Michael J Crowley

Michael J Crowley
Yale University | YU · Child Study Center

Ph.D.

About

173
Publications
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4,117
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Publications

Publications (173)
Article
Objective Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) is a first-line treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). However, the brain mechanisms involved in CBIT are poorly understood. Enhanced frontomesial EEG coherence during a Go/NoGo task has been suggested as a mechanism involved in voluntary tic control. In the current study, we conducted a...
Article
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A large body of work documents the utility of behavioral risk tasks for making inferences about adolescent risk-taking proclivities and related emotional and motivational correlates. Much less attention has been paid to risk-avoidance during adolescence. We provide validity data for a behavioral measure designed to assess avoidance, the Balloon Ris...
Article
Although associations among borderline personality disorder (BPD), social rejection, and frontal EEG alpha asymmetry scores (FAA, a neural correlate of emotion regulation and approach-withdrawal motivations) have been explored in different studies, relatively little work has examined these relations during adolescence in the same study. We examined...
Article
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Child maltreatment gives rise to atypical patterns of social functioning with peers which might be particularly pronounced in early adolescence when peer influence typically peaks. Yet, few neuroimaging studies in adolescents use peer interaction paradigms to parse neural correlates of distinct maltreatment exposures. This fMRI study examines effec...
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Disruptions in frontoparietal networks supporting emotion regulation have been long implicated in maladaptive childhood aggression. However, the association of connectivity between large-scale functional networks with aggressive behavior has not been tested. The present study examined whether the functional organization of the connectome predicts s...
Article
Emotional regulation is important for mental health and behavioral regulation. A relevant precursor to emotional regulation may involve identification of one's emotions. Here, we propose a model of seven components that may provide a foundation for emotion identification. These factors include baseline mood, monitoring, physiological responses, int...
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) among parents impacts their child’s development both directly through exposure to violence and indirectly through disruptions in parenting. In particular, use of IPV may affect how fathers respond to infant crying, including at a neurophysiological level. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether use of IP...
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Cannabis and tobacco use and related disorders have been separately associated with sensitivity to reward (SR), sensitivity to punishment (SP), and impulsivity. Given the frequent co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco consumption in adolescents, it is important to understand how SR, SP, and impulsivity may relate to both cannabis use and tobacco us...
Article
Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur, especially in children. Reduced inhibitory control abilities has been suggested as a shared phenotype across both conditions but its neural underpinnings remain unclear. Here, we tested the behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of inhibitory con...
Preprint
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Understanding consciousness is one of the most important and challenging questions in modern science. Existing theories have pursued single unifying mechanisms but do not succeed in explaining consciousness. Importantly, the neural circuits that distinguish messages that arrive from the outside world and attain consciousness have remained unknown....
Article
Objective: This exploratory study aimed to examine associations between executive function and simulated and self-reported driving behavior among young adults with and without a history of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Methods: Young adult drivers with PCE (n = 38) and with no drug exposure (NDE; n = 25) were recruited from an ongoing longitudin...
Preprint
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Consciousness is not explained by a single mechanism, rather it involves multiple specialized neural systems overlapping in space and time. We hypothesize that synergistic, large-scale subcortical and cortical attention and signal processing networks encode conscious experiences. To identify brain activity in conscious perception without overt repo...
Article
The consequences of adolescent drug and alcohol use may be serious and far-reaching, forecasting problematic use or addictive behaviors into adulthood. School counselors are particularly well suited to understand the needs of the school community and to seamlessly deliver sustainable substance use prevention. This pilot study with 46 ninth-grade st...
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Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by substantial biological, neural, behavioral, and social changes. Learning to navigate the complex social world requires adaptive skills. Although anticipation of social situations can serve an adaptive function, providing opportunity to adjust behavior, socially anxious individuals may engage in...
Article
Previous work relies largely on the simple reaction time measures in inhibitory control tasks. The goal of the current study was to provide a better understanding the relationship between puberty, sex, and inhibitory control utilizing and contrasting two popular drift diffusion models. A sample of 103 adolescents (Mage = 14.49, SD = 1.69) self-repo...
