Michael Brauer

Michael Brauer
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC

About

675
Publications
222,335
Reads
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80,708
Citations
Citations since 2016
321 Research Items
66346 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202,0004,0006,0008,00010,00012,000
201620172018201920202021202202,0004,0006,0008,00010,00012,000

Publications

Publications (675)
Article
Full-text available
Background Influenza virus infection is associated with incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) events. Here, we estimate the global, regional, and national IHD mortality burden attributable to influenza. Methods We used vital registration data from deaths in adults ≥50 years (13.2 million IHD deaths as underlying cause) to assess the relationship b...
Article
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Exposure to risks throughout life results in a wide variety of outcomes. Objectively judging the relative impact of these risks on personal and population health is fundamental to individual survival and societal prosperity. Existing mechanisms to quantify and rank the magnitude of these myriad effects and the uncertainty in their estimation are la...
Article
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Characterizing the potential health effects of exposure to risk factors such as red meat consumption is essential to inform health policy and practice. Previous meta-analyses evaluating the effects of red meat intake have generated mixed findings and do not formally assess evidence strength. Here, we conducted a systematic review and implemented a...
Article
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Previous research suggests a protective effect of vegetable consumption against chronic disease, but the quality of evidence underlying those findings remains uncertain. We applied a Bayesian meta-regression tool to estimate the mean risk function and quantify the quality of evidence for associations between vegetable consumption and ischemic heart...
Article
The World Health Organization (WHO) recently released new guidelines for outdoor fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) recommending an annual average concentration of 5 μg/m3. Yet, our understanding of the concentration-response relationship between outdoor PM2.5 and mortality in this range of near-background concentrations remains incomplete. To...
Article
Wildfire smoke is a rapidly growing threat to global cardiovascular health. We review the literature linking wildfire smoke exposures to cardiovascular effects. We find substantial evidence that short-term exposures are associated with key cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality, hospitalization, and acute coronary syndrome. Wildfire smoke exp...
Preprint
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Background Long-term exposure to air pollution, even at levels below regulatory standards, has been associated with higher risk of cardiovascular-related mortality. Less is known about the association of air pollution and initial development of CVD in low-exposure settings in generally healthy human populations. Objective In the Canadian Alliance...
Article
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High spatial resolution information on urban air pollution levels is unavailable in many areas globally, partially due to the high input data needs of existing estimation approaches. We introduced a computer vision method to estimate annual means for air pollution levels from street-level images. We used annual mean estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 conce...
Article
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Noise pollution is a growing environmental health concern in rapidly urbanizing sub-Saharan African (SSA) cities. However, limited city-wide data constitutes a major barrier to investigating health impacts as well as implementing environmental policy in this growing population. As such, in this first of its kind study in West Africa, we measured, m...
Article
Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) incidence has increased in past decades. ASD etiology remains inconclusive, but research suggests genetic, epigenetic, and environmental contributing factors and likely prenatal origins. Few studies have examined modifiable environmental risk factors for ASD, and far fewer have examined protective exposures...
Article
Introduction: Mortality is associated with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), although the magnitude and form of these associations remain poorly understood at lower concentrations. Knowledge gaps include the shape of concentration-response curves and the lowest levels of expo...
Article
Background: Non-optimal temperatures are associated with mortality risk, yet the heterogeneity of temperature-attributable mortality burden across subnational regions in a country was rarely investigated. We estimated the mortality burden related to non-optimal temperatures across all provinces in China in 2019. Methods: The global daily tempera...
Article
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Background Residential wood burning is a major source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during winter and a leading contributor to air pollution. Exposure to woodsmoke PM2.5 is associated with many health effects, so it is important to characterize the magnitude and spatial variability in exposures. However, high infrastructure and maintenance cos...
Article
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Background Growing evidence suggests that exposure to green space is associated with improved childhood health and development, but the influence of different green space types remains relatively unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the association between early-life residential exposure to vegetation and early childhood development an...
Article
Background Household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels has been associated with adverse respiratory effects, but most studies use surveys of fuel use to define HAP exposure, rather than on actual air pollution exposure measurements. Objective To examine associations between household and personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and...
