Michael L. Burton

Michael L. Burton
University of California, Irvine | UCI · Department of Anthropology

PhD Anthropology, Stanford University 1968

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61
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1,727
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Publications

Publications (61)
Article
Human culture appears to build on itself-that is, to be to some extent cumulative. Whether this property is shared by culture in the common chimpanzee is controversial. The question previously has been approached, qualitatively (and inconclusively), by debating whether any chimpanzee culture traits have resulted from individuals building on one ano...
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This paper deals with the dynamics of personality perception in an age-graded social system. Utilizing marking theory, tests of judged similarities, multidimensional scaling, and Maasai ethnography, we examine differential patterns of personality trait organization across age and sex contrasts.
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This study presents a further test of the componential structure of American-English kinship terminology proposed by Romney and D'Andrade (1964). It includes more terms and sheds light upon the structural (or cognitive) locations of the female kin terms as well as the male terms. Collaterality emerges as the most important dimension.
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This article discusses a sorting task which has wide applications in anthropology. The task is illustrated with a study of English role terms. Several interesting dimensions emerge through multidimensional and hierarchical analyses of the sorting data.
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Maasai women and men are compared with respect to their classifications of personality descriptors modifying social identity terms. Substantial sex differences are found and are interpreted in terms of Maasai culture and social organization. These findings are integrated with a theory of cognitive variability based on notions of markedness. [psycho...
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Brewer and Campbell showed that stereotypes fall along dimensions of achievement and evaluation. This study examines individuals’ personal beliefs about their own and other ethnic groups, along with indicators of in-group bias. Three hundred fifty-one college students who were members of six ethnic groups selected 4 traits from a list of 30 traits...
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This article demonstrates the use of stratified and cluster sampling to draw an efficient sample from the United States Census Archives for California in 1880. This is a useful exercise for courses in research design and also provides an efficient method to take samples for historical research. With relatively small effort spent on data collection...
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This review is written at a time of great activity in mathematical anthropology, including the recent publication of edited volumes by Kay on mathematical anthropology (35), by Romney, Shepard & Nerlove on multidimensional scaling (50), and by Buchler & Nutini on game theory (8). In addition there have been recent reviews of the field by White (63)...
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The author describes a method for constructing incomplete designs for paired comparisons data, using cyclic designs that place each item in the same number of pairings. He tests the reliability of the method using judged similarity data on twenty-one animal names and finds that designs that use 30% of the data have an acceptable level of reliabilit...
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Household typologies and the developmental cycle of the household have been widely used to characterize household composition. However, neither method can adequately account for the entire range of variation in household composition. The authors describe two new methods for representation of household composition: household frequencies diagrams and...
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We describe a gendered pattern of circulation of youth through households in two Micronesian societies. Yapese girls and female teens shift into vertically extended households, where elders reside, between ages 11 and 17. The opposite pattern pertains in Kosrae, where females shift between ages 11 and 14 into two-generation households. The opposing...
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Founded by individuals pursuing higher education in the United States, the Marshallese community in Orange County today also represents family and national interests in access to business opportunities, employment, education, medical services, and other goals. This community has become an “official” Marshallese overseas community, site of the first...
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Economic and political changes in Palau in the last two decades have led to a rapid increase in the numbers of foreign workers. At current levels of growth, Palauans could become a minority in their own country. We examine the global processes that have produced this phenomenon and discuss their social and cultural impacts on Palau. In doing so we...
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This article reports an association between the variation of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) allele frequencies around the globe and population migration patterns in prehis-toric times. After compiling existing data on DRD4 allele frequencies of 2,320 individu-als from 39 populations and on the migration pattern of these groups, we found that, compared...
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New language and region codes are developed for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. The region codes were developed previously with a different sample and tested against social structure data. The language codes incorporate information from recent publications on language history and are presented at multiple levels, providing information about the...
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Boas argued that anthropologists should make historical comparisons within well-defined regional contexts. A century later, we have many improvements in the statistical methodologies for comparative research, yet most of our regional constructs remain without a valid empirical basis. We present a new method for developing and testing regions. The m...
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Five methods are described for estimating missing data in cross-cultural codes. The reliability of these alternative methods is assessed in the context of constructing a scale of total female contributions to agriculture. Simulations are used to explore the potential effects on scale reliability of larger amounts of missing data in the same data se...
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This paper reports on a comparative study of changes in subsistence patterns in small-scale communities resulting from contact with p"l obal economic force;. The local communities are represented by 87 Standard Cross-Cultural Sample Societies ("Standard Sample") (Murdock and White 1969) distributed across four major world geographic areas. This stu...
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We discuss and test competing explanations for polygyny based on household economics, malecentered kin groups, warfare, and environmental characteristics. Data consist of codes for 142 societies from the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, including new codes for polygyny and environmental characteristics. An explanatory model is tested for the worldwi...
