Michael Bode

Michael Bode
University of Melbourne | MSD · School of BioSciences

PhD

About

169
Publications
28,587
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5,662
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Publications

Publications (169)
Article
Data hungry, complex ecosystem models are often used to predict the consequences of threatened species management, including perverse outcomes. Unfortunately, this approach is impractical in many systems, which have insufficient data to parameterize ecosystem interactions or reliably calibrate or validate such models. Here we demonstrate a differen...
Article
Full-text available
Dispersal emerges as a consequence of how an individual's phenotype interacts with the environment. Not all dispersing individuals have the same phenotype, and variation among individuals can generate complex variation in the distribution of dispersal distances and directions. While active locomotion performance is an obvious candidate for a disper...
Article
Full-text available
1. Understanding larval connectivity patterns in exploited fishes is a fundamental prerequisite for developing effective management strategies and assessing the vulnerability of a fishery to recruitment overfishing and localised extinction. To date, however, researchers have not considered how regional variations in fishing pressure also influence...
Article
Well-managed and enforced no-take marine reserves generate important larval subsidies to neighboring habitats and thereby contribute to the long-term sustainability of fisheries. However, larval dispersal patterns are variable, which leads to temporal fluctuations in the contribution of a single reserve to the replenishment of local populations. Id...
Article
Full-text available
The eradication of invasive species from islands is an important part of managing these ecologically unique and at‐risk regions. Island eradications are complex projects and mathematical models play an important role in supporting efficient and transparent decision‐making. In this review, we cover the past applications of modeling to island eradica...
Article
Full-text available
Despite exponential increases in the coverage of protected areas (PAs) over recent decades, global biodiversity continues to decline. One explanation for this lack of success is that the efficacy of conservation prioritization strategies is rarely measured in terms of conservation “impact,” which requires comparing proposed PA networks to a counter...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive species on islands rarely occur in isolation, and their removal will affect other species, both natives and invasives. Hence, conservation interventions must proceed carefully to avoid unintended consequences. A common invaded ecosystem motif consists of an invasive apex predator, an invasive mesopredator, and a native prey species—for exa...
Article
Full-text available
The use of predator exclusion fencing is widely recognized as one of the most effective mechanisms for protecting threatened fauna from introduced or overabundant predators. It is now used throughout the world to protect avian fauna. In Australia, where predator exclusion fencing is used extensively to protect threatened mammals, such fences for th...
Article
Full-text available
Although a major portion of the planet’s land and sea is managed to conserve biodiversity, little is known about the extent, speed and patterns of adoption of conservation initiatives. We undertook a quantitative exploration of how area-based conservation initiatives go to scale by analysing the adoption of 22 widely recognized and diverse initiati...
Article
Full-text available
Larval dispersal is a critically important yet enigmatic process in marine ecology, evolution, and conservation. Determining the distance and direction that tiny larvae travel in the open ocean continues to be a challenge. Our current understanding of larval dispersal patterns at management-relevant scales is principally and separately informed by...
Article
Full-text available
The priority of an area for conservation is determined by three primary factors: its biodiversity value, the level of threat it is facing, and its cost. Although much attention has been paid to the spatial relationship between biodiversity value and threats, and between biodiversity value and costs, little is known about how costs and threats are s...
Article
Monitoring is an essential component of adaptive management, and a carefully designed program is needed to ensure high-quality data and inferences over realistic time scales. Co-operation among agencies and incorporating citizen science may help enhance learning while reducing the financial costs of monitoring. We seek to realise this potential whi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Maintaining mammal populations on havens – whether they are naturally occurring or translocated – has helped to prevent further mammal extinctions, and consolidated protection for other species. These havens fall under the management of many organisations, ranging from local councils, community groups and small private organisations to large non-go...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Many Australian mammal species are highly susceptible to predation by introduced cats and foxes. At least 34 Australian endemic mammal species have been made extinct since 1788, about 10% of Australia's terrestrial fauna, and predation by cats and foxes was a major contribution to most of those extinctions. Maintaining mammal populations on havens...
