Michael Doyle

Michael Doyle

About

291
Publications
48,787
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
22,779
Citations

Publications

Publications (291)
Article
Compost is organic material that has been degraded into a nutrient-stabilized humus-like substance through intense microbial activity, which can provide essential plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) to aid in the growth of fruits and vegetables. Compost can be generated from animal waste feedstocks; these can contain human pathogens, which can b...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview regarding the advantages of virulotyping over historic serology-based, PCR, based on genes that identify an organism, or enzymatic and biochemical-based analyses of foodborne pathogens in clinical diagnostics and food industry microbiology testing. Traditional identification and characterization methods are designe...
Book
Foodborne illnesses continue to be a major public health concern. All members of a particular bacterial genera (e.g., Salmonella, Campylobacter) or species (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes, Cronobacter sakazakii) are often treated by public health and regulatory agencies as being equally pathogenic; however, this is not necessarily true and is an over...
Article
Consumers' criteria for evaluating food safety have evolved recently from considering the food's potential to cause immediate physical harm to considering the potential long-term effects that consumption of artificial ingredients, including antimicrobial preservatives, would have on health. As bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents to prevent micro...
Article
This study determined the effects of different sanitizers (one phenolic-based, one chlorine-based, two QACs-based and one levulinic acid and SDS-based) on _L. monocytogenes_ biofilm. The induction of the sub-lethal injury state and the biofilm formation characteristics as a result of exposure to sanitizers were also evaluated. The results revealed...
Article
Microbial spoilage of salmon occurs during extended refrigerated storage and is often accompanied by unpleasant aromas. When spoilage is detected, it is assumed that consumers will reject the product for consumption. Because sensory panels of trained individuals or consumers are expensive and labor intensive, identification of microbiological or ch...
Article
Full-text available
The development of single- and mixed-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was observed, and the antimicrobial effectiveness of levulinic acid (LVA) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the cells in single- and dual-species biofilms was determined. Biofilm-forming ability of single- and mixed-species cultures was observ...
Article
Shelf life of fish packaged under modified atmosphere (MA) is extended, but within the United States, commercial application of MA with impermeable packaging films is restricted due to concerns that botulinum toxin production would precede spoilage when contaminated fish are held at abusive storage temperatures. Use of semipermeable packaging films...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella numbers on retail raw chicken carcasses in Guatemala and to phenotypically characterize the isolates (serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility). In total, 300 chicken carcasses were collected from seven departments in Guatemala. Salmonella numbers were determined using the most-probable-number...
Article
Full-text available
Listeria monocytogenes contamination of cantaloupes has become a serious concern as contaminated cantaloupes led to a deadly outbreak in the United States in 2011. To reduce cross-contamination between cantaloupes and to reduce resident populations on contaminated melons, application of sanitizers in packing shed wash water is recommended. The sani...
Article
Freshly harvested Eastern variety cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus cv. Athena) were subjected to three different harvest and wash treatments to examine conditions under which the efficacy of the sanitizer, levulinic acid (LV) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), could be enhanced to reduce Salmonella contamination. In treatment set one,...
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of levulinic acid (LVA) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to remove or inactivate Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in biofilms on the surface of stainless steel coupons was evaluated. Five- or six-strain mixtures (ca. 9.0logCFU/ml) of the three pathogens were separately i...
Article
Full-text available
During the past century, the microbiological safety of the U.S. food supply has improved; however, many foodborne illnesses and outbreaks occur annually. Hence, opportunities for the food industry to improve the safety of both domestic and imported food exist through the adoption of risk-based preventive measures. Challenging food safety issues tha...
Article
Full-text available
During the early phases of aerobic composting of animal manures, pathogens are inactivated primarily from the accumulation of heat produced by indigenous microbial activity. When compost materials are not exposed to these lethal temperatures, the required holding time needed to obtain a pathogen-free product that may be applied to fields is unknown...
