Michael T. Arts

Michael T. Arts
Toronto Metropolitan University

Ph.D.

About

186
Publications
34,526
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
6,194
Citations
Citations since 2017
40 Research Items
3026 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - present
Ryerson University
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Chemical and Biological Pathways - ES8901, Graduate Level Course, Environmental Science and Management
January 2015 - present
Ryerson University
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Intro Biology Part II (BLG144), Undergraduate Level Course, (1st and 2nd year students)
January 2015 - present
Ryerson University
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Ecology BLG567, Undergraduate Level (2nd, 3rd, and 4th year students)

Publications

Publications (186)
Article
Full-text available
The effects of lake browning on trophic functioning of planktonic food webs are not fully understood. We studied the effects of browning on the response patterns of polyunsaturated fatty acids and n −3/ n −6 ratio in seston and compared them between boreal and temperate lakes. We also compared the regional differences and the effects of lake browni...
Article
Full-text available
Calanus finmarchicus were reared from eggs to adults at 12 C and 16 C with non-limiting food in combination with ambient (600 μatm) and high (1100 μatm) pCO 2. These conditions are likely to be encountered by the species at the southern margins of its biogeographical range by the end of the century. Dry weight (DW), carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mass...
Article
Many anguillid eel species display facultative catadromy. Some eel spend their entire life cycle in marine coastal areas, but the geographical extent of this, especially at the extremes of their distributional ranges, is unknown. We analysed otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca from yellow-stage European eel (Anguilla anguilla) sampled along the coast of Norway...
Article
Increasing terrestrial run-off from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost to Arctic coastal areas is expected to facilitate re-mobilization of stored legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury (Hg), potentially increasing exposure to these contaminants for coastal benthic organisms. We quantified chlorinated POPs and Hg concentration...
Article
Full-text available
Hydropower generation, a renewable source of electricity, has been linked to elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in impoundments and aquatic biota. This study investigates the impact of water level fluctuations (WLF) on MeHg concentrations in water, sediment, and fish. Using a set of controlled microcosm experiments emulating the drawdown/...
Article
Full-text available
Despite their ubiquity and considerable biomass, the roles played by parasites in aquatic food webs are still not well understood, especially those of their free-living infectious stages. For instance, cercariae, the motile larvae of parasitic flukes (trematodes) may be a key source of nutrients and energy for consumers. As cercariae clonally repro...
Article
Lipids, particularly fatty acids (FA), are major sources of energy and nutrients in aquatic ecosystems and play key roles during vertebrate development. The European eel Anguilla anguilla goes through major biochemical and physiological changes throughout its lifecycle as it inhabits sea- (SW), and/or brackish- (BW), and/or fresh-water (FW) habitat...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, much conceptual thinking in trophic ecology has been guided by theories of nutrient limitation and the flow of elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, within and among ecosystems. More recently, ecologists have also turned their attention to examining the value of specific dietary nutrients, in particular polyunsaturated fatty aci...
Article
We combined fatty acid (FA) and stable isotope (SI) analyses to investigate the trophic ecology of different stages of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) across sea (SW), brackish (BW), and freshwater (FW) habitats. Salinity was the main driver of differences in the biochemical composition, and the greatest variation occurred between SW and FW eels....
Article
Full-text available
The oilseed Camelina sativa was genetically engineered to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at levels similar to fish oil (FO), which we tested as a lipid source in diets for rainbow trout. Three experimental diets were tested, a FO control, a low-level trans-genic camelina oil (LCO) diet (no FO with 12.5 g/kg camel...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we evaluated whether oil extracted from the marine microbe, Schizochytrium sp. (strain T18), with high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), could replace fish oil (FO) in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three experimental diets were tested: (1) a control diet with fish oil (FO diet), (2) a microbial oil (MO) diet with...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Aquatic ecosystems of the Hudson Bay Lowlands Ecozone (HBLE) in Ontario are relatively pristine but face growing pressure from human-caused stressors. Lakes and rivers of this region are also among the most poorly studied in Ontario. In recent years, fish research and monitoring activities in HBLE waters have increased, with the intent of building...