Article
Full-text available
Much of conservation planning has focused on how we should prioritize areas for protection based on biodiversity and cost, but less is known about how we should prioritize areas based upon the level of threat they face. We discuss two opposing threat prioritization strategies: frontier conservation (prioritizing high‐threat areas) and wilderness co...
Article
Full-text available
In the last 30 years, islands and fenced exclosures free of introduced predators (collectively, havens) have become an increasingly used option for protecting Australian mammals imperiled by predation by introduced cats (Felis catus) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). However, Australia's network of havens is not expanding in a manner that maximizes repres...
Article
Effectively controlling invasive species on islands is a critical aspect of global conservation. Having the potential to outcompete or consume native species, it is particularly important to remove them from islands harbouring unique flora and fauna. Lord Howe Island, a World Heritage listed area to the east of the Australian mainland, is in the mi...
Article
Reintroducing a species to an ecosystem can have significant impacts on the recipient ecological community. Although reintroductions can have striking and positive outcomes, they also carry risks; many well intentioned conservation actions have had surprising and unsatisfactory outcomes. A range of network‐based mathematical methods have been devel...
Article
Full-text available
The article “Ocean zoning within a sparing versus sharing framework,” written by Jennifer McGowan, Michael Bode, Matthew H. Holden, Katrina Davis, Nils C. Krueck, Maria Beger, Katherine L. Yates, and Hugh P. Possingham, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal.
Article
Full-text available
The land-sparing versus land-sharing debate centers around how different intensities of habitat use can be coordinated to satisfy competing demands for biodiversity persistence and food production in agricultural landscapes. We apply the broad concepts from this debate to the sea and propose it as a framework to inform marine zoning based on three...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Many Australian mammal species are highly susceptible to predation by introduced domestic cats (Felis catus) and European red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). These predators have caused many extinctions and have driven large distributional and population declines for many more species. The serendipitous occurrence of, and deliberate translocations...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Over the last 230 years, the Australian terrestrial mammal fauna has suffered a very high rate of decline and extinction relative to other continents. Predation by the introduced red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cat (Felis catus) is implicated in many of these extinctions, and in the ongoing decline of many extant species. Aims: To assess...
Article
Payments to private landholders for providing biodiversity land can improve conservation outside protected areas. Input-based payments are widely used despite evidence they are often ineffective at improving biodiversity outcomes. Meanwhile little has been done to assess how to use outcome-based payments to maximize biodiversity, despite growing ac...
Article
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly integrated into fishery management for coastal systems. Size and spacing rules (SSRs) have been proposed as simple MPA design guidelines, especially in regions where population connectivity data are limited. We assessed whether SSRs allow managers to design effective MPA networks under spatiotemporally...
Article
Dispersal kernels are the standard method in biology for describing and predicting the relationship between dispersal and distance. Statistically fitted dispersal kernels allow observations of a limited number of dispersal events to be extrapolated across a wider landscape, and form the basis of a wide range of theories and methods in ecology, evol...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal marine ecosystems can be managed by actions undertaken both on the land and in the ocean. Quantifying and comparing the costs and benefits of actions in both realms is therefore necessary for efficient management. Here, we quantify the link between terrestrial sediment runoff and a downstream coastal marine ecosystem and contrast the cost-e...