Article
Full-text available
Heat is the primary mechanism by which aerobic composting inactivates zoonotic bacterial pathogens residing within animal manures, but at sublethal temperatures, the time necessary to hold the compost materials to ensure pathogen inactivation is uncertain. To determine the influence of the type of nitrogen amendment on inactivation of Salmonella, L...
Chapter
Low-water activity (low-a w) foods (those with a w < 0.70), which were once thought to be microbiologically safe, have, in recent years, been shown to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens, most notably and frequently Salmonella spp., leading to numerous food product recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. Low-a w food products can no longer be...
Article
Full-text available
Two separate studies were conducted to address the condition and the type of feedstocks used during composting of dairy manure. In each study, physical (temperature), chemical (ammonia, volatile acids, and pH), and biological (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7) parameters were monitored during composting in bioreactor...
Book
Low water activity (aw) and dried foods such as dried dairy and meat products, grain-based and dried ready-to-eat cereal products, powdered infant formula, peanut and nut pastes, as well as flours and meals have increasingly been associated with product recalls and foodborne outbreaks due to contamination by pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and en...
Article
Abstract Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been the causative agent of many outbreaks associated with leafy green produce consumption. Elucidating the mechanism by which contamination occurs requires monitoring interactions between the pathogen and the plant under typical production conditions. Intentional introduction of virulent strains into fields is...
Article
Full-text available
Reduction of enteric pathogens in animal manures before field application is essential for mitigating the risk of foodborne illness associated with produce. Aerobic composting of manures has been advocated as an effective treatment for reducing pathogen populations, and heat is a major factor contributing to pathogen inactivation. This study was in...
Article
Preharvest internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the roots of leafy greens is a food safety risk because the pathogen may be systemically transported to edible portions of the plant. In this study, both abiotic (degree of soil moisture) and biotic (E. coli O157:H7 exposure, presence of Shiga toxin genes, and type of leafy green) factors...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance profiles in retail raw chicken meat in the People's Republic of China. Salmonella counts were determined according to the most-probable-number (MPN) method for 300 whole chicken carcasses. These samples were collected from large, small, and wet (...
Article
The risk of non-O157 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli strains has become a growing public health concern. Several studies characterized the behavior of E. coli O157:H7; however, no reports on the influence of multiple factors on E. coli O104:H4 are available. This study examined the effects and interactions of temperature (7 to 46°C), pH (4.5...
Article
Full-text available
Studies were done at 21°C to determine the bactericidal activity of lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) applied individually and in combination on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in pure culture and to compare the efficacy of lactic acid and levulinic acid plus SDS treatments applied by spray or immersion to...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella counts, serovars, and antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes on retail raw chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 301 chicken carcasses were collected from six departments (one city per department) in Colombia. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella counts using the most-probable-number method as...
Article
Both growth chamber and field studies were conducted to investigate the potential for Escherichia coli O157:H7 to be internalized into leafy green tissue when seeds were germinated in contaminated soil. Internalized E. coli O157:H7 was detected by enrichment in both spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings when seeds...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this study were to quantify Salmonella counts on retail raw poultry meat in Vietnam and to phenotypically characterize (serovars and antibiotic resistance) the isolates. A total of 300 chicken carcasses were collected from two cities and two provinces in Vietnam. Salmonella counts on the samples were determined according to the mo...
Article
The survival and distribution of enteric pathogens in soil and lettuce systems was investigated in response to several practices (soil amendment supplementation and reduced watering) that could be applied by home gardeners. Leaf lettuce was grown in manure compost:top soil (0:5, 1:5 or 2:5, w:w) mixtures. Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was...
Article
Both spinach and lettuce were grown to harvest, cut, and then regrown after spraying the cut shoots with irrigation water contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Plant tissue was collected on the day of spraying and again 2 and 14 days later for analysis of total and internalized E. coli O157:H7 populations. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 o...
Article
Three soils that varied in their physicochemical characteristics and microbial diversity were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella to determine the relative impact of abiotic and biotic factors on the pathogens' survival when the soil was held at 25°C. Three soils that were classified as having low, medium and high microbial dive...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza A virus poses a major public health concern and is associated with annual epidemics and occasional pandemics. Influenza A H3N2 viruses, which are an important cause of human influenza, can infect birds and mammals. Contaminated undercooked poultry products including eggs with avian influenza virus constitute a possible risk of transmissio...
