Michael Behringer

Michael Behringer
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main · Institute of Sports Sciences

Prof. Dr. med. Dr. rer. nat.

About

79
Publications
26,230
Reads
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1,129
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2017 - August 2017
Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Position
  • Research Associate
March 2017 - August 2017
Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln
Position
  • Research Associate
January 2007 - August 2017
German Research Centre of Elite Sport - momentum
Position
  • Medical Doctor
Education
October 1999 - November 2006
Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
Field of study
  • Human Medicine

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: 3 × 3 basketball games are characterized by high-intensity accelerations and decelerations, and a high number of changes of direction and jumps. It is played in tournament form with multiple games per day. Therefore, optimal regeneration is crucial for maintaining a high performance level over the course of the tournament. To elucidate how...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most successful interventions in gonarthrosis, however the operation is leading to muscle atrophy and long-term muscular deficits. To enhance rehabilitation after TKA, exercise programs try to improve muscle function preoperatively, called prehabilitation. Blood-Flow-Restriction Exercises (B...
Article
Full-text available
Many sports employ caloric restriction (CR) to reduce athletes' body mass. During these phases, resistance training (RT) volume is often reduced to accommodate recovery demands. Since RT volume is a well-known anabolic stimulus, this review investigates whether a higher training volume helps to spare lean mass during CR. A total of 15 studies met i...
Preprint
Background A multitude of individual, temporal, injury- and surgery-specific factors impact an individual’s functional capacity during the rehabilitation, return to sports (RTS), and re-injury prevention processes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. These factors’ interaction and nesting are not fully understood yet. Purpose To p...
Preprint
Background: 3x3 basketball games are characterized by high-intensity accelerations and decelerations, and a high number of changes of direction and jumps. It is played in tournament form with multiple games per day. Therefore, optimal regeneration is crucial for maintaining a high performance level over the course of the tournament. To elucidate ho...
Article
Many studies have investigated the activation of cortical areas and corticospinal excitability during motor imagery (MI) in relation to motor execution. Similar activation of cortical areas during imagined and executed bodily movements and increased corticospinal excitability while imagining movements has been demonstrated. Despite these similariti...
Article
Purpose 3 × 3 is a variation of classic basketball (BB) that imposes new demands on both athletes and coaches. The objective of this study was to comprehensively describe similarities and differences in load structures between 3 × 3 and BB. Method Between January 2020 and July 2021, internal and external load parameters of 90 elite BB and 3 × 3 at...
Article
Full-text available
Tensiomyography measures the radial displacement of a muscle during an electrically evoked twitch contraction. The rate of muscle displacement is increasingly reported to assess contractile properties. Several formulas currently exist to calculate the rate of displacement during the contraction phase of the maximal twitch response. However, informa...
Preprint
Background: Rehabilitation success and recurrence risk in patients with high-grade, chronic low back pain are affected by multiple and interrelated determinants. We aimed to identify these determinants by means of machine learning strategies. Methods: The sample consisted of the claims data of members of the German pension fund, the DRV (2012-2019;...
Article
Full-text available
Muscular fatigue can affect postural control processes by impacting on the neuromuscular and somatosensory system. It is assumed that this leads to an increased risk of injury, especially in sports such as alpine skiing that expose the body to strong and rapidly changing external forces. In this context, posture constraints and contraction-related...
Article
Full-text available
Strenuous and unaccustomed exercise frequently lead to what has been coined “delayed onset muscle soreness” (DOMS). As implied by this term, it has been proposed that the associated pain and stiffness stem from micro-lesions, inflammation, or metabolite accumulation within the skeletal muscle. However, recent research points towards a strong involv...
Article
Happ, KA, and Behringer, M. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation Training vs. conventional strength training: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect on strength development. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-A systematic review of the current state of literature and a meta-analysis were conducted to compare the strength developm...
