Michael Daly

Michael Daly
National University of Ireland, Maynooth | NUI Maynooth · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

101
Publications
27,434
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,439
Citations
Citations since 2016
50 Research Items
2970 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Introduction
My research focuses on the interlinkages between human health and well-being, psychological traits (e.g. self-control) and economic circumstances (e.g. unemployment, social disadvantage).
Additional affiliations
October 2012 - present
University of Stirling
Position
  • Programme Director MSc in Behavioural Science
October 2011 - September 2012
University of Aberdeen
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Low self-control has been linked with smoking, yet it remains unclear whether childhood self-control underlies the emergence of lifetime smoking patterns. We examined the contribution of childhood self-control to early smoking initiation and smoking across adulthood. Methods: 21,132 participants were drawn from 2 nationally representa...
Article
Aims: To test the relationship between early cognitive ability and major changes in smoking habits across adulthood, and test whether educational attainment mediates these associations. Design: Prospective observational study to examine the link between cognitive ability and smoking initiation, relapse and cessation at multiple time-points throu...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Obesity has been shown to increase risk of depression. Persons with obesity experience discrimination because of their body weight. Across 3 studies, we tested for the first time whether experiencing (perceived) weight-based discrimination explains why obesity is prospectively associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Method:...
Article
Full-text available
Physically active lifestyles and other health-enhancing behaviors play an important role in preserving executive function into old age. Conversely, emerging research suggests that executive functions facilitate participation in a broad range of healthy behaviors including physical activity and reduced fatty food, tobacco, and alcohol consumption. T...
Article
Full-text available
The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across fo...
Article
Full-text available
Background In late 2020 a second wave of COVID-19 infections occurred in many countries and resulted in a national lockdown in the UK including stay at home orders and school closures. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of psychological distress before and during the second COVID-19 wave in the UK. Methods This study drew on data from 10,6...
Article
Background: Increases in mental health problems have been observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives were to examine the extent to which mental health symptoms changed during the pandemic in 2020, whether changes were persistent or short lived, and if changes were symptom specific. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of longi...
Article
Full-text available
Background : The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the mental health of the US population is unclear. This study drew on two nationally representative samples to compare the prevalence rate of anxiety in the U.S. before and during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Methods : The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) screening tool was...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the associated social distancing and lockdown restrictions are expected to have substantial and enduring mental health effects. In this study, we aimed to assess depression levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Methods: We used the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Public health policies attempt to increase parental identification of child overweight and obesity. The objective of the present research was to determine the cross-sectional, prospective and longitudinal associations between parental identification of child overweight and child mental health problems. Methods: We made use of two coh...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The historical factors and contemporary mechanisms underlying geographical inequalities in obesity levels remain uncertain. In this study we examine whether modern regional variation in obesity is partly a result of the impact of large-scale industry on the personality traits of those living in regions once at the center of the Industria...
Preprint
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has had a range of negative social and economic effects that may contribute to a rise in mental health problems. In this observational population-based study, we examined longitudinal changes in the prevalence of mental health problems from before to during the COVID-19 crisis and identified subgroups that are psych...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID‐19 outbreak has become one of the largest public health crises of our time. Governments have responded by implementing self‐isolation and physical distancing measures that have profoundly impacted daily life throughout the world. In this study, we aimed to investigate how people experience the activities, interactions, and settings of the...
Article
Full-text available
The obesity crisis is one of the largest public health challenges of the 21st century. Population level adiposity has increased dramatically in recent times and people not recognising that they have overweight or obesity is now common. It has been widely assumed that not recognising oneself as having overweight is detrimental to weight management a...
Article
Objective To examine whether body mass index (BMI) and weight discrimination are associated with psychological, behavioral, and interpersonal responses to the coronavirus pandemic. Methods Using a prospective design, participants (N=2,094) were first assessed in early February 2020 before the coronavirus crisis in the United States and again in mi...
Article
Unfair treatment on the basis of a physical characteristic, such as body weight, is associated with unhealthy dieting behaviors in adolescence and adulthood and has also been implicated in substance use. Peer victimization is likewise associated with these health-risk behaviors. It is unclear, however, whether body discrimination is associated with...
Article
Background: The share of workers who work part-time because full-time jobs are not available remains larger compared to the period prior to the 2008 crisis. For part-time workers, being available to work more hours than offered may have negative mental health implications. Method: Drawing on two nationally representative British surveys, we test...
Article
Objective: Individuals who perceive unfair treatment because of their body weight have been found to be at increased risk of poor health outcomes, including risk of dementia. The present research examines the relation between weight discrimination and performance in five cognitive domains (episodic memory, speed-attention, visuospatial ability, la...