Article
Freshly harvested Georgia-grown cantaloupes (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus cv. Athena and Atlantis) were spot inoculated with 100 μl of a five-strain mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Poona (9 log CFU/ml) at the stem scar and on the netted rind and then subjected to no treatment (control) or a 6-min treatment (tank only) in water, 120 ppm o...
Article
During aerobic composting of animal manure, microbial activity within the mixture generates heat and metabolic by-products that inactivate zoonotic pathogens. Although it is recognized that the type and level of microbial activity will vary with the nutrient availability of different compost ingredients, the degree to which these changes could impa...
Patent
Provided are methods of treating a surface of a food processing facility which has a first population of microorganisms disposed thereon. The method includes disposing on the surface a biofilm containing a second population of microorganisms or a population of microorganisms that can form a biofilm onto the surface of the food processing facility....
Article
The ability of Listeria monocytogenes and two competitive exclusion (CE) bacteria, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain C-1-92 and Enterococcus durans strain 152, to form biofilms on coupons composed of different materials (stainless steel, plastic, rubber, glass, and silicone) was determined at 4 and 8°C. Biofilm characteristics were determined...
Article
Abstract Fresh salsa and guacamole often contain diced raw produce, are often made in large batches, and are often poorly refrigerated, which may make them prone to contamination that can cause foodborne illness. The safety of salsa and guacamole is increasingly important as these foods gain popularity. Since 1973, local, state, and territorial hea...
Article
In 2006, the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) published an Expert Report entitled “Antimicrobial Resistance: Implications for the Food System” (IFT 2006). That report summarized current scientific knowledge pertaining to the public-health impact of antimicrobial use in the food system and the development and control of antimicrobial resistance...
Article
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolates are categorized into specific groups (pathotypes) based on virulence properties, mechanisms of pathogenicity, clinical syndromes, and distinct O:H serotypes. This chapter focuses on enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which among the E. coli strains that cause foodborne illness in the United States, is the most...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on chicken carcasses collected from six regions in Vietnam. A total of 1,000 whole, dressed chicken carcasses were collected from five cities and seven provinces across the six regions in Vietnam. Of these, 900 samples were collected from wet markets and 100 from supermarkets. All sa...
Article
Full-text available
Campylobacter is an important human pathogen, and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing national and international controversy about whether...
Article
Most available immunoassays for Yersinia pestis are based on the detection of fraction 1 antigen (F1) when yersiniae are grown at 37°C. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) was developed based on the detection of surface antigens that are not F1. F1-deficient Y. pestis cells were induced and used to immunize BALB/c mice from which MAb (immunoglobulin G1), w...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent v...
Article
Full-text available
Human noroviruses are the most common etiologic agent of foodborne illness in the United States. The inability to culture human noroviruses in the laboratory necessitates the use of surrogate viruses such as murine norovirus (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV) for inactivation studies. In this study, a novel sanitizer of organic acid (levulinic ac...
Article
Full-text available
To determine if a novel formulation is effective in killing oral biofilm streptococci in vitro and in vivo. Efficacy of 0.5% levulinic acid and 0.05% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in killing Streptococcus gordonii CH1, Streptococcus gordonii DL1, Streptococcus mitis NCTC10712, Streptococcus oralis KS32AR, Streptococcus mutans BM71, and Streptococcus...
Article
A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city per department) were collected via a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the presence of Salmonella by conventional culture met...
Article
The food chain, from production to the consumer's kitchen, can be an important contributor to the development, persistence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant (ART) microbes, including both ART foodborne pathogens and commensal bacteria. Many factors in the food chain, such as the antimicrobial compounds used and how they were used, microbial...
Article
Surface contamination (skin and feathers) of broilers with Salmonella occurs primarily during growth and transportation. Immediately after transporting chickens, chicken cage doors were sprayed with a foam containing 3% levulinic acid plus 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples were collected for Salmonella assay after 45 min. Salmonella on cage...