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Adverse peer experiences, such as social exclusion, are known risks for socioemotional problems among shy youth. Yet, little is known about how shy children and adolescents process social exclusion in the brain and whether these responses are amplified in adolescence. Using the Cyberball task, we examined mediofrontal theta (4-7 Hz) event-related E...
Article
Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder involving chronic motor and phonic tics. Most individuals with Tourette syndrome can suppress their tics for at least a short period of time. Yet, the brain correlates of tic suppression are still poorly understood. Methods: In the current study, high-density electroencephalograph...
Article
Impairments in feedback processing, often associated with risk-taking behavior, may have implications for development of substance abuse in adolescents. The most commonly used substances by adolescents include tobacco and cannabis, with some individuals using both substances, potentially heightening risk. Our objective was to examine feedback proce...
Preprint
Full-text available
Disruptions in frontoparietal networks supporting emotion regulation have been long implicated in maladaptive childhood aggression. However, the association of connectivity between large-scale functional networks in the human connectome with aggressive behavior has not been tested. By using a data-driven, machine learning approach, we show that the...
Article
Full-text available
Atypical neural response to faces is thought to contribute to social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to typically developing (TD) controls, individuals with ASD exhibit delayed brain responses to upright faces at a face‐sensitive event‐related potential (ERP), the N170. Given observed differences in patterns of visual attention...
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Differences in corticostriatal neural activity during feedback processing of rewards and losses have been separately related to cannabis and tobacco use but remain understudied relative to co-use in adolescents. Using high-density EEG (128 electrode system, 1000 Hz sampling), we examined event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by monetary reward,...
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Attachment theory proposes that children's representations of interactions with caregivers guide information-processing about others, bridging interpersonal domains. In a longitudinal study (N = 165), preschoolers (M age = 5.19 years) completed the MacArthur Story Stem Battery to assess parent representations. At school-age (M age = 8.42 years), ch...
Article
Sleep disturbances and sleep disorders are prevalent in children/adolescents and have a bidirectional relationship with pediatric medical and mental health disorders. Screening tools and mechanisms for the evaluation and treatment of sleep disturbances and sleep disorders in the pediatric mental health clinic are less well-known; hence, sleep distu...
Article
Emotion regulation (ER) strategies can decrease the intensity or modify the experience of emotions. Deficits in emotion regulation are implicated in a wide range of psychopathologies. It is argued that interpersonal, socio-cognitive, and developmental variables play an important role in ER. This is the first study to explore the contribution of ind...
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Introduction: Prior research shows that physicians in training are at risk for drowsy driving following their clinical duties, which may put them in danger of experiencing adverse driving events. This study explores the relationship between sleepiness, overall sleep hygiene, level of training, and adverse driving events following an overnight shif...
Article
Background There is an epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents. Research into the self-regulatory factors that drive eating behavior is of critical importance. Food craving contributes to overeating and difficulty with weight loss and is strongly correlated with self-regulation. High-frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) reflects parasy...
Article
Distracted driving remains a leading factor in fatal motor vehicle crashes, particularly in young drivers. Due to ongoing neuromaturation, attention capabilities are changing and improving throughout young adulthood. Here, we sought to bridge neuroscience with driving simulation by evaluating the effects of driving on attention processing through a...
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Substantial changes in cognitive-affective self-referential processing occur during adolescence. We studied the behavioral and ERP correlates of self-evaluation in healthy male and female adolescents aged 12-17 (N=109). Participants completed assessments of depression symptoms and puberty as well as a self-referential encoding task while 128-channe...
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Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with an increase in stress, the appearance of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and changes in sleep patterns. Even though the disruption of sleep patterns in stress and anxiety and depressive disorders is well known, the independent effects of childhood trauma and stressful life events on sl...
Article
Objective: Generalized epileptiform discharges (GEDs) can occur during seizures or without obvious clinical accompaniment. Motor vehicle driving risk during apparently subclinical GEDs is uncertain. Our goals were to develop a feasible, realistic test to evaluate driving safety during GEDs, and to begin evaluating electroencephalographic (EEG) fea...
