Michael Berthaume

Michael Berthaume
London South Bank University | LSBU · Division of Mechanical Engineering and Design

Mechanical Engineering Ph.D.

About

65
Publications
25,543
Reads
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751
Citations
Introduction
I am a senior lecturer at LSBU, working to create the recognized field of anthroengineering. The three main pillars of my research are human evolutionary biomechanics, the mechanical consequences of human biological variation, and medical devices for low- and middle-income countries.
Additional affiliations
September 2019 - present
London South Bank University
Position
  • Lecturer
February 2018 - August 2019
Imperial College London
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • Musculoskeletal biomechanics and finite element analysis of the human lower limb.
February 2015 - July 2017
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Modeling the process of tooth wear with FEA.
Education
September 2011 - May 2014
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Field of study
  • Anthropology
July 2010 - July 2013
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Field of study
  • Mechanical Engineering
September 2006 - May 2010
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Field of study
  • Mechanical Engineering

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, funding agencies, institutes and professional bodies have recognized the profound benefits of transdisciplinarity in tackling targeted research questions. However, once questions are answered, the previously abundant support often dissolves. As such, the long-term benefits of these transdisciplinary approaches are never fully ach...
Article
Full-text available
Diet is a driving force in human evolution. Two species of Plio-Pleistocene hominins, Paranthropus robustus and Australopithecus africanus , have derived craniomandibular and dental morphologies which are often interpreted as P. robustus having a more biomechanically challenging diet. While dietary reconstructions based on dental microwear generall...
Article
Full-text available
Though late Middle Pleistocene in age, Homo naledi is characterized by a mosaic of Australopithecus-like (e.g., curved fingers, small brains) and Homo-like (e.g., elongated lower limbs) traits, which may suggest it occupied a unique ecological niche. Ecological reconstructions inform on niche occupation, and are particularly successful when using d...
Article
Full-text available
The fabella is a sesamoid bone located behind the lateral femoral condyle. It is common in non‐human mammals, but the prevalence rates in humans vary from 3 to 87%. Here, we calculate the prevalence of the fabella in a Korean population and investigate possible temporal shifts in prevalence rate. A total of 52.83% of our individuals and 44.34% of o...
Article
Full-text available
Available open access here https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joa.13091 The fabella is a sesamoid bone located in the gastrocnemius behind the lateral femoral condyle. In humans, fabellae are 3.5 times more common today than they were 100 years ago, with prevalence rates varying between and within populations. In particular, fabella...
Article
Full-text available
Size and shape variation of molar crowns in primates plays an important role in understanding how species adapted to their environment. Gorillas are commonly considered to be folivorous primates because they possess sharp cusped molars which are adapted to process fibrous leafy foods. However, the proportion of fruit in their diet can vary signific...
Preprint
Full-text available
Size and shape variation of molar crowns in primates plays an important role in understanding how species adapted to their environment. Gorillas are commonly considered to be folivorous primates because they possess sharp cusped molars which are adapted to process fibrous leafy foods. However, the proportion of fruit in their diet can vary signific...
Article
The distal femoral metaphyseal surface presents dramatically different morphologies in juvenile extant hominoids—humans have relatively flat metaphyseal surfaces when compared with the more complex metaphyseal surfaces of apes. It has long been speculated that these different morphologies reflect different biomechanical demands placed on the growth...
Article
Introduction: The cyamella is a rare, generally asymptomatic, knee sesamoid bone located in the proximal tendon of the popliteal muscle. Only two studies have investigated cyamella presence/absence in humans, putting ossified prevalence rates at 0.57-1.8%. We aim to 1) determine cyamella prevalence in a Korean population, 2) examine coincident dev...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid developments in prosthetics, orthotics and wheelchair technology have increased clinical research and development initiatives worldwide. Testing technology involving human subjects / participants creates ethical concerns that are under-explored and become a critical issue for prosthetists, orthotists, researchers and their clients, especially...
Conference Paper
The fabella is a sesamoid bone usually located in the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle, behind the knee joint. Prevalence rates in human populations vary widely with an average of 42.5% people having a fabella. Clinically, it is associated with a number of knee ailments, most notably the osteoarthritis of the knee and generali...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The fabella is a sesamoid bone embedded in the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius. It is the only bone in the human body to increase in prevalence in the last 100 years. As the fabella can serve as an origin/insertion for muscles, tendons, and/or ligaments (e.g., the oblique popliteal and fabellofibular ligaments), tempora...
Conference Paper
The Fabella is a sesamoid bone usually located inside the tendon of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle behind the knee joint. Prevalence rates in human populations vary widely with an average of 42.54% people having a Fabella. Clinically, it is associated with a number of knee ailments, most notably the osteoarthritis of the knee, and wit...
