Michael Dufner

Michael Dufner
Universität Witten/Herdecke · Department of Psychology and Psychotherapy

Professor

About

64
Publications
93,270
Reads
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2,259
Citations
Citations since 2017
39 Research Items
1985 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
April 2020 - present
Universität Witten/Herdecke
Position
  • Professor
October 2019 - March 2020
Medical School Berlin
Position
  • Professor
October 2013 - September 2019
University of Leipzig
Position
  • akademischer Rat

Publications

Publications (64)
Preprint
Full-text available
When meeting others for the first time, how should one behave in order to be liked? We investigated the effects of agentic and communal behaviors on two forms of being liked, popularity (being generally liked by others) and unique liking (being uniquely liked by specific interaction partners). In a round-robin study, 139 unacquainted German adults...
Article
Condition-based regression analysis (CRA) is a statistical method for testing self-enhancement effects. That is, CRA indicates whether, in a set of empirical data, people with higher values on the directed discrepancy self-view S minus reality criterion R (i.e., S-R) tend to have higher values on some outcome variable (e.g., happiness). In a critic...
Article
Full-text available
This meta-analysis examines generalized reciprocity, that is, the relationship between how people perceive others and how they are perceived by others. It tests the hypothesis that generalized reciprocity varies as a function of the content domain under investigation. Generalized reciprocity for attributes with primarily communal content (e.g., fri...
Preprint
Condition-based regression analysis (CRA) is a statistical method for testing self-enhancement (SE) effects. That is, CRA indicates whether, in a set of empirical data, people with higher values on the directed discrepancy S R (self-view S minus reality criterion R) tend to have higher values on some outcome variable (e.g., happiness). In a critica...
Preprint
This meta-analysis examines generalized reciprocity, that is, the relationship between how people perceive others and how they are perceived by others. It tests the hypothesis that generalized reciprocity varies as a function of the content domain under investigation. Generalized reciprocity for attributes with primarily communal content (e.g., fri...
Article
Full-text available
Partner-enhancement refers to perceiving the romantic partner more positively than one’s own self. Partner-enhancement often varies as a function of relationship duration: It is stronger in the earlier than later stage of a relationship. We asked whether narcissism moderates the association between relationship duration and partner-enhancement. We...
Article
Several theories propose that narcissism is rooted in affective contingencies. Given narcissists' focus on power, these contingencies should be strong in the power domain but not in the affiliation domain. We systematically investigated narcissists' contingencies and explored whether these contingencies might link narcissism to social behavior. In...
Article
Full-text available
People have characteristic ways of perceiving others’ personalities. When judging others on several traits, some perceivers tend to form globally positive and others tend to form globally negative impressions. These differences, often termed perceiver effects, have mostly been conceptualized as a static construct that taps perceivers’ personal ster...
Preprint
People have characteristic ways of perceiving others’ personalities. When judging others on several traits, some perceivers tend to form globally positive and others tend to form globally negative impressions. These differences, often termed perceiver effects, have mostly been conceptualized as a static construct that taps perceivers’ personal ster...
Article
Full-text available
How positively or negatively people generally view others is key for understanding personality, social behavior, and psychopathology. Previous research has measured generalized other-perceptions by relying on either explicit self-reports or judgments made in group settings. With the current research, we overcome the limitations of these past approa...
Article
Full-text available
Research on grandiose narcissism distinguishes between self-promotional processes (i.e., narcissistic admiration) and other-derogative processes (i.e., narcissistic rivalry; Back et al., 2013). Moreover, research has begun to assess and investigate narcissistic manifestations in different domains (e.g., communal narcissism). To integrate these two...
Preprint
Research on grandiose narcissism distinguishes between self-promotional processes (i.e., narcissistic admiration) and other-derogative processes (i.e., narcissistic rivalry; Back et al., 2013). Moreover, research has begun to assess and investigate narcissistic manifestations in different domains (e.g., communal narcissism). To integrate these two...
Article
Self-reported mate preferences suggest intelligence is valued across cultures, consistent with the idea that human intelligence evolved as a sexually selected trait. The validity of self-reports has been questioned though, so it remains unclear whether objectively assessed intelligence is indeed attractive. In Study 1, 88 target men had their intel...
Article
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Machiavellianism (Mach) and subclinical psychopathy are two widely studied antagonistic personality traits with distinct theoretical conceptualizations. Mach is conceptualized by strategic deviousness, cynicism, and pragmatic morality, whereas subclinical psychopathy is conceptualized by impulsive antisocial tendencies, callousness, and rule-breaki...
Preprint
Humans’ extraordinary intelligence seems to extend beyond the needs for survival. One theory to explain this surplus intelligence is that it evolved via sexual selection as a fitness indicator to advertise genetic quality to prospective mates. Consistent with this idea, self-reported mate preferences suggest intelligence is valued across cultures....
Article
Grandiose narcissists typically pursue agentic goals, such as social status, competence, and autonomy. We argue that because high intelligence is a key asset for the attainment of such agentic goals, the concept of intelligence should play a prominent role in grandiose narcissists’ self-regulation and social behavior. We review the relevant literat...
Article
Full-text available
