Michael K Borregaard

Michael K Borregaard
University of Copenhagen · Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate

PhD, MSc

About

64
Publications
68,296
Reads
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4,112
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2012 - October 2014
University of Oxford
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2012 - October 2014
University of Oxford
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2010 - October 2012
University of Copenhagen
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
The immense concentrations of vertebrate species in tropical mountains remain a prominent but unexplained pattern in biogeography. A long-standing hypothesis suggests that montane biodiversity hotspots result from endemic species aggregating within ecologically stable localities. Here, the persistence of ancient lineages coincides with frequent spe...
Article
Full-text available
The tea family (Theaceae) has a highly unusual amphi-Pacific disjunct distribution: most extant species in the family are restricted to subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests in East Asia, while a handful of species occur exclusively in the subtropical and tropical Americas. Here we used an approach that integrates the rich fossil evidence of this...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Adaptive radiation, in which successful lineages proliferate by exploiting untapped niche space, provides a popular but potentially misleading characterization of evolution on oceanic islands. Here we analyse the respective roles of members of in situ diversified vs. non-diversified lineages in shaping the main ecosystems of an archipelago to e...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Mountains and islands are both well known for their high endemism. To explain this similarity, parallels have been drawn between the insularity of “true islands” (land surrounded by water) and the isolation of habitats within mountains (so‐called “mountain islands”). However, parallels rarely go much beyond the observation that mountaintops are...
Article
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A desirable goal of nature management is to re‐establish self‐sustaining ecosystems that ensure the persistence of natural habitats and species without requiring active management. Such self‐sustainability relies on functional species interactions; yet, species interactions are often overlooked in the conservation literature, and when designing spe...
Article
Full-text available
Aim The General Dynamic Model (GDM) links island biogeographical processes to island geological history. A key premise of the GDM implies that environmental factors shaping the ecology and evolution of biota on oceanic islands follow a hump‐shaped trend over the island's life span and drive dynamics in carrying capacity, species diversity and endem...
Article
Full-text available
The causes of continental patterns in species richness continue to spur heated discussion. Hypotheses based on ambient energy have dominated the debate, but are increasingly being challenged by hypotheses that model richness as the overlap of species ranges, ultimately controlled by continental range dynamics of individual species. At the heart of...
Article
Full-text available
Mountains contribute disproportionately to the terrestrial biodiversity of Earth, especially in the tropics, where they host hotspots of extraordinary and puzzling richness. With about 25% of all land area, mountain regions are home to more than 85% of the world’s species of amphibians, birds, and mammals, many entirely restricted to mountains. Bio...
Article
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Mountain regions are unusually biodiverse, with rich aggregations of small-ranged species that form centers of endemism. Mountains play an array of roles for Earth’s biodiversity and affect neighboring lowlands through biotic interchange, changes in regional climate, and nutrient runoff. The high biodiversity of certain mountains reflects the inter...
Article
Full-text available
Positive relationships in compositional similarity between consumer and resource assemblages are widely known in free‐living taxa, but less is known about parasites and their hosts. We investigated whether congruent patterns of assemblage similarity across diverse taxa of hosts and parasites exist at a continental scale and quantified the relative...
Article
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Why diversification rates vary so extensively across the tree of life remains an important yet unresolved issue in biology. Two prominent and potentially independent factors proposed to explain these trends reflect the capacity of lineages to expand into new areas of (i) geographical or (ii) ecological space. Here, we present the first global asses...
Article
Aim To quantify the influence of past archipelago configuration on present‐day insular biodiversity patterns, and to compare the role of long‐lasting archipelago configurations over the Pleistocene to configurations of short duration such as at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the present‐day. Location 53 volcanic oceanic islands from 12 archipe...
Article
1.Species abundance distributions (SADs) are one of the most widely used tools in macroecology, and it has become increasingly apparent that many empirical SADs can best be described as multimodal. However, only a few SAD models have been extended to incorporate multiple modes and no software packages are available to fit multimodal SAD models. In...
Article