Chapter
Der systematische Aufbau vom sportlichen Anfänger zum Spitzenkönner in einer Sportart wird im Leistungssport als langfristiger Leistungsaufbau bezeichnet. Dieser orientiert sich neben organisatorischen auch an entwicklungsphysiologischen und trainingsmethodischen Faktoren und gliedert sich in mehrere Phasen mit unterschiedlichen Zielsetzungen. Vere...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It is often advised to ensure a high protein intake during energy-restricted diets. However, it is unclear whether a high protein intake is able to maintain muscle mass and contractility in the absence of resistance training. Materials and Methods: After 1 week of body mass maintenance (45 kcal/kg), 28 male college students not performi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction : The purpose of this study was to clarify whether blood-flow restriction during resting intervals [resting blood-flow restriction (rBFR)] is comparable to a continuous BFR (cBFR) training regarding its effects on maximum strength, hypertrophy, fatigue resistance, and perceived discomfort. Materials and Methods : Nineteen recreationall...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Despite the widespread occurrence of muscle cramps, their underlying neurophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. To better understand the etiology of muscle cramps, this study investigated acute effects of muscle cramping induced by maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on the amp...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Medically recommended training often faces the dilemma that necessary mechanical intensities for muscle adaptations exceed patients' physical capacity. In this regard, blood flow restriction (BFR) training is becoming increasingly popular because it enables gains in muscle mass and strength despite using low-mechanical loads combined with...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and lumbar disc herniation (LDH) are often accompanied by frequently occurring leg cramps severely affecting patients' life and sleep quality. Recent evidence suggests that neuromuscular electric stimulation (NMES) of cramp-prone muscles may prevent cramps in lumbar disorders. Materials and Methods: Thirty...
Article
Many studies have investigated the activation of cortical areas and corticospinal excitability during motor imagery (MI) in relation to motor execution. Similar activation of cortical areas during imagined and executed bodily movements as well as increased corticospinal excitability while MI has been demonstrated. Despite these similarities on the...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a six-week, twice weekly resistance training (4 sets at 30% 1-RM until failure) with practical blood flow restriction (BFR) using 7cm wide cuffs with a twist lock placed below the patella is superior to training without BFR (NoBFR) concerning muscle mass and strength gains in calf muscles. A two-...
Article
Background The need for effective training methods for positive adaptations in muscle strength and bone mineralization, suitable for all groups of patients, arises in both rehabilitation and pre-habilitation. In addition to mechanical stress, an increased metabolic stress, by means of reduced blood supply of the muscle, seems to induce positive ada...
Article
Objectives: The present randomized controlled intervention study examined the effects of practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) during low intensity rowing. Design: Thirty-one elite rowers were either assigned to the intervention (INT) or control (CON) group, using the minimization method (Strata: Gender, Age,...
Article
›Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee joint is a common disease worldwide and is associated with chronic disability and progressive pain. Currently, the most suitable treatment method in end-stage OA is surgical restoration by total joint replacement (TJR). ›In this regard, patients’ suffering from end-stage OA and waiting for TJR intervention a...
Article
Zusammenfassung Verschiedene Untersuchungen in den vergangenen Jahren haben gezeigt, dass innerhalb der Ballsportarten Handballspieler einem besonders hohen Verletzungsrisiko ausgesetzt sind. Dabei ist das Kniegelenk die am häufigsten verletzte Körperregion und ein Riss des vorderen Kreuzbandes die häufigste Verletzung am Knie. Um Folgeschädigungen...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The tensiomyography (TMG) technique is increasingly used to determine muscle contractile properties in exercise and injury management. The present study investigated the informative value of TMG parameters in correlation with commonly used (creatine kinase, CK; myoglobin, Mb) and novel candidate biomarkers of muscle damage (heart-type fatty...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years there has been a strong increase in publications on blood flow restriction (BFR) training. In particular, the fact that this type of training requires only low resistance to induce muscle strength and mass gains, makes BFR training interesting for athletes and scientists alike. For the same reason this type of training is particular...
Article
Zusammenfassung: Krafttraining ist eine Trainingsform in der durch das Entgegenwirken oder Überwinden von Widerständen, je nach Trainingsmethodik, verschiedene Trainingsziele erreicht werden können. Die aktuelle Evidenzlage zeigt kein hohes Verletzungsrisiko, Wachstumsein-schränkungen und keine Reduktion der Beweglichkeit aufgrund eines Krafttraini...