Article
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The Lancet Commission on pollution and health reported that pollution was responsible for 9 million premature deaths in 2015, making it the world's largest environmental risk factor for disease and premature death. We have now updated this estimate using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuriaes, and Risk Factors Study 2019. We find that p...
Article
Background Few studies have evaluated long-term cardiovascular effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its constituents in countries with high air pollution levels. We aimed to investigate the associations of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and constituents with cardiovascular mortality in China. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study...
Article
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Background Due to the adverse health effects of air pollution, researchers have advocated for personal exposure measurements whereby individuals carry portable monitors in order to better characterise and understand the sources of people's pollution exposure. Objectives The aim of this systematic review is to assess the differences in the magnitud...
Article
Introduction Greenery in the residential environment and in the hospital has been associated with improved surgical outcomes and recovery. We investigated the association between the level of residential greenness of patients with coronary disease and their heart disease-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) 1-year after a coronary artery bypass grafting...
Article
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Background: Understanding and managing the impacts of population growth and densification are important steps for sustainable development. This study sought to evaluate the health trade-offs associated with increasing densification and to identify the optimal balance of neighbourhood densification for health. Methods: We linked population densit...
Preprint
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Urban air pollution is a public health challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, LMICs lack adequate air quality (AQ) monitoring infrastructure. A persistent challenge has been our inability to estimate AQ accurately in LMIC cities, which hinders emergency preparedness and risk mitigation. Deep learning-based models that map s...
Article
Background Emerging studies have associated low greenspace and high air pollution exposure with risk of child attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Population-based studies are limited, however, and joint effects are rarely evaluated. We investigated associations of ADHD incidence with greenspace, air pollution, and noise in a population...
Article
Background Over 3 million people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor PM2·5 air pollution, and more than a quarter of these premature deaths occur in China. In addition to clean-air policies that target pollution emissions, climate policies aimed at reducing fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (eg, to avoid 1·5°C of warming) might also...
Article
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Introduction Use of polluting cooking fuels generates household air pollution (HAP) containing health-damaging levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Many global epidemiological studies rely on categorical HAP exposure indicators, which are poor surrogates of measured PM2.5 levels. To quantitatively characterize HAP levels on a large scale, a m...
Article
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Background With much of the world's population residing in urban areas, an understanding of air pollution exposures at the city level can inform mitigation approaches. Previous studies of global urban air pollution have not considered trends in air pollutant concentrations nor corresponding attributable mortality burdens. We aimed to estimate trend...
Article
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Background Combustion-related nitrogen dioxide (NO2) air pollution is associated with paediatric asthma incidence. We aimed to estimate global surface NO2 concentrations consistent with the Global Burden of Disease study for 1990–2019 at a 1 km resolution, and the concentrations and attributable paediatric asthma incidence trends in 13 189 cities f...
Article
Spatially varying baseline data can help identify and prioritise actions directed to determinants of intra-urban health inequalities. Twenty-seven years (1990–2016) of cause-specific mortality data in British Columbia, Canada were linked to three demographic data sources. Bayesian small area estimation models were used to estimate life expectancy (...
Article
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Annual global satellite-based estimates of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are widely relied upon for air-quality assessment. Here, we develop and apply a methodology for monthly estimates and uncertainties during the period 1998–2019, which combines satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth, chemical transport modeling, and ground-based measur...
Article
Black Carbon (BC) is an important component of household air pollution (HAP) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but levels and drivers of exposure are poorly understood. As part of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, we analyzed 48-hour BC measurements for 1187 individual and 2242 household samples from 88 commun...
Article
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Background Regularly updated data on stroke and its pathological types, including data on their incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, risk factors, and epidemiological trends, are important for evidence-based stroke care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) aims to provide a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Exposure to greenspace is associated with improved childhood development, but the pathways behind this relationship are insufficiently understood. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between lifetime residential exposure to greenspace and early childhood development and evaluate the extent to which this association is me...