Reeve et al. (2016, Ecography, 39, 990‐997) found that ecologically flexible endemics dominate Indo‐Pacific bird communities. This negative relationship between local abundance and global range size contrasts strongly with the positive range size‐abundance relationship “rule,” which would predict community dominance by globally widespread species....
Preprint
Reeve et al. (2016, Ecography, 39, 990-997) found that ecologically flexible endemics dominate Indo-Pacific bird communities. This negative relationship between local abundance and global range size contrasts strongly with the positive range size-abundance relationship "rule," which would predict community dominance by globally widespread species....
Article
Full-text available
The archipelagos that form the transition between Asia and Australia were immortalized by Alfred Russel Wallace's observations on the connections between geography and animal distributions, which he summarized in what became the first major modern biogeographic synthesis. Wallace traveled the island region for eight years, during which he noted the...
Article
Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits general models to be developed and modified to account for...
Article
Full-text available
The general dynamic model of oceanic island biogeography (GDM) has added a new dimension to theoretical island biogeography in recognizing that geological processes are key drivers of the evolutionary processes of diversification and extinction within remote islands. It provides a dynamic and essentially non-equilibrium framework generating novel p...
Article
Full-text available
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispe...
Article
During the Late Pleistocene (c. 126–10 ka), modern humans (Homo sapiens) expanded their geographical range across Eurasia and eventually colonized the Americas. Although the routes by which they migrated have been intensively analysed, the dynamics of their realized climatic niche are still largely unknown. We assess temporal changes in the climati...
Article
Full-text available
Regional variation in clade richness can be vast, reflecting differences in the dynamics of historical dispersal and diversification among lineages. Although it has been proposed that dispersal into new biogeographic regions may facilitate diversification, to date there has been limited assessment of the importance of this process in the generation...
Article
The Anthropocene is witnessing a loss of biodiversity, with well-documented declines in the diversity of ecosystems and species. For intraspecific genetic diversity, however, we lack even basic knowledge on its global distribution. We georeferenced 92,801 mitochondrial sequences for >4500 species of terrestrial mammals and amphibians, and found tha...
Article
Full-text available
The present-day biogeography of European amphibians has been hypothesized to have arisen from range expansion and recolonization of the northern part of the continent from southern late Pleistocene refugia, such that northern species generally possess large ranges while southerly species are mostly small-ranged. Here we test the hypothesis that the...
Article
The general dynamic model (GDM) of oceanic island biogeography integrates rates of immigration, speciation and extinction in relation to a humped trajectory of island area, species carrying capacity and topographic complexity through time, based on a simplified island ontogeny. In practice, many islands have more complex ontogenies, featuring surfa...
Article
AimThe relationship between species number and area is of fundamental importance in macroecology and conservation science, yet the implications of different means of quantitative depiction of the relationship remain contentious. We set out (1) to establish the variation in form of the relationship between two distinct methods applied to the same ha...
Article
Dispersal is one of the key processes in shaping distributional ranges and community assemblages, but we know little about animal dispersal at the individual, population, or community levels, or about how dispersal correlates with the establishment and colonization of new areas. This is largely due to difficulties in studying individual movements a...
Article
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispe...
Article
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispe...
Article
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispe...
Article
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispe...
Article
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispe...
Article
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispe...
Article
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispe...
Article
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispe...
Data
New species are sometimes known to arise as a consequence of the dispersal and establishment of populations in new areas. It has nevertheless been difficult to demonstrate an empirical link between rates of dispersal and diversification, partly because dispersal abilities are challenging to quantify. Here, using wing morphology as a proxy for dispe...
Article
Full-text available
A persistent challenge in ecology is to tease apart the influence of multiple processes acting simultaneously and interacting in complex ways to shape the structure of species assemblages. We implement a heuristic approach that relies on explicitly defining species pools and permits assessment of the relative influence of the main processes thought...
Article
The positive relationship between range size and abundance is one of the best-documented patterns in macroecology, but a growing number of studies from isolated tropical areas have reported negative or neutral relationships. It has been hypothesized that the combination of geographic isolation and environmental stability create selection pressures...
Article