Poster
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: To achieve a clinically relevant lowering of blood pressure (BP) through exercise [1] and to offset the costs of the following SPRINT medication [2], we investigate the influence of blood flow restriction training (BFRT) on post-exercise hypotension (PEH). PEH is generally seen as a factor strongly related to long-term BP reduction [3]....
Article
Full-text available
Introduction To date, several meta-analyses clearly demonstrated that resistance and plyometric training are effective to improve physical fitness in children and adolescents. However, a methodological limitation of meta-analyses is that they synthesize results from different studies and hence ignore important differences across studies (i.e., mixi...
Article
Lange Zeit ging man davon aus, dass im Krafttraining moderate bis hohe Widerstände eingesetzt werden müssen, wenn Zuwächse der Muskelkraft und –masse induziert werden sollen. Diese Ansicht spiegelt sich auch in den Trainingsempfehlungen unterschiedlicher internationaler Institutionen wider. So gibt beispielsweise das American College of Sports Medi...
Data
Prisma checklist 2009. (DOC)
Article
The “danger” model of immunology states that the immune system detects and responds to danger by releasing endogenous molecules called alarmins. Strenuous exercise perturbs physiological homeostasis, increasing circulating alarmins to drive the inflammatory response. We describe a working concept of exercise-induced High Mobility Group Box (HMGB)1,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate if ischemic preconditioning (IPC) prior to eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors leads to alterations in muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) during loading. Additionally, parameters of muscle damage, like serum creatine kinase, were assessed following the loading protocol. Nineteen untrained males were all...
Article
Background Wear debris is a major factor in aseptic loosening of total hip arthroplasty. UHMWPE inlays are known for significant wear, and the following generation, HCLPE), has shown promising in vitro and short-term in vivo results. This study aimed to investigate wear debris of HCLPE liners with ceramic heads after 9 years to reveal the in vivo w...
Conference Paper
Ermüdung kann definiert werden als das Unvermögen eine erforderliche Kraft aufrecht zu halten. Ein Zustand, der nicht nur für Leistungssportler, sondern auch in vielen klinischen Situationen von großer Bedeutung ist. Das Verständnis über die zugrundeliegenden Mechanismen hat in den letzten Jahren stetig zugenommen. Während man zuvor noch davon ausg...
Article
Full-text available
Muskelkrämpfe, definiert als starke, unwillkürliche und schmerzhafte Muskelkontraktionen, stellen für viele Menschen ein wiederkehrendes Problem dar. Sie treten sowohl nachts während des Schlafs als auch tagsüber in Ruhe sowie bei sportlicher Betätigung auf. Krämpfe, die bei körperlicher Aktivität entstehen, werden „exercise-associated muscle cramp...
Article
Objectives: We investigated if neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of calf muscles prevents spontaneous calf cramps. Materials and methods: In 19 individuals affected by more than or equal to one calf cramp per week the gastrocnemius of the predominantly affected leg was stimulated twice a week (intervention leg, IL) over six weeks (3 ×...
Article
Zusammenfassung In der Sportmedizin und -wissenschaft sowie im Hochleistungssport werden Untersuchungen sowohl unter standardisierten Bedingungen im Labor als auch im Feld durchgeführt. Es kommen dabei die unterschiedlichsten medizinischen Messmethoden zum Einsatz. Fast immer werden sie von Blutanalysen begleitet, wobei sowohl hochkomplexe Laborver...
Article
Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most commonly diagnosed joint ailments and responsible for increased rates of total knee arthroplasty surgeries worldwide. Whereas the surgical approach is able to diminish the perceived knee pain of concerned patients’, the postoperative recovery is often accompanied by persistent skeletal muscle dysfunctio...
Conference Paper
Ischämische Präkonditionierung (IPC) beschreibt eine Interventionsstrategie zur Erhöhung der Widerstandfähigkeit von Organen und Geweben gegenüber längerer ischämischer Disposition und folgenden Reperfusionsschädigungen (I/R-Injury). Die gewollten Anpassungen werden durch die vorhergehende Applikation kurzzeitiger Ischämiephasen hervorgerufen. In d...