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We examined one-month reliability, internal consistency, and validity of ostracism distress (Need Threat Scale) to simulated social exclusion during Cyberball. Thirty adolescents (13–18 yrs.) completed the Cyberball task, ostracism distress ratings, and measures of related clinical symptoms, repeated over one month. Need Threat Scale ratings of ost...
Article
Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has ramifications for feedback processing. Measuring neural oscillatory dynamics (during electroencephalography) provides insight into the time signatures and neural processes of feedback processing in adolescents with PCE. We measured spectral power in alpha and theta frequency bands while 49 adolescents with PCE an...
Preprint
Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with an increase in stress, the appearance of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and changes in sleep patterns. Even though the disruption of sleep patterns in stress and anxiety and depressive disorders is well known, the independent effects of childhood trauma and stressful life events on sl...
Article
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impaired adult facial processing, as shown by the N170 event‐related potential. However, few studies explore such processing in mothers of children with ASD, and none has assessed the early processing of infant faces in these women. Moreover, whether processing of infant facial expressions in...
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Full-text available
Generalized spike-wave discharges (SWDs) are the hallmark of generalized epilepsy on the electroencephalogram (EEG). In clinically obvious cases, generalized SWDs produce myoclonic, atonic/tonic, or absence seizures with brief episodes of staring and behavioral unresponsiveness. However, some generalized SWDs have no obvious behavioral effects. A s...
Article
The Trier Social Stress Test for children (TSST-C) adapted from TSST is one of the most commonly used laboratory paradigms for investigating the effects of stress on cognitive, affective and physiological responses in children and adolescents. Considering that laboratory procedures generate a significant amount of stress to children and adolescents...
Article
Prenatal drug exposure may have important repercussions across the lifespan for cognition and behavior. While alcohol is a recognized teratogen, the influences of other substances may also be substantial. The neural underpinnings of the influences of prenatal drug exposure have been examined using longitudinal approaches and multiple imaging techni...
Preprint
Full-text available
We examined one-month reliability, internal consistency, and validity of ostracism distress (Need Threat Scale) to simulated social exclusion during Cyberball. Thirty adolescents (13-18 yrs.) completed the Cyberball task, ostracism distress ratings, and measures of related clinical symptoms, repeated over one month. Need Threat Scale ratings of ost...
Article
Pregnancy is shaped by unfolding psychological and biological changes in preparation for parenthood. A growing literature has examined the postpartum maternal brain. However, few studies examine the maternal brain during pregnancy, and whether brain function in pregnancy may have implications for postpartum caregiving. Using event-related potential...
Article
The Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID) is a method in which trained observers continuously code the dominance and warmth of individuals who interact with one another in dyads. This method has significant promise for assessing dynamic interpersonal processes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of individual sex,...
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Adolescence is a period of significant identity development and particular vulnerability to depression associated with negative self-evaluation. We investigated if increased depressive symptom severity was also associated with positive self-evaluation. We also considered pubertal developmental differences in positive and negative self-evaluation, a...
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Sleep disturbances are often observed in child and adolescent mental health disorders. Although previous research has identified consistent subjective reports of sleep disturbances, specific objective sleep markers have not yet been identified. We evaluated the current research on subjective and objective sleep markers in relation to attention defi...
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Although the neural correlates of social exclusion have been well-documented, most studies have examined single age groups. No studies have directly compared specific age-related differences in social exclusion across children, adolescents, and adults using event-related oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics. The authors examined event-re...
Article
Emerging evidence points to interactions between inflammatory markers and stress reactivity in predicting mental health risk, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in inflammatory signaling and Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis stress-response, and...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring social threat is essential for maintaining healthy social relationships, and recent studies suggest a neural alarm system that governs our response to social rejection. Frontal-midline theta (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power might act as a neural correlate of this system by being sensitive to unexpected social rejection. Here, we examined wheth...