Social and behavioral studies more and more often yield multi-block data, which consist of novel blocks of data (e.g., data from wearable devices) and traditional blocks of data (e.g., survey data) collected from the same sample. Multi-block data offer researchers valuable insights into complex social mechanisms, where several influences act togeth...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The current study examined whether the transition from university to work, a major developmental milestone in young adulthood, was related to stability and change in self-esteem. Method: Self-esteem was assessed in the last year of their master's program (T1) of 163 27-year old students and 14 months later, when they had graduated and...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The current research comprehensively examined how grandiose and vulnerable narcissism are linked to intelligence and intelligence-related beliefs and emotions. Method: In four studies (total N = 1141) we tested the associations between both forms of narcissism, subjectively and objectively assessed intelligence, basic personality trai...
Article
Full-text available
The current research dealt with the stereotype that only children are more narcissistic than people with siblings. We first investigated the prevalence of this stereotype. In an online study (Study 1, N = 556), laypeople rated a typical only child and a typical person with siblings on narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry, the two subdim...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical research on the (mal-)adaptiveness of favorable self-perceptions, self-enhancement, and self-knowledge has typically applied a classical null-hypothesis testing approach and provided mixed and even contradictory findings. Using data from five studies (laboratory and field, total N = 2,823), we employed an information-theoretic approach co...
Article
Full-text available
This research introduced novel measures of explicit and implicit romantic partner evaluations and tested whether these measures predict video-observed relationship behaviors. One hundred and eighty heterosexual participants (90 couples) completed two measures of explicit partner evaluations, the Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS) and a short form...
Article
Full-text available
Whenever groups form, members readily and intuitively judge each other’s agentic characteristics (e.g., self-confidence or assertiveness). We tested the hypothesis that perceiving others as low in these characteristics triggers agentic interpersonal behavior among perceivers, which benefits their own reputation in terms of agency. We analyzed data...
Chapter
Full-text available
Emotional processes are of key importance for the understanding of narcissism, in both its grandiose and its vulnerable forms. The current chapter provides an overview on the links between narcissism and emotionality. The two forms of narcissism differ distinctly in their hedonic tone, with vulnerable narcissism being characterized by negative emot...
Article
Full-text available
How can the consequences of self-enhancement (SE) be tested empirically? Traditional two-step approaches for investigating SE effects have been criticized for providing systematically biased results. Recently, we suggested condition-based regression analysis (CRA) as an approach that enables users to test SE effects while overcoming the shortcoming...
Preprint
How can the consequences of self-enhancement (SE) be tested empirically? Traditional two-step approaches for investigating SE effects have been criticized for providing systematically biased results. Recently, we suggested condition-based regression analysis (CRA) as an approach that enables users to test SE effects while overcoming the shortcoming...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a large body of literature and ongoing refinements of analytical techniques, research on the consequences of self-enhancement (SE) is still vague about how to define SE effects, and empirical results are inconsistent. In this paper, we point out that part of this confusion is due to a lack of conceptual and methodological differentiation be...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we investigated the links between motive dispositions and online social network (OSN) profile content. We assessed the achievement, affiliation and power motives via self- and peer-report. In addition, we used a projective test and two novel, affect based measures (involving affect ratings and EMG recordings) to assess implicit motive...
Preprint
Empirical research on the (mal-)adaptiveness of favorable self-perceptions, self-enhancement, and self-knowledge has typically applied a classical null-hypothesis testing approach and provided mixed and even contradictory findings. Using data from five studies (laboratory and field, total N = 2,823), we employed an information-theoretic approach co...
Article
Full-text available
This article advances the debate about costs and benefits of self-enhancement (the tendency to maintain unrealistically positive self-views) with a comprehensive meta-analytic review (299 samples, N=126,916). The review considers relations between self-enhancement and personal adjustment (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, depress...
Article
The present study aims to validate an Italian version of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ), which operationalizes the two-dimensional model of grandiose narcissism recently proposed by Back et al. (2013). The model differentiates between Admiration and Rivalry, two dimensions that entail the agentic and antagonistic aspec...
Article
Full-text available
Abel and Kruger (2010) found that smile intensity, coded from photographs of professional baseball players who were active in the year 1952, predicted these players’ longevity. In the current investigation, we sought to replicate this result and to extend the initial analyses. We analyzed (a) a sample that was almost identical to the one from the o...
Preprint
Data from two studies were used to estimate the reliability of facial EMG when used to index facial mimicry (Study 1) or affective reactions to pictorial stimuli (Study 2). Results for individual muscle sites varied between muscles and depending on data treatment. For ifference scores, acceptable internal consistencies were found only for corrugato...
Preprint
According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested These assumptions. We presented participants with positive affi...
Article
Full-text available
Different theoretical conceptualizations characterize grandiose narcissists by high, yet fragile self-esteem. Empirical evidence, however, has been inconsistent, particularly regarding the relationship between narcissism and self-esteem fragility (i.e., self-esteem variability). Here, we aim at unraveling this inconsistency by disentangling the eff...
Article
Full-text available
Narcissism is known to be related to romantic success in short-term contexts (dating, early-stage relationships) but also to problems in long-term committed relationships. We propose that these diverging romantic outcomes of narcissism can be explained by differential associations with agentic versus antagonistic dimensions of grandiose narcissism:...
Article
Data from two studies were used to estimate the reliability of facial EMG when used to index facial mimicry (Study 1) or affective reactions to pictorial stimuli (Study 2). Results for individual muscle sites varied between muscles and depending on data treatment. For difference scores, acceptable internal consistencies were found only for corrugat...