Article
We investigated if blood flow restriction (BFR, cuff pressure 20 mmHG below individual occlusion pressure) increases metabolic stress, hormonal response, release of muscle damage markers, and muscle swelling induced by moderate-intensity eccentric contractions. In a randomized, matched-pair design, 20 male subjects (25.3 ± 3.3 years) performed four...
Chapter
Schwimmen gehört zu den Sportarten, in denen sehr früh mit dem leistungsorientierten Training begonnen wird. Da sich insbesondere der kindliche und jugendliche Organismus in einem rasanten, entwicklungsbedingten Wandel befindet, treffen die applizierten Trainingsreize auf ganz unterschiedliche Voraussetzungen. Diese individuellen Voraussetzungen we...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Previous data indicate that a strong sensory input from orally administered TRPV1 and TRPA1 activators alleviates muscle cramps in foot muscles by reducing the α-motor neuron hyperexcitability. We investigated if TRP activators increase the cramp threshold frequency of the medial gastrocnemius. Methods: We randomly assigned 22 healthy m...
Article
Purpose: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is known to reduce muscle damage induced by ischemia and reperfusion-injury (I/R-Injury) during surgery. Due to similarities between the pathophysiological formation of I/R-injury and eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), as characterized by an intracellular accumulation of Ca, an increased produc...
Article
Introduction: In this study we aimed to identify nerve entry points (NEPs) of superficial skeletal muscles obtained by dissection of 20 human cadavers and compared them with motor points (MP) obtained previously by electrical stimulation. Methods: The biceps brachii (BB), trapezius (TZ), latissimus dorsi (LD), pectoralis major (Pmaj), and pector...
Article
Purpose: Advantages of tourniquet use in TKA include benefits for surgeons and patients, varying from a bloodless operation site to a reduced intervention time. The time under ischemia and the reperfusion period are crucial phases for affected soft-tissue, most commonly the extensor mechanism. Case reports: documented its impact on soft-tissue,...
Article
Background: Muscle enzymes are cleared from the extracellular space by the lymphatic system, while smaller proteins enter the bloodstream directly. We investigated if manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), local cryotherapy (CRY), and rest (RST) differently affect the time course of creatine kinase (CK, 84 kDa) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein...
Article
Eccentric exercise training is effective for increasing muscle mass and strength, and improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profiles. However, potential muscle damage symptoms such as prolonged loss of muscle function and delayed onset of muscle soreness may restrict the use of eccentric exercise, especially in clinical populations. Therefo...
Article
Purpose: We investigated the effects of practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) of leg muscles during sprint training on the 100 m dash time in well-trained sport students. Methods: Participants performed 6x100 m sprints at 60-70% of their maximal 100 m sprinting speed twice a week for 6 weeks, either with (IG; n=12) or without pBFR (CG; n=12)....
Article
Background: Recovery from exercise and competition is important in sports medicine, particularly when rest periods are short. The objective is to determine the efficacy of cryo exposition (CRY) and manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) to hasten short term recovery of muscle performance after eccentric contractions. Methods: In a randomized controlled...
Article
Objective: A low cramp threshold frequency (CTF) is associated with an increased cramp susceptibility. Recent data indicate that the CTF can be substantially increased by a cramp training consisting of electrically induced muscle cramps (EIMCs). This study investigated if four cramp training sessions induce sustained effects on the CTF. Methods:...
Article
We investigated alternatives to commonly used biomarkers of exercise-induced tissue damage. Over 5 days following two bouts of 100 drop-to-vertical jumps (inter-bout rest period of 3 weeks), myosin heavy chain 1, hydroxylysine (HYL), hydroxyproline (HYP), spermine (SPM) and spermine synthase (SMS) were measured in the serum of 10 participants. HYL...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to identify predictors of serum muscle damage marker (MDM) response following mixed martial arts (MMA) matches. Creatine kinase activity (CK) and myoglobin concentration (Mb) were measured in ten male elite MMA fighters (aged 28±5.7 years) prior to, 2 h, 24 h, and 96 h following 9 different MMA matches. The number of perfor...