Article
Obesity is associated with a significant disease burden, but whether recognising as opposed to failing to recognise personal overweight is beneficial or detrimental to mental health is unclear. Here we examine the associations between perceived overweight and depressive symptoms and suicidality. A systematic search of three electronic databases yie...
Article
Obesity is thought to cause ill health because of the biological strain that excess fat has on physiological function. We tested an alternative explanation in a population-based sample of 3,609 older English adults—that the pervasive discrimination experienced by individuals with excess weight may in part explain why obesity is associated with subs...
Article
Full-text available
Body mass index (BMI) and obesity have a complex relation with risk of dementia that evolves over the lifespan. Research in other domains indicates that the social experience of body weight, not just BMI, is associated with worse health outcomes. The present research uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,053) to test whether weight...
Article
Rationale: Symptoms of mental health problems have been shown to predict adverse labour market outcomes including unemployment, but no studies have used sibling models to examine the relationship between clinically diagnosed psychiatric conditions in adolescence and subsequent unemployment. Objective: This study used extensive Swedish registry d...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Winter Fuel Payment (WFP) is a non-NHS population-level policy intervention that aims to reduce cold exposure and enhance the health and well-being of older adults. Labelling this cash transfer as ‘winter fuel’ has been shown to lead to increased household energy expenditure, but it is not known if this expenditure produces warmer ho...
Article
Objective: Self-identification of overweight is associated with a greater desire to lose weight, but also counterintuitively with increased future weight gain. The present research examined whether weight loss attempts mediate the prospective relation between self-perceived weight status and weight gain across adolescence and young adulthood. Met...
Article
Background: This study examines whether discrimination based on the body is associated with intentional self-harm and suicidal behavior in adolescence. Methods: Participants were from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (N = 2948; 48% female). Discrimination and items on self-harm and suicidal behavior were measured in the Wave 6 asses...
Article
Background Social disadvantage consistently predicts both self-reported distress and clinically diagnosed disorders such as depression. Yet, many individuals who are exposed to disadvantage do not report high levels of distress. This study extends our recent work showing that high cognitive ability may protect against the negative health consequenc...
Article
Full-text available
Background Long-term future thinking has been associated with a range of favorable health behaviors. However, it is currently unclear whether this translates into an effect on morbidity and mortality. Purpose The goal of this study was to study the relationship between time perspective and all-cause mortality and to examine the role of health beha...
Data
Table S1. Search Strategy Table S2a. Characteristics of included studies. Table S2b. Weight perception measurement and outcome categories. Table S3. Methodological quality of included studies Table S4a. Evidence synthesis by outcome category and subsample with references (cross‐sectional studies). Table S4b. Evidence synthesis by outcome categ...
Article
Past unemployment may have a pervasive psychological impact that occurs across nations. We investigate the association between unemployment events across working life and subsequent psychological well-being across 14 European countries. Additionally, we consider the influence of between-country differences in labour market institutions and conditio...
Article
Despite growing interest in the temporal dynamics of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), we know little about the intra-day fluctuations of key symptom constructs. In a study of momentary experience, the Experience Sampling Method captured the within-day dynamics of negative affect, positive affect, self-esteem, passive suicidality, and tiredness acro...
Article
Full-text available
It is commonly assumed that a person identifying that they are ‘overweight’ is an important prerequisite to successful weight management. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of evidence supporting this proposition. The aim of the present research was to systematically review evidence on the relationship between perceived overweight and...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To test whether high levels of reported pride are associated with subsequent falls. Design Secondary analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) dataset. Setting Multi-wave longitudinal sample of non-institutionalised older English adults. Participants ELSA cohort of 6415 participants at wave 5 (baseline, 2010/11), of w...
Article
Self-perceived overweight and weight discrimination are associated with inflammation in adulthood. We test whether there is an intergenerational association of parent perception of child overweight on higher levels of child c-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation implicated in stress. Data were from the National Health and Nutrition Exam...
Article
Self-control problems have been proposed as a key reason for low pension saving rates, yet evidence of this link remains scarce. We test the association between childhood self-control and adult pension participation using data from 14,223 individuals from two nationally-representative British cohorts. We find that a 1 standard deviation increase in...
Article
Objective: Individual differences in childhood cognitive ability have been neglected in the study of how early life psychosocial factors may buffer the long-term health consequences of social disadvantage. In this study, we drew on rich data from two large British cohorts to test whether high levels of cognitive ability may protect children from e...
Article
International Journal of Obesity is a monthly, multi-disciplinary forum for papers describing basic, clinical and applied studies in biochemistry, genetics and nutrition, together with molecular, metabolic, psychological and epidemiological aspects of obesity and related disorders
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the results of a large body of research from economics and psychology examining childhood psychological predictors of adult economic outcomes. It follows recent economics literature by classifying these predictors into cognitive and noncognitive skills and focuses on the some domains of school and work since these encompass...