Preprint
Despite a large body of literature and ongoing refinements of analytical techniques, research on the consequences of self-enhancement (SE) is still vague about how to define SE effects, and empirical results are inconsistent. In this paper, we point out that part of this confusion is due to a lack of conceptual and methodological differentiation be...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigated effects of narcissism and emotional intelligence (EI) on popularity in social networks. In a longitudinal field study we examined the dynamics of popularity in 15 peer groups in two waves (N=273). We measured narcissism, ability EI, explicit and implicit self-esteem. In addition, we measured popularity at zero acquaintanc...
Preprint
According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested These assumptions. We presented participants with positive affi...
Article
In the present research, we followed two objectives. First, we aimed to replicate the classic finding by McAdams, Jackson, and Kirshnit (1984) that strong implicit affiliative motives predict high levels of nonverbal socializing behavior (eye contact, laughing, smiling) in dyadic interactions with an unacquainted person. Second, we applied a dual-m...
Article
Full-text available
In five studies (total N = 1,300) we developed and validated a Polish version of the Dirty Dozen measure (DTDD-P) that measures the three traits of the Dark Triad, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. We detail the presence and stability of a bifactor structure of the 12 items and present evidence for good internal consistency and test–re...
Article
Full-text available
How are people who generally see others positively evaluated themselves? We propose that the answer to this question crucially hinges on the content domain: We hypothesize that Agency follows a “zero-sum principle” and therefore people who see others as high in Agency are perceived as low in Agency themselves. In contrast, we hypothesize that Commu...
Article
Full-text available
In this research, we investigated the association between narcissism and one central aspect of empathy, susceptibility to emotional contagion (the transfer of emotional states from one person to another). In a laboratory study (N = 101) we detected a negative link between narcissism and emotional contagion in response to experimentally induced posi...
Article
Full-text available
The current research investigates the short- and long-term mate appeal of narcissists and the characteristics of people that are open to a narcissistic romantic partners. In a vignette study (Study 1; N = 1,347), raters’ level of sensation seeking and narcissistic admiration were positively associated to attraction towards targets high in narcissis...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the interpersonally relevant personality dimensions narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism (the „Dark Triad“) three different and extensive questionnaires are currently needed. In three studies (N = 501; N = 828; N = 96) two questionnaires to assess the core aspects of the Dark Triad are presented and validated. The first instr...
Article
Full-text available
Building on a two-dimensional reconceptualization of grandiose narcissism, we investigated how narcissistic admiration (the tendency toward agentic self-promotion) and rivalry (the tendency toward other-derogation) are related to acting. Study 1 (N = 583) showed that acting students scored higher on narcissistic admiration than students with other...
Article
Full-text available
According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affi...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the reciprocal associations between academic self-enhancement and key indicators of intra- and interpersonal adjustment as well as the role of self-esteem as a mediator. This longitudinal study involved three assessments in a sample of 709 German children and adolescents (Mage = 11.83; 54% female) over the course of one academic yea...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to test the effects of two types of narcissism on popularity in peer networks. Using data from four groups of well-acquainted students (N=122), we investigated differential relations of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism with network centrality indicators of liking and disliking. Grandiose narcissists received a lar...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to test the effects of two types of narcissism on popularity in peer networks. Using data from four groups of well-acquainted students (N=122), we investigated differential relations of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism with network centrality indicators of liking and disliking. Grandiose narcissists received a lar...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates the relative extent to which judgments of people’s behavior are influenced by “truth” (as measured by averaged observer-judgments) and by systematic bias (i.e., perceivers’ preexisting views of target persons). Using data from online questionnaires and laboratory sessions (N = 155), we demonstrate that self- and peer-...
Article
Do actual and perceived self-enhancement entail differing social impressions (i.e. interpersonal evaluations)? Actual self-enhancement represents unduly positive self-views, as gauged by an objective criterion (in this case, IQ scores), whereas perceived self-enhancement involves the extent to which an individual is seen by informants (i.e. peers o...
Article
Full-text available
We present a process model that distinguishes 2 dimensions of narcissism: admiration and rivalry. We propose that narcissists' overarching goal of maintaining a grandiose self is pursued by 2 separate pathways, characterized by distinct cognitive, affective-motivational, and behavioral processes. In a set of 7 studies, we validated this 2-dimension...
Article
Full-text available
This research was aimed to provide a comprehensive test of the classic notion that narcissistic individuals are appealing as short-term romantic or sexual partners. In three studies, we tested the hypotheses that narcissism exerts a positive effect on an individual's mate appeal and that this effect is mediated by high physical attractiveness and h...
Article
The relation between self-enhancement and psychological adjustment has been debated for over 2 decades. This controversy is partly due to the variety of approaches implicated in the assessment of mainly self-enhancement but also psychological adjustment. We adopted a face-valid approach by statistically removing actual intellectual ability variance...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
Hi there,
I am wondering how people's self-esteem can be reliably pushed down via experimental manipulation? Via fake negative performance feedback? Social exclusion? Or something else entirely? Which method produces the most robust (i.e., replicable and consistent) effects?