Article
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has recently been reported to be involved in proinflammation and tissue repair. Therefore, we hypothesized that HMGB1 is released into the bloodstream after eccentric exercises or prolonged endurance activities. Blood samples from 11 participants that performed 100 drop to vertical jumps (DVJ) and from 10 participa...
Article
Full-text available
The cramp threshold frequency (CTF) is known to be positively correlated with the individual cramp susceptibility. Here we assessed CTF changes after two bouts of electrically induced muscle cramps (EIMCs). The EIMCs (6×5 sec) were unilaterally induced twice (separated by one week) in the gastrocnemius of an intervention group (n=8), while 5 partic...
Article
We investigated the effect of stimulation intensity (in percent of maximal tolerated stimulation current, mTSC), frequency, and impulse width on muscle fatigue. Using a randomized crossover design, 6 parameter combinations (80% mTSC, 80 Hz, 400µs; 60% mTSC, 80 Hz, 400 µs; 80% mTSC, 20 Hz, 400µs; 60% mTSC, 20 Hz, 400 µs; 80% mTSC, 80 Hz, 150 µs; 60%...
Article
We tested a simple and compact device designed for manual resistance training in conditions of microgravity (Self-Powered Rope Trainer Duo (SPoRT Duo)) to increase muscle performance. Twenty-four participants (20.8 ± 2.1 years) were randomly assigned to a manual resistance group (n = 12) and a free-weight group (n = 12). Participants performed eigh...
Article
Introduction: Vertical jump performance is one of the key factors in basketball. In order to determine the effectiveness of previously published interventions and their influencing factors we performed a meta-analysis. Evidence acquisition: A computerized search was conducted using the databases PubMed (1966), Web of Science (1900), SPORTDiscus™...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. 15 hea...
Article
To study the effect of repetitive joint loading on the T2(*) assessment of knee joint cartilage. T2(*) mapping was performed in 10 non-professional marathon runners (mean age: 28.7±3.97 years) with no morphologically evident cartilage damage within 48h prior to and following the marathon and after a period of approximately four weeks. Bulk and zona...
Article
In sports medicine, muscle enzymes in the blood are frequently used as an indicator of muscle damage. It is commonly assumed that mechanical stress disrupts plasma membrane to an extent that allows large molecules, such as enzymes, to leak into the extracellular space. However, this does not appear to fully explain changes in muscle enzyme activity...
Article
Aim: If unaccustomed lengthening contractions are repeated within a certain period of time, muscle damage symptoms are blunted. This observation, often referred to as the repeated bout effect (RBE), also holds true for the response of muscle damage markers like creatine kinase (CK). However, measuring plasma enzyme activity rather than the concent...
Article
Full-text available
The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if there is a repeated bout effect for cartilage tissue, evident in the marker serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP). Ten healthy male subjects (26.4±3.14 years) performed two high impact interventions (100 drop jumps with a 30 second interval) carried out at a 3 week interval. Aft...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to systematically investigate the upper body motor point (MP) positions of selected muscles and to create an atlas of the identified MPs. MPs were searched bilaterally in 15 male and 15 female subjects by scanning the skin with a special pen electrode at low stimulation frequency (3 Hz) and current amplitude (<1...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate if the cramp threshold frequency (CTF) can be altered by electrical muscle stimulation in a shortened position. A total of 15 healthy male sport students were randomly allocated to an intervention (IG, n = 10) and a non-treatment control group (CG, n = 5). Calf muscles of both legs in the IG were stimulated equally twice a week over...
Article
Osteoporosis and associated fractures are a major health concern in Western industrialized nations. Exercise during growth is suggested to oppose the involutional bone loss later in life by increasing peak bone mass. The primary aim of the present meta-analysis was to provide a robust estimate of the effect of weight-bearing activities (WBA) on bon...
Article
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the transferability of 2 different resistance training protocols on service velocity and its precision consistency in junior tennis players. Thirty-six male athletes (15.03 ± 1.64 years) were randomly assigned to a machine-based resistance-training group (RG, n = 12), a plyometric training group (PG,...