual memory deficits are prominent trait markers for schizophrenia, with impairments also observed in first-degree relatives [Snitz, B.E., Macdonald, A.W., 3rd, & Carter, C.S. (2006). Cognitive deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analytic review of putative endophenotypes. Schizophr Bull, 32(...
Article
Impairments of executive functioning, such as set-shifting ability, are seen as core deficits of schizophrenia and are of interest as candidate intermediate phenotype markers. The Intradimensional/Extradimensional (ID/ED) shift task offers a differentiated assessment of shifting from previously reinforced stimuli as well as shifting from previously...
Article
Full-text available
Complex genetic disorders such as depression likely exhibit epistasis, but neural mechanisms of such gene-gene interactions are incompletely understood. 5-HTTLPR and BDNF VAL66MET, functional polymorphisms of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SLC6A4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, impact on two distinct, but interacting signalin...
Article
Full-text available
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family is highly diversified and involved in many forms of information processing. SREB2 (GPR85) is the most conserved GPCR throughout vertebrate evolution and is expressed abundantly in brain structures exhibiting high levels of plasticity, e.g., the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Here, we show that SREB2 is invol...
Article
Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant associati...
Article
Shared neuropathological characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and their siblings might represent intermediate phenotypes that could be used to investigate genetic susceptibility to the illness. We sought to discover previously unidentified gray matter volume differences in patients with schizophrenia and their siblings with optimized voxe...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about neural mechanisms underlying human personality and temperament, despite their considerable importance as highly heritable risk mediators for somatic and psychiatric disorders. To identify these circuits, we used a combined genetic and imaging approach focused on Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA), encoding a key enzyme for monoamine m...
Article
Full-text available
The etiology of schizophrenia is thought to include both epistasis and gene-environment interactions. We sought to test whether a set of schizophrenia candidate genes regulated by hypoxia or involved in vascular function in the brain (AKT1, BDNF, CAPON, CHRNA7, COMT, DTNBP1, GAD1, GRM3, NOTCH4, NRG1, PRODH, RGS4, TNF-alpha) interacted with serious...
Article
A functional polymorphism at the val66met locus in the BDNF gene has significant effects on the pro-form of the protein in intracellular trafficking and activity-dependent, but not constitutive, secretion. These differences are thought to underlie several findings in humans related to this polymorphism, including markers of neuronal viability, BOLD...
Article
Full-text available
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val(108/158)met (rs4680) is thought to affect dopamine regulated prefrontal cortical activity during working memory (WM) tasks, and to weakly increase risk for developing schizophrenia. Recently, other single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the gene have emerged as additional risk factors for schizophrenia...
Chapter
IntroductionHistory of TDEpidemiologyPrevention of TDManagement of patients with TDSummary
Article
Introduction: Complex genetic disorders such as depression likely exhibit epistasis, but neural mechanisms of such gene-gene interactions are incompletely understood. 5-HTTLPR and BDNF VAL66MET, functional polymorphisms of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SLC6A4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, impact on two distinct, but intera...
Article
Neuregulin1 (NRG1), a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, plays a critical role in neuronal migration and central nervous system development. However, its relation to schizophrenia pathogenesis is unknown. Here we show that B lymphoblasts migrate to NRG1 through the ErbB-signaling system as observed in neuronal cells. We assessed NRG1-...