Article
Late-stage attentional processing of threatening stimuli, quantified through event-related potentials (ERPs), differentiates youth with and without anxiety disorders. It is unknown whether early-stage attentional processing of threatening stimuli differentiates these groups. Examining both early and late stage attentional processes in youth may adv...
Article
Medial frontal activity in the EEG is enhanced following negative feedback and varies in relation to important dimensions of impulsivity. In 22 undergraduate students (Mage = 18.92 years, range 18-22 years), we employed a probabilistic negative reinforcement learning paradigm in which participant's choices to avoid were followed by cues indicating...
Article
Full-text available
Parental reflective functioning (PRF) describes a parent’s capacity for considering both their own and their child’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, which can help parents to guide interactions with children. Given the cognitive demands of keeping infants in mind whilst caregiving, we examined the association between aspects of executive functio...
Article
Full-text available
Impaired cognitive control is a consequence of cocaine exposure. Difficulty with feedback processing may underlie this impairment. We examined neural correlates of feedback processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) in 49 prenatally cocaine-exposed (PCE) and 34 nondrug exposed (NDE) adolescents. Adolescents performed a reward-feedback task wi...
Article
Tactile interactions are of developmental importance to social and emotional interactions across species. In beginning to understand the affective component of tactile stimulation, research has begun to elucidate the neural mechanisms that underscore slow, affective touch. Here, we extended this emerging body of work and examined whether affective...
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We measured skin conductance response (SCR) to escalating levels of a direct social threat from a novel, ecologically-relevant experimental paradigm, the Intruder Threat Task. We simultaneously evaluated the contribution of social symptom severity and behavioral movement. Children with AS group showed less psychophysiological reactivity to social t...
Poster
Full-text available
Extant research documents impaired language among children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) relative to non-drug exposed (NDE) children, suggesting that cocaine alters development of neurobiological systems that support language. The current study examines behavioral and neural (electrophysiological) indices of language function in older adoles...
Article
We examined the P3 (250 to 500ms) and Late Positive Potential (LPP; 500 to 2000ms) event-related potentials (ERPs) to food vs. nonfood cues among adolescents reporting on emotional eating (EE) behavior. Eighty-six adolescents 10-17 years old were tested using an instructed food versus nonfood cue viewing task (imagine food taste) during high-densit...
Article
Full-text available
Extant research documents impaired language among children with pre-natal cocaine exposure (PCE) relative to nondrug exposed (NDE) children, suggesting that cocaine alters development of neurobiological systems that support language. The current study examines behavioral and neural (elec-trophysiological) indices of language function in older adole...
Article
Aims: The use of emotion regulation strategies can reduce the intensity of negative emotional experiences. Event related potentials (ERPs), specifically the late positive potential (LPP), are known to be sensitive to this modulation in adults. This is the first study to explore the neural correlates of expressive suppression in adolescents. We sou...
Article
We greatly appreciate Dr. Fisher's commentary that provides an excellent backdrop and well-considered perspective on our findings. We agree that our results mesh well with previous work documenting hypocortisolism among youth who experienced early adversity, especially neglect. Moreover, as also perceptively noted by Dr. Fisher, our cross-sectional...
Article
Background: Impairment in prediction and appreciation for choice outcomes could contribute to several core symptoms of ASD. We examined electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations in 27 youth and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 22 IQ-matched neurotypical controls while they performed a chance-based reward prediction ta...
Article
Women are vulnerable to anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum. However, little is known about antenatal anxiety and neural processing of infant-relevant information. In this experiment, the N170, P300, and LPP (late positive potential) event-related potentials were measured from 43 pregnant women as they viewed infant and adult faces, which were...
Article
Background: The enduring impact of childhood maltreatment on biological systems and ensuing psychopathology remains incompletely understood. Long-term effects of stress may be reflected in cumulative cortisol secretion over several months, which is now quantifiable via hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). We conducted a first comprehensive investiga...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The neural underpinnings of impaired consciousness and of the variable severity of behavioural deficits from one absence seizure to the next are not well understood. We aimed to measure functional MRI (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) changes in absence seizures with impaired task performance compared with seizures in which perfo...