Article
Full-text available
The free-living infectious stages of macroparasites, specifically, the cercariae of trematodes (flatworms), are likely to be significant (albeit underappreciated) vectors of nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to consumers within aquatic food webs, and other macroparasites could serve similar roles. In the context of de novo...
Presentation
Full-text available
Older and larger females generally produce more eggs, but do they produce better eggs? Studies of walleye embryonic survival suggest that the nature and magnitude of maternal effects may depend, in part, on environmental conditions. We examined survival and developmental rates for embryo batches of individual female walleye of Lake Nipissing, Ontar...
Article
Fatty acids (FA) are a major source of nutrients and energy in aquatic food webs, as well as serving as the main components of all cell membranes. Increasing anthropogenic impacts (e.g., climate change) are predicted to selectively alter the production of these critical compounds, with potential cascading effects reaching higher trophic level organ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite being remote, polar and sub-polar regions are increasingly threatened by global ecological change. For instance, South America's sub-Antarctic forest ecoregion is considered one of the world's last wilderness areas and a global reference site for pre-Industrial Revolution nutrient cycles. Nonetheless, the North American beaver (Castor canad...
Article
Contaminants and essential omega-3 fatty acids were analyzed in the fillets of 15 fish species from lakes Superior and Huron in order to estimate the risks and benefits of fish consumption. Additionally, literature data from lakes Ontario and Erie fish were used to provide an overall assessment for 24 fish species from the Canadian waters of the Gr...
Article
Full-text available
Egg quality (size, energy density) is important in determining early survival of birds. Here, we examine temporal (1981–2019) trends in herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg volume and energy density at breeding colonies on all five Laurentian Great Lakes. Temporal declines in egg volume were observed at 4/6 colonies on the upper Great Lakes (Lakes S...
Article
Full-text available
Intertidal biofilm is a thin layer of microbes and meiofauna enmeshed in an extracellular polymeric matrix within and on top of mudflat sediment. This medium provides a dynamic resource for a variety of consumers in estuarine habitats, and is rich in essential fatty acids that birds require for long-distance migration. We measured seasonal changes...
Article
Full-text available
Free-living parasite infectious stages, such as motile cercariae of trematodes (flatworms), can constitute substantial biomass within aquatic ecosystems and are frequently eaten by various consumers, potentially serving as an important source of nutrients and energy. However, quantitative data on their nutritional value (e.g., essential fatty acids...
Article
The long‐chain omega‐3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are prevalent in aquatic ecosystems and are not part of the natural diet of herbivorous, terrestrial insects, which generally consume alpha‐linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LNA). However, recent advances in genetic engineering have lead to the devel...
Article
Full-text available
Genetically engineered (GE) organisms have been at the center of ethical debates among the public and regulators over their potential risks and benefits to the environment and society. Unlike the currently commercial GE crops that express resistance or tolerance to pesticides or herbicides, a new GE crop produces two bioactive nutrients (eicosapent...
Article
Full-text available
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential, omega-3, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid that is a key component of cell membranes and plays a vital role in vertebrate brain function. The capacity to synthesize DHA is limited in mammals, despite its critical role in neurological development and health. For humans, DHA is most commonly obtained by...
Article
1. Atmospheric changes are leading to the browning of northern lakes (i.e. increases in catchment-derived dissolved organic matter [DOM]), consequently altering phytoplankton biomass and community composition. 2. We hypothesised that lake browning and the concurrent increase in nutrients drive a shift towards greater cyanobacteria biomass. We furth...
Article
For shorebirds, long distance migration is an energy-demanding activity, and lipids (largely comprised of fatty acids) with their high energy density are an ideal fuel. Diatoms in intertidal biofilms provide a rich source of fatty acids for fuel and for critical physiological functions. We compared the composition of intertidal biofilm on mudflats...