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Projects (4)
Project
The self-insight motive describes the dispositional tendency to strive for accurate self-knowledge. The present research program is the first to comprehensively investigate the nomological net, developmental antecedents and cognitive-behavioral consequences of the self-insight motive. Concerning the nomological net, we will validate the newly constructed self-assessment motive scale by testing its associations with other personality and self-concept variables. Concerning the antecedents, we will test the hypotheses that specific person factors (i.e., high epistemic curiosity, strong self-improvement motive) and environmental factors (i.e., unstable life circumstances, individualistic culture) lead to high levels of the self-insight motive. Concerning the consequences, we will test the hypotheses that the self-insight motive fosters self-monitoring and feedback seeking behavior, which then both lead to increased accuracy of self-reports among persons with a strong self-insight motive. The research program will involve a multi-methodological approach: In a set of seven empirical studies, self-reports, peer-reports, objective ability measures, and ambulatory assessment data will be gathered. Correlational, longitudinal, experimental, and cross-cultural designs will be implemented.
Project
This research project is funded by the German DFG and the Polish NCN and aims for a better understanding of the social consequences of narcissism. We take into consideration that these consequences might depend on moderating factors. We consider two classes of such moderating factors, narcissists’ objective qualities (Subproject I) and situational factors (Subproject II). In Subproject I we test the hypothesis that narcissists’ success in attaining desired social outcomes depends on whether or not they possess objective qualities that are beneficial for reaching these outcomes. In particular, we examine whether narcissists succeed in attaining wealth if they are intelligent, whether they succeed in gaining social influence if they possess socioemotional abilities and whether they succeed in attracting mates if they are physically attractive. To this end, we will conduct a laboratory round-robin study and a speed-dating study. Furthermore, we will analyze existing data from a large longitudinal panel dataset representative of the German population (N > 1500). In Subproject II, which deals with the moderating role of situational factors, we address two research questions. First, we investigate competitive intergroup situations and test whether narcissists are evaluated more positively by members of their ingroup than by members of an outgroup. We will address this question in two laboratory round-robin studies and a field study. This also includes an intercultural study testing whether the evaluation of German as opposed to Polish narcissists depends on the evaluator’s nationality (German vs. Polish). Second, we investigate situational influences on narcissists’ prosociality. We expect narcissists to show more prosocial behavior when such behavior is socially rewarded than when it is not socially rewarded, while we expect them to remain insensitive to the needs of the recipients. We address these questions in three experimental studies. The results of the research program will shed new light on narcissism and its effects on social outcomes. Furthermore, they will more generally lead to a better understanding of how social outcomes are shaped by the interplay between motivation, objective qualities, and situational factors.