Data
Input parameters for Matlab code. The supplemental Matlab code calls the parameter values entered in this spreadsheet. (XLSX)
Data
Model parameters. Model parameters used to assess the cost effectiveness of conservation actions (restoration or protection) taken on land or sea to maximize extent of marine habitat (seagrass) in Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Justification for the parameterisation is provided in the supplemental methods. (XLSX)
Data
Summary of sensitivity analyses. Table outlining sensitivity analyses. (XLSX)
Data
Data used to generate S1 Fig. Data used to generate S1 Fig panel B. Data for S1 Fig panel A are found in in S1 Data. (XLS)
Data
Sensitivity analysis. Effect of the rate of revegetation of seagrass and riparian habitats following restoration actions on the optimal conservation decision after 30 years. Results are reported for two rates of seagrass expansion: A) 1% yr-1; and B) 5% yr-1. (TIF)
Data
Sensitivity analysis. Effect of the costs of seagrass and riparian restoration on the optimal conservation decision after 30 years. Results are reported for two rates of seagrass expansion: A) 1.13% yr-1; and B) 5% yr-1. (TIF)
Data
Sensitivity analysis. Results obtained using a linear relationship between sediment load and seagrass area, compared to a convex relationship used in Fig 3. Areas of A) habitat suitable for seagrass; B) protected seagrass; C) intact seagrass; and D) tons per year of sediment run-off. Values are standardised to the values achieved with no investment...
Data
Model dynamics. Dynamics of the land- and sea-scape model of seagrass meadows (ocean) and riparian habitats (land) over 30 years based on the actions of restoration or protection in both systems. (TIF)
Data
Seagrass expansion rates. Studies from which estimates of areal expansion of seagrass beds were obtained. *: study measured gap size. (XLSX)
Data
Sensitivity analysis. Intact seagrass area obtained using a cap of (A) 0.1% and (B) 1% of the existing seagrass meadows which may be in “restoring” condition in a given year. (TIF)
Data
Sensitivity analysis. Effect of seagrass expansion and decline rates on the (A,B) optimal action, and (C,D) relative area of seagrass habitat, compared to a no investment strategy, after 30 years. Two functional relationships between sediment load and habitat area were used: (A,C) linear relationship; and (B,D) convex relationship. The convex relat...
Data
Sensitivity analysis. Effect of seagrass decline and expansion rates on the optimal conservation strategy if the objective is to maximise the value of ecosystem services returned by both seagrass and riparian habitats over a 30 year investment period. (TIF)
Data
Total suspended sediment (TSS) data output from the Source model of Southeast Queensland, Australia. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are a widely advocated strategy for managing coral reefs. However, uncertainty about the strength of population connectivity between individual reefs and NTMRs through larval dispersal remains a major obstacle to effective network design. In this study, larval dispersal among NTMRs and fishing grounds in...
Article
Full-text available
Larval dispersal is a critical yet enigmatic process in the persistence and productivity of marine metapopulations. Empirical data on larval dispersal remain scarce, hindering the use of spatial management tools in efforts to sustain ocean biodiversity and fisheries. Here we document dispersal among subpopulations of clownfish (Amphiprion percula)...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation fences are an increasingly common management action, particularly for species threatened by invasive predators. However, unlike many conservation actions, fence networks are expanding in an unsystematic manner, generally as a reaction to local funding opportunities or threats. In a gap analysis of Australia's substantial predator exclu...
Article
The degree to which offspring remain near their parents or disperse widely is critical for understanding population dynamics, evolution, and biogeography, and for designing conservation actions. In the ocean, most estimates suggesting short-distance dispersal are based on direct ecological observations of dispersing individuals, while indirect evol...
Article
Ecosystem-based management requires predictive models of ecosystem dynamics. There are typically insufficient empirical data available to parameterise these complex models, and so decision-makers commonly rely on beliefs elicited from experts. However, such expert beliefs are necessarily limited because (1) only a small proportion of ecosystem comp...
Article
Full-text available
Larval dispersal is the key process by which populations of most marine fishes and invertebrates are connected and replenished. Advances in larval tagging and genetics have enhanced our capacity to track larval dispersal, assess scales of population connectivity, and quantify larval exchange among no-take marine reserves and fished areas. Recent st...
Preprint
Full-text available
Dispersal kernels are the standard method for describing and predicting the relationship between dispersal strength and distance. Statistically-fitted dispersal kernels allow observations of a limited number of dispersal events to be extrapolated across a wider landscape, and form the basis of a wide range of theories and methods in ecology, evolut...