AimIsland biogeography focuses on understanding the processes that underlie a set of well-described patterns on islands, but it lacks a unified theoretical framework for integrating these processes. The recently proposed general dynamic model (GDM) of oceanic island biogeography offers a step towards this goal. Here, we present an analysis of causa...
Article
We present a framework to measure the strength of environmental filtering and disequilibrium of the species composition of a local community across time, relative to past, current, and future climates. We demonstrate the framework by measuring the impact of climate change on New World forests, integrating data for climate niches of more than 14 000...
Article
AimWe undertook the largest comparative study to date of the form of the island species–area relationship (ISAR) using 207 habitat island datasets and 601 true island datasets. We also undertook analyses of (a) the factors influencing z- and c-values of the power (log–log) model and (b) how z and c vary between different island types.LocationGlobal...
Article
Full-text available
1.The integration of species distributions and evolutionary relationships is one of the most rapidly moving research fields today, and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the processes underlying biogeographical patterns. Here, we develop a set of metrics, the specific overrepresentation score (SOS) and the geographic node dive...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods The field of island biogeography has a long history. Occupying the minds of such founding fathers as Darwin, Wallace and von Humboldt, early considerations of the biogeography of island laid the ground for diverse fields, including the theory of evolution by natural selection, Pleistocene climate cycles, plate tectonic...
Article
The species abundance distribution (SAD) has been a central focus of community ecology for over fifty years, and is currently the subject of widespread renewed interest. The gambin model has recently been proposed as a model that provides a superior fit to commonly preferred SAD models. It has also been argued that the model's single parameter (α)...
Article
Full-text available
The species pool concept has played a central role in the development of ecological theory for at least 60 yr. Surprisingly, there is little consensus as to how one should define the species pool, and consequently, no systematic approach exists. Because the definition of the species pool is essential to infer the processes that shape ecological com...
Article
Full-text available
Kreft and Jetz’s critique of our recent update of Wallace’s zoogeographical regions disregards the extensive sensitivity analyses we undertook, which demonstrate the robustness of our results to the choice of phylogenetic data and clustering algorithm. Their suggested distinction between “transition zones” and biogeographic regions is worthy of fur...
Article
Full-text available
Modern attempts to produce biogeographic maps focus on the distribution of species, and the maps are typically drawn without phylogenetic considerations. Here, we generate a global map of zoogeographic regions by combining data on the distributions and phylogenetic relationships of 21,037 species of amphibians, birds, and mammals. We identify 20 di...
Article
The concept of species-level heritability is widely contested. Because it is most likely to apply to emergent, species-level traits, one of the central discussions has focused on the potential heritability of geographic range size. However, a central argument against range-size heritability has been that it is not compatible with the observed shape...
Article
Full-text available
While patterns in geographic range sizes in free-living species have received much attention, little is known on the corresponding patterns in parasites. For the first time, we report on patterns in geographic range sizes and dimensions of endoparasites, using published species lists of freshwater trematodes in 25 biogeographical regions of Europe....
Article
Full-text available
Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary period remain contentious. Here we use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, wooll...
Article
Full-text available
There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Macroecologists tend to focus on variation in species richness among regions or broad geographic provinces to examine the drivers of species richness. Community ecologists often focus on a single community or on a set of geographically clustered communities. Studying multiple local communities of interacting species alo...
Article
Full-text available
The positive relationship between a species' geographic distribution and its abundance is one of ecology's most well-documented patterns, yet the causes behind this relationship remain unclear. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships none have attained unequivocal support. Accordingly, the pos...
Article
In this paper we present a concept for using presence–absence data to recover information on the population dynamics of predator–prey systems. We use a highly complex and spatially explicit simulation model of a predator–prey mite system to generate simple presence–absence data: the number of patches with both prey and predators, with prey only, wi...
Article
In this study, we investigate patterns in the prevalence of dynamic range–abundance relationships of the Danish avifauna, using breeding bird atlases from 1971 to 1974 and from 1993 to 1996. We focus on differences between common and rare species by dividing the assemblage into range-size quartiles. The trend in total population size was determined...

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