Michael Richard Bowl

Michael Richard Bowl
University College London | UCL · Ear Institute

DPhil

About

75
Publications
8,013
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2,234
Citations
Introduction
My team and I utilise the mouse for the study of genes required for hearing and the molecular processes underlying hearing loss. Our aim is to increase understanding of the genetic pathways involved in sensory hair cell maturation, function and maintenance, with a particular focus on age-related hearing loss (ARHL). ARHL is the most prevalent sensory deficit within the population, but currently little is known about the underlying genetics. We work closely with collaborators who are undertaking screens in ARHL families/cohorts and generate mouse models for the highest-ranked genes/alleles arising from these screens. These models allow us to validate the involvement of genes in ARHL causation and to identify the critical molecular and pathological processes occurring in the ageing ear.
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - present
MRC Harwell Institute
Position
  • Researcher
January 2010 - July 2018
MRC Harwell Institute
Position
  • Researcher
September 1999 - December 2009
University of Oxford
Position
  • Post-doctoral Scientist

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
The motor protein myosin-15 is necessary for the development and maintenance of mechanosensory stereocilia, and mutations in myosin-15 cause hereditary deafness. In addition to transporting actin regulatory machinery to stereocilia tips, myosin-15 directly nucleates actin filament (“F-actin”) assembly, which is disrupted by a progressive hearing lo...
Article
Full-text available
The transduction of acoustic information by hair cells depends upon mechanosensitive stereociliary bundles that project from their apical surface. Mutations or absence of the stereociliary protein EPS8 cause deafness in humans and mice, respectively. Eps8 knockout mice (Eps8-/-) have hair cells with immature stereocilia and fail to become sensory r...
Article
Background: The environmental housing conditions of laboratory animals are important for both welfare and reliable, reproducible data. Guidelines currently exist for factors such as lighting cycles, temperature, humidity, and noise, however, for the latter the current guidelines may overlook important details. In the case of the most common laborat...
Article
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Mammalian hearing involves the mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) of sound-induced fluid waves in the cochlea. Essential to this process are the specialised sensory cochlear cells, the inner (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). While genetic hearing loss is highly heterogeneous, understanding the requirement of each gene will lead to a better unde...
Preprint
Full-text available
The motor protein myosin-15 is necessary for the development and maintenance of mechanosensory stereocilia, and myosin-15 mutations cause profound deafness. In a companion study, we report that myosin-15 nucleates actin filament ("F-actin") assembly and identify a progressive hearing loss mutation (p.D1647G, " jordan ") which disrupts stereocilia e...
Preprint
Full-text available
The assembly and maintenance of actin-based mechanosensitive stereocilia in the cochlea is critical for lifelong hearing. Myosin-15 (MYO15) is hypothesized to modulate stereocilia height by trafficking actin regulatory proteins to their tip compartments, where actin polymerization must be precisely controlled during development. We identified a mut...
Article
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Deafness, the most frequent sensory deficit in humans, is extremely heterogeneous with hundreds of genes involved. Clinical and genetic analyses of an extended consanguineous family with pre-lingual, moderate-to-profound autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss, allowed us to identify CLRN2, encoding a tetraspan protein, as a new deafness gen...
Article
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Key points: Mechanoelectrical transduction at auditory hair cells requires highly specialized stereociliary bundles that project from their apical surface, forming a characteristic graded 'staircase' structure. The morphogenesis and maintenance of these stereociliary bundles is a tightly regulated process requiring the involvement of several actin...
Article
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Key points: Age-related hearing loss is a progressive hearing loss involving environmental and genetic factors, leading to a decrease in hearing sensitivity, threshold and speech discrimination. We compared age-related changes in inner hair cells (IHCs) between four mouse strains with different levels of progressive hearing loss. The surface area...
Article
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Switches between global sleep and wakefulness states are believed to be dictated by top-down influences arising from subcortical nuclei. Using forward genetics and in vivo electrophysiology, we identified a recessive mouse mutant line characterized by a substantially reduced propensity to transition between wake and sleep states with an especially...
Preprint
Full-text available
Deafness, the most frequent sensory deficit in humans, is extremely heterogenous with hundreds of genes probably involved. Clinical and genetic analyses of an extended consanguineous family with pre-lingual, moderate-to-profound autosomal recessive sensorineural hearing loss, allowed us to identify CLRN2, encoding a tetraspan protein as a new deafn...