Article
Full-text available
Diet plays an incontrovertible role in primate evolution, affecting anatomy, growth and development, behavior, and social structure. It should come as no surprise that a myriad of methods for reconstructing diet have developed, mostly utilizing the element that is not only most common in the fossil record but also most pertinent to diet: teeth. Twe...
Article
Full-text available
Dental topography is a widely used method for quantifying dental morphology and inferring dietary ecology in animals. Differences in methodology have brought into question the comparability of different studies. Using primate mandibular second molars, we investigated the effects of mesh preparation parameters smoothing, cropping, and triangle count...
Data
Five-way ANOVA results. Results from five-way ANOVA. (XLSX)
Data
Transformation equations. Transformation equations for smoothing and cropping. (XLSX)
Data
Descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics for data. (XLSX)
Data
One-way ANOVA results. Results from one-way ANOVAs. (XLSX)
Data
Correlations among metrics. Correlations between topographic variables. (XLSX)
Data
Statistics for slopes and intercepts. ANOVAS, Tukey HSDs, and DFAs for intercepts and slopes. (XLSX)
Data
Boxplots. 880 boxplots for topographic values. (PPTX)
Data
Boxplots for slopes and intercepts. . Boxplots for DNE and OPCR slopes and intercepts vs. diet. (PPTX)
Data
All data dental topography. Raw data for analyses. (XLSX)
Data
Linear plots. Linear plots, effect of triangle count and resolution on topographic variables. (PPTX)
Data
Tukey HSD visualization. Graphical representations of Tukey HSD results. (PPTX)
Data
Tukey HSD results. Results for Tukey HSD analyses. (XLSX)
Data
Slopes and intercepts. Slopes and intercepts of DNE and OPCR vs. triangle count and resolution. (XLSX)
Data
Tukey HSD visualization. Tukey HSD visualized for triangle count and resolution. (PPTX)
Article
Full-text available
Recently, ambient occlusion, quantified through portion de ciel visible (PCV) was introduced as a method for quantifying dental morphological wear resistance and reconstructing diet in mammals. Despite being used to reconstruct diet and investigate the relationship between dental form and function, no rigorous analysis has investigated the correlat...
Data
Raw data for analyses. Raw PCV values used for analyses. (CSV)
Data
Averages and standard deviations. Descriptive statistics for PCV values. (CSV)
Article
Dental topography reflects diet accurately in several extant and extinct mammalian clades. However, dental topographic dietary reconstructions have high success rates only when closely related taxa are compared. Given the dietary breadth that exists among extant apes and likely existed among fossil hominins, dental topographic values from many spec...
Article
Full-text available
Ostrich-like birds (Palaeognathae) show very little taxonomic diversity while their sister taxon (Neognathae) contains roughly 10000 species. The main anatomical differences between the two taxa are in the crania. Palaeognaths lack an element in the bill called the lateral bar that is present in both ancestral theropods and modern neognaths, have t...
Article
Full-text available
Australopithecus sediba has been hypothesized to be a close relative of the genus Homo. Here we show that MH1, the type specimen of A. sediba, was not optimized to produce high molar bite force and appears to have been limited in its ability to consume foods that were mechanically challenging to eat. Dental microwear data have previously been inter...
Data
Supplementary Figures 1-6, Supplementary Tables 1-4 and Supplementary Reference
Article
Full-text available
Dental topography has successfully linked disparate tooth shapes to distinct dietary categories, but not to masticatory efficiency. Here, I investigate the relationship between four dental topographic metrics and brittle food item breakdown efficiency during compressive biting using a parametric finite element model of a bunodont molar. Food item b...
Article
Interdisciplinary research has benefitted the fields of anthropology and engineering for decades: a classic example being the application of material science to the field of feeding biomechanics. However, after decades of research, discordances have developed in how mechanical properties are defined, measured, calculated, and used due to disharmoni...
Article
Full-text available
Legg-Calvé-Perthes' (Perthes') disease is a developmental disease of the hip joint that may result in numerous short and long term problems. The aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown, but the mechanism is believed to be vascular and/or biomechanical in nature. There are several anatomical characteristics that tend to be prevalent in chil...
Article
Full-text available
Over 40 years ago, Clifford Jolly noted different ways in which Hadropithecus stenognathus converged in its craniodental anatomy with basal hominins and with geladas. The Malagasy subfossil lemur Hadropithecus departs from its sister taxon, Archaeolemur, in that it displays comparatively large molars, reduced incisors and canines, a shortened rostr...
Article
The African Plio-Pleistocene hominins known as australopiths evolved derived craniodental features frequently interpreted as adaptations for feeding on either hard, or compliant/tough foods. Among australopiths, Paranthropus boisei is the most robust form, exhibiting traits traditionally hypothesized to produce high bite forces efficiently and stre...
Article
Full-text available
Research Cite this article: Berthaume MA, Dumont ER, Godfrey LR, Grosse IR. 2014 The effects of relative food item size on optimal tooth cusp sharpness during brittle food item processing. Teeth are often assumed to be optimal for their function, which allows researchers to derive dietary signatures from tooth shape. Most tooth shape analyses norma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mammalian molars have undergone heavy scrutiny to determine correlates between morphology and diet. Here, the relationship between one aspect of occlusal morphology, tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC), and two broad dietary categories, folivory and frugivory, is analyzed in apes. Based on previous dental topography studies, I hypothesize that the...