Article
Full-text available
Background Particulate matter <2.5 micrometer (PM 2.5 ) is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, but the impact on disease burden mediated by this pathway has not previously been included in the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), Mortality, Injuries, and Risk Factors studies. We estimated the global burden of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm b...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ambient air pollution is a growing public health concern in sub-Saharan African (SSA) cities. Yet, effective air quality management is hampered by limited data and modeling of spatial trends. METHODS: We measured outdoor weekly gravimetric (filter-based) concentrations of PM2.5 at 146 locations in a city-wide measurement campaig...
Article
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Background Prevention, control, and treatment of respiratory tract cancers are important steps towards achieving target 3.4 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)—a one-third reduction in premature mortality due to non-communicable diseases by 2030. We aimed to provide global, regional, and national estimates of the burden of tracheal, bron...
Article
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Background Associations between high and low temperatures and increases in mortality and morbidity have been previously reported, yet no comprehensive assessment of disease burden has been done. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the global and regional burden due to non-optimal temperature exposure. Methods In part 1 of this study, we linked deaths...
Article
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Economic and urban development in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) may be shifting the dominant air pollution sources in cities from biomass to road traffic. Considered as a marker for traffic-related air pollution in cities, we conducted a city-wide measurement of NOx levels in the Accra Metropolis and examined their spatiotemporal patterns in relation to...
Article
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Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is rapidly urbanizing, and ambient air pollution has emerged as a major environmental health concern in growing cities. Yet, effective air quality management is hindered by limited data. We deployed robust, low-cost and low-power devices in a large-scale measurement campaign and characterized within-city variations in fine...
Article
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Background Air pollution may play an important role in development of lung cancers in people who have never smoked, especially among East Asian women. The aim of this study was to compare cumulative ambient air pollution exposure between ever and never smokers with lung cancer. Methods A consecutive cases series of never and ever smokers with newl...
Article
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Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is the world’s leading environmental health risk factor. Reducing the PM2.5 disease burden requires specific strategies that target dominant sources across multiple spatial scales. We provide a contemporary and comprehensive evaluation of sector- and fuel-specific contributions to this disease burden across 2...
Article
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Background The health impacts of ambient air pollution impose large costs on society. Although all people are exposed to air pollution, the older population (ie, those aged ≥60 years) tends to be disproportionally affected. As a result, there is growing concern about the health impacts of air pollution as many countries undergo rapid population age...
Article
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Urban noise pollution is an emerging public health concern in growing cities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the sound environment in SSA cities is understudied. We leveraged a large-scale measurement campaign to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of measured sound levels and sound sources in Accra, Ghana. We measured sound levels and...
Preprint
p>Fine particle air pollution (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) is the largest global environmental risk factor for ill-health and is implicated in >7% of all human deaths. Improved air quality is a key policy goal for cities, yet in-situ PM<sub>2.5</sub> measurements are missing for >50% of the world’s urban population. Here, we apply satellite remote sensing to...
Article
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Data collected at large scale and low cost (e.g. satellite and street level imagery) have the potential to substantially improve resolution, spatial coverage, and temporal frequency of measurement of urban inequalities. Multiple types of data from different sources are often available for a given geographic area. Yet, most studies utilize a single...
Article
Road pricing is increasingly considered as an option to support transportation infrastructure costs, manage demand, and reduce emissions. However, the extent to which implementation of such approaches may impact transportation and health equity is unclear. In this scoping review, we examine the differential transportation and health effects of road...
Article
Estimates of ground-level ozone concentrations are necessary to determine the human health burden of ozone. To support the Global Burden of Disease Study, we produce yearly fine resolution global surface ozone estimates from 1990 to 2017 through a data fusion of observations and models. As ozone observations are sparse in many populated regions, we...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite a substantial reduction in the use of solid fuels worldwide, exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from use of these fuels for cooking remains a leading risk factor for global disease burden. Among environmental risk factors, the contribution of HAP to disease burden is second only to ambient particulate matter pollution. We...