Article
Identifying oneself as being overweight may be associated with adverse health outcomes, yet prospective tests of this possibility are lacking. Over 7 years, we examined associations between perceptions of being overweight and subsequent health in a sample of 3,582 U.S. adults. Perceiving oneself as being overweight predicted longitudinal declines i...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children’s school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of chi...
Article
Full-text available
Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Childhood bullying has long-term negative mental and physical health correlates, including weight gain and symptoms of depression. The purpose of this research is to examine whether bullying in the first year of school is associated with greater weight gain by early adolescence and whether adolescent depressive symptoms mediate this as...
Article
Objective: To examine whether perceived weight discrimination is associated with change in health markers over time and whether it is associated with daily stressors, physical symptoms, and affect. Methods: Participants were selected from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study if they had data on perceived weight discrimination and healt...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: Several studies have shown a link between psychological distress in early life and subsequent higher unemployment, but none have used sibling models to account for the unobserved family background characteristics which may explain the relationship. Objective: This paper uses the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997 data to examin...
Conference Paper
Background: The extent to which childhood self-control underlies the emergence and persistence of lifetime smoking is currently unknown. Aims: We aimed to test whether childhood self-control contributed to smoking patterns in adulthood. Methods: 14,700 participants were drawn from two nationally-representative British prospective birth cohort stu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Correctly identifying oneself as being overweight is presumed to be a prerequisite to successful weight management. The present research examined the effect that perceiving oneself as being 'overweight' has on risk of future weight gain in US and UK adults.Methods Data from three longitudinal studies; US National longitudinal study of ad...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The pronounced discrepancy between smokers' intentions to quit and their smoking behavior has led researchers to suggest that many smokers are time inconsistent, have self-control problems, and may benefit from external efforts to constrain their consumption. This study aims to test whether self-control and future orientation predict...
Article
Full-text available
Low income is an established risk factor for suicidal thoughts and attempts. This study aims to explore income within a social rank perspective, proposing that the relationship between income and suicidality is accounted for by the rank of that income within comparison groups. Participants (N = 5779) took part in the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Sur...
Article
Unemployment has a strongly negative influence on well-being, but it is unclear whether it also alters basic personality traits. Whether personality changes arise through natural maturation processes or contextual/environmental factors is still a matter of debate. Unemployment, a relatively unexpected and commonly occurring life event, may shed lig...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of childhood mental health on later unemployment has not yet been established. In this article we assess whether childhood psychological distress places young people at high risk of subsequent unemployment and whether the presence of economic recession strengthens this relationship. This study was based on 19,217 individuals drawn from t...
Article
Full-text available
Counterfactual thoughts are based on the assumption that one situation could result in multiple possible outcomes. This assumption underlies most theories of free will and contradicts deterministic views that there is only one possible outcome of any situation. Three studies tested the hypothesis that stronger belief in free will would lead to more...
Article
Full-text available
Physically active lifestyles contribute to better executive function. However, it is unclear whether high levels of executive function lead people to be more active. This study uses a large sample and multi-wave data to identify whether a reciprocal association exists between physical activity and executive function. Participants were 4,555 older a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Financial resources are a potent determinant of health, yet it remains unclear why this is the case. We aimed to identify whether the frequently observed association between absolute levels of monetary resources and health may occur because money acts an indirect proxy for a person's social rank. Method: To address this question we ex...
Article
Objective: Raised ambient temperatures may result in a negative energy balance characterized by decreased food intake and raised energy expenditure. This study tested whether indoor temperatures above the thermoneutral zone for clothed humans (∼23 °C) were associated with a reduced body mass index (BMI). Methods: Participants were 100,152 adults...
Article
Full-text available
Marteau and Hall provide interesting insight into the important links between early life environments, poverty, deleterious health behaviours, and the cognitive abilities used to control such behaviours—the “executive functions.”1 They suggest that associations between early life exposure to poverty and subsequent reductions in executive functions...
Article
Full-text available
Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a larg...
Article
Full-text available
Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 commits us to reducing maternal mortality rates by three quarters and MDG 4 commits us to reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In order to reach these goals, greater access to basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as well as comprehensive EmOC which includes safe Caesarean section, is nee...
Article
Objective: Obesity has been shown to produce a state of systematic low-grade inflammation that may have detrimental neuropsychiatric effects. Design and methods: Longitudinal associations between obesity, inflammation, and depressive symptoms amongst a cohort of older English adults over 4 years of follow-up were examined. Participants were 3,89...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to ascertain whether self-control predicts heart rate, heart rate variability, and the cortisol slope, and to determine whether health behaviors and affect patterns mediate these relationships. A sample of 198 adults completed the Self-Control Scale (Tangney in J Pers 72:271-322, 2004), and reported their exercise levels, and cigar...