Conference Paper
An ongoing debate concerning Neandertal ecology is whether or not they utilized long range weaponry. The anteroposteriorly expanded cross-section of Neandertal humeri have led some to argue that their humeri were adapted to thrusting hunting weapons, while the rounder cross-section of Late Upper Paleolithic humeri suggests modern humans threw their...
Article
Full-text available
Mammalian molars have undergone heavy scrutiny to determine correlates between morphology and diet. Here, the relationship between one aspect of occlusal morphology, tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC), and two broad dietary categories, folivory and frugivory, is analyzed in apes. The author hypothesizes that there is a relationship between tooth...
Article
It has been hypothesized that the extensively overlapping temporal and parietal bones of the squamosal sutures in Paranthropus boisei are adaptations for withstanding loads associated with feeding. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate the biomechanical effects of suture size (i.e., the area of overlap between the temporal and parie...
Conference Paper
It is common to assume that teeth are optimal for their function, but few studies evaluate the impact of the size and shape of food items on tooth function. Here we test the hypothesis that the size and shape of food items does impact the performance of one specific tooth morphology; notch angle, the angle between two cusps or teeth. Many animals h...
Thesis
Full-text available
Tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC) has been hypothesized to play an important role in food item breakdown, but has remained largely unstudied due to difficulties in measuring and modeling RoC in multicusped teeth. We tested these hypotheses using a parametric model of a four cusped, maxillary, bunodont molar in conjunction with finite element ana...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As methods for engineering data acquisition improve, methods for storing, generating knowledge from, and sharing that data for efficient reuse have become more important. Knowledge management in the engineering community can greatly benefit from advancements made in knowledge management in biology. The biological community has already made progress...
Article
Full-text available
Recent biomechanical analyses examining the feeding adaptations of early hominins have yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that hard foods exerted a selection pressure that influenced the evolution of australopith morphology. However, this hypothesis appears inconsistent with recent reconstructions of early hominin diet based on dental m...
Article
Full-text available
Tooth cusp sharpness, measured by radius of curvature (RoC), has been predicted to play a significant role in brittle/hard food item fracture. Here, we set out to test three existing hypotheses about this relationship: namely, the Blunt and Strong Cusp hypotheses, which predict that dull cusps will be most efficient at brittle food item fracture, a...
Conference Paper
The basal bifurcation in the phylogeny of modern birds is between ostrich-like birds (ratites and tinamous; Palaeognathae) and all other birds (Neognathae). Most differences between the Palaeognathae and Neognathae lie in the reduction or loss of the ability to fly, but the crania of palaeognaths are also more robust and more fenestrated than those...
Conference Paper
Finite element models (FEMs) of biological systems are becoming widely used in evolutionary biomechanics. The material properties of bone are fundamental inputs for such models, but these are difficult to measure, and are stochastic in nature, anisotropic and spatially non-homogeneous. To date, no formal probabilistic analysis techniques have been...
Article
Full-text available
Hypotheses regarding patterns of stress, strain and deformation in the craniofacial skeleton are central to adaptive explanations for the evolution of primate craniofacial form. The complexity of craniofacial skeletal morphology makes it difficult to evaluate these hypotheses with in vivo bone strain data. In this paper, new in vivo bone strain dat...
Article
Full-text available
Tooth profile plays an important role in interpretations of the functional morphology of extinct species. We tested hypotheses that australopith occlusal morphology influences the fracture force required to crack large, hard food items using a combination of physical testing and finite element analysis (FEA). We performed mechanical experiments sim...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
I'm aware of quite a few sites out there (e.g. morphobrowser, morphosource, nespos, evans) but I'm always looking for more.
In particular, I'm looking for ones that have CT scans high quality enough to do research with...i.e. the Digital Morphology Museum, KUPRI has a TON of amazing primate CT scans for free download. However, they're not particularly high quality, making it difficult to use for anything other than gross geometric measurements and/or teaching.

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Understanding the frequency, growth, development, and biomechanics of sesamoids in the primate knee, focusing on humans and the fabella and cyamella.
Project
Quantifying hominin molar shape using dental topographic methods and tooth function using computer based and experimental methods.
Project
We are investigating the effects of particle size, concentration, shape, placement, and mechanical properties, tooth attack angle, and bite force on microscopic wear using a set of parametric finite element models. We are also investigating the effects of dietary mechanical properties and external abrasives on goat tooth wear, where our models will be validated through experimental data.