Article
Full-text available
Key points: Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is associated with the loss of inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses, lower hearing sensitivity and decreased ability to understand speech, especially in a noisy environment. Little is known about the age-related physiological and morphological changes that occur at ribbon synapses. We show that the diff...
Article
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Key points: Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a very heterogeneous disease, resulting from cellular senescence, genetic predisposition and environmental factors (e.g. noise exposure). Currently, we know very little about age-related changes occurring in the auditory sensory cells, including those associated with the outer hair cells (OHCs). Using...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sleep-wake transitions are modulated through extensive subcortical networks although the precise roles of their individual components remain elusive. Using forward genetics and in vivo electrophysiology, we identified a recessive mouse mutant line characterised by a reduced propensity to transition between all sleep states while a profound loss in...
Article
Full-text available
Hearing relies on mechanically gated ion channels present in the actin-rich stereocilia bundles at the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of the sound-receptive structure is limited. Utilizing a large-scale forward genetic screen in mice, genome mapping and gene complement...
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Mutations in genes essential for mitochondrial function have pleiotropic effects. The mechanisms underlying these traits yield insights into metabolic homeostasis and potential therapies. Here we report the characterization of a mouse model harboring a mutation in the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 2 (Wars2) gene, encoding the mitochondrial-localized...
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The sensory cells that are responsible for hearing include the cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs), with the OHCs being necessary for sound sensitivity and tuning1. Both cell types are thought to arise from common progenitors; however, our understanding of the factors that control the fate of IHCs and OHCs remains limited....
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Mutations in the Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC)1 domain family member 24 (TBC1D24) gene are associated with a range of inherited neurological disorders, from drug-refractory lethal epileptic encephalopathy and DOORS syndrome (Deafness, Onychodystrophy, Osteodystrophy, mental Retardation, Seizures) to non-syndromic hearing loss. TBC1D24 has been implicated i...
Article
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is the most prevalent sensory deficit in the elderly. This progressive hearing impairment leads to social isolation and is also associated with comorbidities, such as frailty, falls, and late-onset depression. Moreover, there is a growing evidence linking it with cognitive decline and increased risk of dementia. Give...
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Over the past 25 years, human and mouse genetics research together has identified several hundred genes essential for mammalian hearing, leading to a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying auditory function. However, from the number of still as yet uncloned human deafness loci and the findings of large-scale mouse mutant scree...
Article
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The developmental and physiological complexity of the auditory system is likely reflected in the underlying set of genes involved in auditory function. In humans, over 150 non-syndromic loci have been identified, and there are more than 400 human genetic syndromes with a hearing loss component. Over 100 non-syndromic hearing loss genes have been id...
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Defects of CIB2, calcium- and integrin-binding protein 2, have been reported to cause isolated deafness, DFNB48 and Usher syndrome type-IJ, characterized by congenital profound deafness, balance defects and blindness. We report here two new nonsense mutations (pGln12* and pTyr110*) in CIB2 patients displaying nonsyndromic profound hearing loss, wit...
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Inner ear hair cells detect sound through deflection of stereocilia, the microvilli-like projections that are arranged in rows of graded heights. Calcium and integrin-binding protein 2 is essential for hearing and localizes to stereocilia, but its exact function is unknown. Here, we have characterized two mutant mouse lines, one lacking calcium and...
Article
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The hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by occurrence of parathyroid tumours, often atypical adenomas and carcinomas, ossifying jaw fibromas, renal tumours and uterine benign and malignant neoplasms. HPT-JT is caused by mutations of the cell division cycle 73 (CDC73) gene, located on chro...
Chapter
Mice are an invaluable model organism for the study of auditory function. Even though there are differences in size and frequency response, the anatomy and physiology of the mouse and human ear are remarkably similar. In addition, the tools available for genetic manipulation in the mouse have enabled the generation of models carrying mutations in o...