Article
Full-text available
Increases in terrestrial organic matter (tOM) transport from catchments to boreal lakes can affect methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in aquatic biota both directly by increasing concentrations of aqueous MeHg, and indirectly through effects on MeHg bioavailability and on energy pathways in the lower food web. We carried out a detailed seasonal stud...
Presentation
Full-text available
Rivers of the Hudson Plains Ecozone (HPE) support important subsistence fisheries but fish resources of these systems remain poorly studied. We examined fish populations from the lower reaches of 14 HPE rivers in terms of growth, trophic ecology, and food quality, and compared them with upstream lacustrine populations. Compared to inland lakes of t...
Article
Algae are globally important primary producers and when faced with anthropogenic pollutant stress (APS; e.g. heavy metals, herbicides) or naturally occurring stress (NOS; e.g. naturally acidic conditions, high sulphide concentrations), physiological processes may be disrupted. This might lead to abnormal growth and, potentially, individual mortalit...
Article
Two bioactive omega-3, long-chain, fatty acids (EPA and DHA), found in algal and fish oils, can now be produced in genetically engineered (GE) terrestrial oilseed crops. These fatty acids are involved in key physiological functions in invertebrates and vertebrates. They are known to be synthesized by primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, but not...
Article
Restricted fish consumption due to elevated contaminant levels may limit the intake of essential omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n −3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n −3) acids. We analyzed lake-and length-specific mercury and EPA + DHA contents in Walleye (Sander vitreus; Mitchell 1818) from 20 waterbodies in Ontario, Canad...
Article
Full-text available
Elevated contaminant levels in the North American Great Lakes have resulted in restrictive fish consumption advisories. Avoiding the risks associated with fish consumption may also decrease the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) acids; compounds that have been associated with human heal...
Article
Full-text available
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) may be derived from two dietary sources, preformed dietary DHA or through synthesis from α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3). However, conventional methods cannot distinguish between DHA derived from either source without the use of costly labelled tracers. In the present study, we demonstrate the proof-of-concept th...
Article
A detailed understanding of the possible confounding effects of natural diet is important for ecotoxicological research where exposures cannot be controlled. The opportunistic feeding of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) may limit the ability to draw toxicological conclusions where food sources are potentially contaminated, such as...
Article
Full-text available
A concurrent decrease in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) condition and Diporeia spp. abundance in Lake Michigan has spurred investigations into possible links between the two phenomena. We examined female lake whitefish δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N stable isotopes, growth, reproductive investment, dorsal muscle total lipid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) c...
Article
Shifting prey distributions due to global warming are expected to generate dramatic ecosystem-wide changes in trophic structure within Arctic marine ecosystems. Yet a relatively poor understanding of contemporary Arctic food webs makes it difficult to predict the consequences of such changes for Arctic predators. Doing so requires quantitative appr...
Article
Full-text available
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially long-chain (i.e., ≥20 carbons) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), are fundamental to the health and survival of marine and terrestrial organisms. Therefore, it is imperative that we gain a better understanding of their origin, abundance, and transfer between and within these ecosystems. We evaluate...
Article
We explored how currently manufactured feeds, under real-world conditions and across geographically distinct locations, promoted flesh n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA, i.e. 20:5n-3 + 22:6n-3) levels in various life stages of farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). Potential effects on flesh LC-PUFA included: (1) diet and fish weigh...
Article
Phytoplankton are the main source of energy and omega-3 (n-3) long-chain essential fatty acids (EFA) in aquatic ecosystems. Their growth and biochemical composition is affected by surrounding environmental conditions, including temperature; which continues to increase as a result of climate warming. Increasing water temperatures may negatively impa...
Article
It is commonly assumed that the most accurate data on fatty acid (FA) contents are obtained when samples are analyzed immediately after collection. For logistical reasons, however, this is not always feasible and samples are often kept on ice or frozen at various temperatures and for diverse time periods. We quantified temporal changes of selected...