Article
Full-text available
Data regarding Salmonella on raw poultry are very limited in China. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella on raw poultry at the retail level in six provinces and two national cities in China. Whole chicken carcasses (n = 1,152) were collected from three types of retail markets (large, small, and wet). All samples...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout four field trials, compost heaps covered with finished compost maintained temperatures under the physical covering that were ca. 7 to 15.5°C higher, resulting in rapid Escherichia coli O157:H7 reduction, than those of the heaps covered with fresh straw or left uncovered. Our results validated recommendations made by the U.S. Environmenta...
Article
Full-text available
Many food safety-related studies require tracking of introduced foodborne pathogens to monitor their fate in complex environments. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (gfp) provides an easily detectable phenotype so has been used to label many microorganisms for ecological studies. The objectives of this study were to label major foodborne pat...
Article
Fruits, vegetables, and meat are susceptible to contamination by foodborne pathogens at many points from production through preparation in the home. This review will largely highlight approaches and progress made in the last five years to address strategies to reduce pathogen contamination in animal production but will also touch on the emerging fi...
Article
Studies were conducted to determine the best concentration and exposure time for treatment of alfalfa seeds with levulinic acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella without adversely affecting seed germination. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with a five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typ...
Article
Full-text available
While measures to control carcass contamination with Salmonella at the processing plant have been implemented with some success, on-farm interventions that reduce Salmonella prevalence in meat birds entering the processing plant have not translated well on a commercial scale. We determined the impact of Salmonella vaccination on commercial poultry...
Article
Environmental pests may serve as reservoirs and vectors of zoonotic pathogens to leafy greens; however, it is unknown whether insect pests feeding on plant tissues could redistribute these pathogens present on the surface of leaves to internal sites. This study sought to differentiate the degree of tissue internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns about foodborne salmonellosis have led many countries to introduce microbiological criteria for certain food products. If such criteria are not well-grounded in science, they could be an unjustified obstacle to trade. Raw poultry products are an important part of the global food market. Import and export ambiguities and regulatory confusio...
Article
Full-text available
Bacteriophages specific to Salmonella strains were isolated from sewage effluent and characterized. A five-strain bacteriophage mixture was applied to dairy manure compost inoculated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Bacteriophage treatment resulted in a greater than 2-log-unit reduction of Salmonella within 4 h at all moisture levels...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns about foodborne salmonellosis have led many countries to introduce microbiological criteria for certain food products. If such criteria are not well-grounded in science, they could be an unjustified obstacle to trade. Raw poultry products are an important part of the global food market. Import and export ambiguities and regulatory confusio...
Article
Numerous field studies have revealed that irrigation water can contaminate the surface of plants; however, the occurrence of pathogen internalization is unclear. This study was conducted to determine the sites of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination and its survival when the bacteria were applied through spray irrigation water to either field-gro...
Article
Full-text available
Sampling protocols for detecting Salmonella on poultry differ among various countries. In the United States, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service dictates that whole broiler carcasses should be rinsed with 400 ml of 1% buffered peptone water, whereas in the European Union 25-g samples composed of neck skin from thre...
Article
Full-text available
Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella serotypes, Campylobacter and Yersinia spp. isolates from fresh chicken and beef meat obtained at retail outlets in Tehran, Iran, were determined. A total of 379 samples (190 chicken and 189 beef) were collected between April 2006 and April 2007 and analyzed for these foodborne pathogens...
Article
Full-text available
A large outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul associated with raw jalapeño peppers, serrano peppers, and possibly tomatoes was reported in the United States in 2008. During the outbreak, two clusters of illness investigated among restaurant patrons were significantly associated with eating salsa. Experiments were performed to determine the survival and...
Article
Several sources of contamination of fresh produce by Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) have been identified and include contaminated irrigation water and improperly composted animal waste; however, field studies evaluating the potential for internalization of O157 into leafy greens from these sources have not been conducted. Irrigation water inoculat...