Article
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Determining the genetic bases of age-related disease remains a major challenge requiring a spectrum of approaches from human and clinical genetics to the utilization of model organism studies. Here we report a large-scale genetic screen in mice employing a phenotype-driven discovery platform to identify mutations resulting in age-related disease, b...
Article
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The nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMNAT1) enzyme is essential for regenerating the nuclear pool of NAD(+) in all nucleated cells in the body, and mounting evidence also suggests that it has a separate role in neuroprotection. Recently, mutations in the NMNAT1 gene were associated with Leber congenital amaurosis, a severe retinal de...
Article
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Background: Nuclease-based technologies have been developed that enable targeting of specific DNA sequences directly in the zygote. These approaches provide an opportunity to modify the genomes of inbred mice, and allow the removal of strain-specific mutations that confound phenotypic assessment. One such mutation is the Cdh23 (ahl) allele, presen...
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Unlabelled: The Neuroplastin gene encodes two synapse-enriched protein isoforms, Np55 and Np65, which are transmembrane glycoproteins that regulate several cellular processes, including the genesis, maintenance, and plasticity of synapses. We found that an absence of Np65 causes early-onset sensorineural hearing loss and prevented the normal synap...
Article
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The Mitogen-Activated Protein kinase, MAP3K1, plays an important role in a number of cellular processes, including epithelial migration during eye organogenesis. In addition, studies in keratinocytes indicate that MAP3K1 signaling through JNK is important for actin stress fibre formation and cell migration. However, MAP3K1 can also act independentl...
Article
The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipe...
Article
Full-text available
The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipe...
Article
The most common form of sensory disability is age-related hearing loss (ARHL), also referred to as presbycusis. ARHL is a complex disorder with a mixture of genetic and environmental components, a combination that leads to a progressive decline in hearing function with increased age. In the last 15 years, there has been a vast increase in our knowl...
Article
Full-text available
Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenanc...
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The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that has an extracellular bilobed venus flytrap domain (VFTD) predicted to contain five calcium (Ca(2+))-binding sites. To elucidate the structure-function relationships of the VFTD, we investigated 294 unrelated probands with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH), neonatal s...
Article
Glial cells missing B (GCMB), the mammalian homolog of the Drosophila GCM gene, encodes a 506-amino-acid parathyroid-specific transcription factor. To date, only two different heterozygous GCMB mutations have been reported in three kindreds with autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism. Our objective was to investigate a family with autosomal dominant...
Article
The hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid tumors in association with ossifying fibromas of the maxilla and/or mandible. The gene responsible for HPT-JT, known as CDC73, was identified in 2002 and encodes a 531 amino acid protein known as parafibromin. Parafib...
Article
Full-text available
GCMB is a member of the small transcription factor family GCM (glial cells missing), which are important regulators of development, present in vertebrates and some invertebrates. In man, GCMB encodes a 506 amino acid parathyroid gland-specific protein, mutations of which have been reported to cause both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive hy...
Article
Parafibromin is a predominantly nuclear protein with a tumour suppressor role in the development of hereditary and nonhereditary parathyroid carcinomas, and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome, which is associated with renal and uterine tumours. Parafibromin is a component of the highly conserved PAF1 complex, which regulates transcriptiona...
Article
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Germline mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene cause parathyroid, pancreatic and pituitary tumours in man. MEN1 mutations also cause familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) and the same MEN1 mutations, in different families, can cause either FIHP or MEN1. This suggests a role for genetic background and modifi...
Article
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized in man by parathyroid, pancreatic, pituitary and adrenal tumours. The MEN1 gene encodes a 610-amino acid protein (menin) which is a tumour suppressor. To investigate the in vivo role of menin, we developed a mouse model, by deleting Men1 exons 1 and 2 and inv...
Article
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatic tumors. MEN1, an autosomal dominant disorder, has a high degree of penetrance, such that more than 95% of patients develop clinical manifestations by the fifth decade, although this is lower at approximately 50% by age 20 yr. Howe...