Article
Full-text available
Introducing a new, or previously extant, species to an ecosystem is a risky decision, and managers need quantitative methods that can predict the consequences for the recipient ecosystem. Proponents of keystone predator reintroductions commonly argue that the presence of the predator will restore ecosystem function, but this has not always been the...
Article
b>1. Active engagement with practitioners is a crucial component of model-based decision-making in conservation management; it can assist with data acquisition, improve models and help narrow the 'knowing-doing' gap. 2. We worked with practitioners of one of the worst invasive species in Australia, the cane toad Rhinella marina , to revise a model...
Article
Conservation translocations, anthropogenic movements of species to prevent their extinction, have increased substantially over the last few decades. Although multiple species are frequently moved to the same location, current translocation guidelines consider species in isolation. This practice ignores important interspecific interactions and there...
Article
Full-text available
Many highly diverse island ecosystems across the globe are threatened by invasive species. Eradications of invasive mammals from islands are being attempted with increasing frequency, with their success aided by geographical isolation and increasing knowledge of eradication techniques. There have been many attempts to prioritize islands for invasiv...
Article
Full-text available
Marine reserve networks must ensure the representation of important conservation features, and also guarantee the persistence of key populations. For many species, designing reserve networks is complicated by the absence or limited availability of spatial and life-history data. This is particularly true for data on larval dispersal, which has only...
Article
To counteract global species decline, modern biodiversity conservation engages in large projects, spends billions of dollars and engages many organizations working simultaneously within regions. To add to this complexity, the conservation sector has hierarchical structure, where conservation actions are often outsourced by funders (foundations, gov...
Article
Invasive species are a worldwide issue, both ecologically and economically. A large body of work focuses on various aspects of invasive species control, including how to allocate control efforts to eradicate an invasive population as cost effectively as possible: There are a diverse range of invasive species management problems, and past mathematic...
Article
Ecological systems are dynamic and policies to manage them need to respond to that variation. However, policy adjustments will sometimes be costly, which means that fine-tuning a policy to track variability in the environment very tightly will only sometimes be worthwhile. We use a classic fisheries management problem, how to manage a stochasticall...
Article
Ecological systems are dynamic and policies to manage them need to respond to that variation. However, policy adjustments will sometimes be costly, which means that fine-tuning a policy to track variability in the environment very tightly will only sometimes be worthwhile. We use a classic fisheries management problem, how to manage a stochasticall...
Article
Full-text available
Bolbometopon muricatum, the largest species of parrotfish, is a functionally important species that is characterised by the formation of aggregations for foraging, reproductive, and sleeping behaviours. Aggregations are restricted to shallow reef habitats, the locations of which are often known to local fishers. Bolbometopon muricatum fisheries are...
Article
Full-text available
When managing heterogeneous socioecological systems, decision-makers must choose a spatial resolution at which to define management policies. Complex spatial policies allow managers to better reflect underlying ecological and economic heterogeneity, but incur higher compliance and enforcement costs. To choose the most appropriate management resolut...
Article
Conservation translocations - anthropogenic movements of species to prevent their extinction - have increased substantially over the last few decades. Although multiple species are frequently moved to the same location, current translocation guidelines consider species in isolation. This practice ignores important interspecific interactions, and th...
Article
Reproductive phenology is a crucial life-history trait that is influenced by both environmental and frequency-dependent effects. The fitness benefits of any phenology strategy will depend strongly on other aspects of the life history: one of the most fundamental ways life histories can differ is fertilization mode. Despite the strong potential for...
Article
Invasive species are a worldwide issue, both ecologically and economically. A large body of work focuses on various aspects of invasive species control, including how to allocate control effort to eradicate an invasive population as cost-effectively as possible. There are a diverse range of invasive species management problems, and past mathematica...