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We review theoretical reorientations in the recent resurgence of cross-cultural research, common criticisms, areas of progress, remaining problems of method, and the progress of substantive work since 1980.
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We use a systematically integrated combination of ethnoscience ethnography and survey research to provide a description of what Navajos have been taking into account when deciding how to cope with accelerating energy extraction and other industrial development. Beginning with a decision model of the adaptation process, we validate that model with a...
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Classical statistical inference procedures usually assume the independence of sample units. However, the assumption of independence is often unrealistic in cross-cultural research because societies in neighboring or historically related regions tend to be duplicates of one another across a wide variety of traits that are spread by historical fissio...
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Female agricultural contributions decline with agricultural intensification. We formulate and test a theory of the processes of agricultural intensification that explains a high proportion of the variance in female contributions to agriculture. Five variables show replicable effects across two or more regions of the world. These are number of dry m...
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One of the chief stumbling blocks to the more active participation of anthropologists in social environmental impact assessment is the difficulty encountered in relating ethnographic research systematically to the more quantitative methodologies used by other social science disciplines. The potential contributions of cognitive anthropological and e...
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In the recent comparative literature the problem of simultaneously modeling functional and diffusional effects is being penetrated from two directions. One approach emphasizes the similar problem which arises in regression-based time series analysis. A second approach focuses on the difficulties of constructing more realistic formal representations...
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It is axiomatic to the social sciences, and an essential part of the network perspective, that human performances are intricately linked with their social and enviromental contexts. Researchers in each of the disciplines have rediscovered this in the past decade with respect to a whole host of specific problem areas, under such labels as "context e...
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It is axiomatic to the social sciences, and an essential part of the network perspective, that human performances are intricately linked with their social and enviromental contexts. Researchers in each of the disciplines have rediscovered this in the past decade with respect to a whole host of specific problem areas, under such labels as "context e...
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A model of causes and consequences of sexual division of labor in agriculture is tested using a sample of African societies. Crop type and the presence or absence of slavery are shown to be effective predictors of the degree of female contribution to agricultural subsistence, and the degree of polygyny is shown to be affected by female agricultural...
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Relationships among plow agriculture, female contributions to crop tending, and polygyny in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample are examined here. Without controlling for world regions, a log-linear analysis would suggest that each of these variables is related to the other two. Introducing a control for region with a four-way contingency table, we...
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Assumptions about economies of effort in performance of tasks in the same production sequence and assumptions about constraints on women's geographic mobility due to nursing and child care are used to derive hypotheses about the allocation of tasks in the sexual division of labor in preindustrial societies. The hypotheses constitute a locational mo...
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The purpose of this paper is to explore a more precise form for theoretical propositions in certain types of cross-cultural problems and to develop and explicate an accompanying statistical method. An inductive application of the method for entailment analysis has led us to formulate a new and powerful theory of the sexual division of labor. [Accep...
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The purpose of this paper is to explore a more precise form for theoretical propositions in certain types of cross-cultural problems and to develop and explicate an accompanying statistical method (applied to the study of the sexual devision of labor). An inductive application of the method for entailment analysis has led us to formulate a new and...
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In this paper we study two semantic domains in English, kinship and vegetables, using a new procedure for triads testing, the balanced incomplete block design. This procedure allows the use of triads tests on larger sets of words than had previously been possible. Included is a table of balanced incomplete block designs for the use of interested re...
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This article updates a method of age estimation based on observation of a wide variety of dental landmarks. The method can be used with children between five and twelve years of age in semior nonliterate areas where reliable records or testimony of age are unavailable. Outlined and tested initially in Ghana (Kirk, 1975), the original method is vali...
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In this article, three dissimilarity measures for the unconstrained sorting task are investigated. All three measures are metrics, but they differ in the kind of compensation which they make for differences in the sizes of cells within sortings. Empirical tests of the three measures are done with sorting data for occupations names and the names of...
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Tis brief summary of developments in computer applications by cultural anthropologists updates a previous review (Burton, 1970), which dealt with multivariate data analysis, particularly multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The scope here is linear programming, linear regression, content analysis of text, and simulations. For recent devel...
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This paper covers important developments in the use of computers for quantitative research in cultural anthropology, particularly in areas which (unlike statistics) are uniquely anthropological. These fall into statistical topics and topics in scaling and measurement. By far the largest single usage of computers by cultural anthropologists is for s...
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 152-154). Thesis (Ph. D.)--Stanford University, 1968. Photocopy.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Dept. of Anthropology, Stanford University. Bibliography: l. 152-154. Copyright.
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A new set of codes is offered to begin to unpack the dimensions of polygyny. Included are measures of frequency and statistical distributions of multiple wives, cultural rules, residential arrangements and kin relations among co-wives, male stratification, and marriage of captured women. Problems of coding and measurement are extensively illustrate...

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