Data
Journal article survey of storage conditions used for various aquatic organisms. (TIF)
Data
Fatty acid content (μg FAME/mg dry tissue weight) of 6 fish species for all storage treatments. (DOCX)
Data
Mean and standard deviations of FAME proportions (%) of 6 fish species for all storage treatments. (DOCX)
Data
Number of ISI-indexed journal publications, taken from Web of Science®, from 1990 to 2013. Search criteria was, 'lipid*' or 'fatty acid*' and either “lake or pond or stream or wetland or river” (in the case of freshwater ecosystems) or “ocean or sea or marine or estuary” (in the case of marine ecosystems). The dataset was subsequently refined to th...
Article
Full-text available
Nutritional enhancement of crops using genetic engineering can potentially affect herbivorous pests. Recently, oilseed crops have been genetically engineered to produce the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at levels similar to that found in fish oil; to provide a more sustain...
Data
Total lipid (% dry weight) and FA composition (μg ∙ mg-1) of diets fed to the larval cabbage butterfly (n = 3) (DOCX)
Data
Total lipid (%) and FA composition (% total FA) of diets fed to the larval cabbage butterfly (n = 12) (DOCX)
Data
Total lipid (% dry weight) and FA composition (μg ∙ mg-1) of whole butterflies (n = 12) that were fed experimental diets during their larval stage (DOCX)
Data
Total lipid (%) and FA composition (% total FA) of whole butterflies that were fed experimental diets during their larval stage (DOCX)
Article
We tested the influence of two light intensities [40 and 300 µmol PAR / (m² s)] on the fatty acid composition of three distinct lipid classes in four freshwater phytoplankton species. We chose species of different taxonomic classes in order to detect potentially similar reaction characteristics that might also be present in natural phytoplankton co...
Article
Full-text available
Ultraviolet (UV)-B levels are still increasing at high and polar latitudes where ozone depletion continues. Changes in the quality of algae at the base of the food web can have a cascading effect on higher trophic levels. We examined whether UV radiation altered the synthesis of fatty acids (FA) and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), as well as t...
Article
We experimentally show that Daphnia magna can use terrestrial-derived dissolved organic matter (t-DOM) to support growth and reproduction when alternative food sources are limiting or absent. Unlike previous studies, we restricted available food to limiting algae (0.1 mg C L−1 of Scenedesmus obliquus, provided to all treatments) and bacteria (condi...
Article
Full-text available
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are critical for the health of aquatic and terrestrial organisms; therefore, understanding the production, distribution, and abundance of these compounds is very important. Although the dynamics of LC-PUFA production and distribution in aquatic environments has been well documented, a systematic and...
Article
We conducted a field study in Wisconsin to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17 to 1.23 µg/g wet weight (ww) in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0 - 8.1) and were modeled as a function of maternal loon Hg exposure and egg laying order....
Article
A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter species in pig and dairy cattle manure that led to the identification of the strains AF1440T, AF1430 and AF1581, respectively. Initially identified as Arcobacter butzleri based on colony morphology and initial PCR-confirmation tests, analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences o...
Article
Large river systems are often thought to contain a mosaic of patches with different habitat characteristics driven by differences in flow and mixing environments. Off-channel habitats (e.g., backwater areas, secondary channels) can become semi-isolated from main-channel water inputs, leading to the development of distinct biogeochemical environment...
Article
Norflurazon (Nf) and fluridone (Fd) are phytoene desaturase inhibitor herbicides that are widely used for the control of grasses and invasive aquatic weeds, respectively. These herbicides enter aquatic environments where they can negatively affect non-target plant species (e.g. algae). Their toxicity towards algae may be modified by abiotic factors s...
Article
Full-text available
The jellification of north temperate lakes. Calcium (Ca) concentrations are decreasing in softwater lakes across eastern North America and western Europe. Using long-term contemporary and palaeo-environmental field data, we show that this is precipitating a dramatic change in Canadian lakes: the replacement of previously dominant pelagic herbivores...
Article
We measured stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) and fatty acid profiles in Lake Ontario alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) collected from 1982 to 2008 to investigate how temporal variability in these ecological tracers can relate to...