Michael W Arthur

Michael W Arthur
University of Washington Seattle | UW · Social Development Research Group

About

62
Publications
16,861
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6,114
Citations
Citations since 2017
1 Research Item
1658 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Full-text available
School administrators and teachers face difficult decisions about how best to use school resources to meet academic achievement goals. Many are hesitant to adopt prevention curricula that are not focused directly on academic achievement. Yet, some have hypothesized that prevention curricula can remove barriers to learning and, thus, promote achieve...
Article
Social Work has a long history of community practice, but community practice models have been understudied. An important first step in conducting such studies is the establishment of psychometrically sound measures relevant for evaluations of community practice. In this paper, data are used from a community-randomized trial of Communities That Care...
Article
Full-text available
Tested and effective approaches are available to prevent mental, emotional, and behavioral problems in youth, but such approaches are underused. Communities That Care (CTC) is a coalition-based strategy that aims to increase the use of tested and effective programs by combining the use of scientific evidence and stakeholder consensus to support the...
Article
This study examined whether the significant intervention effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on youth problem behaviors observed in a panel of eighth-grade students (Hawkins et al. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 163:789-798 2009) were mediated by community-level prevention system constructs posited in the CT...
Conference Paper
Background/Purpose: Community coalitions have become a widely used strategy for mobilizing stakeholders to address community prevention goals with coordinated preventive interventions, but evidence is mixed about their effectiveness and sustainability. Communities That Care (CTC) is a coalition-based system that empowers community stakeholders to a...
Article
Full-text available
Community coalitions are a popular strategy to coordinate activities and resources to prevent adolescent substance use and delinquent behavior. Despite early evidence of their lack of effectiveness, a new generation of community coalitions has shown positive results in preventing youth substance use and delinquency. This success can be attributed t...
Article
Full-text available
Community prevention coalitions are a common strategy to mobilize stakeholders to implement tested and effective prevention programs to promote adolescent health and well-being. This article examines the sustainability of Communities That Care (CTC) coalitions approximately 20 months after study support for the intervention ended. The Community You...
Article
To test whether the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system reduced levels of risk and adolescent problem behaviors community-wide 6 years after installation of CTC and 1 year after study-provided resources ended. A community randomized trial. Twenty-four small towns in 7 states, matched within state, randomly assigned to control or intervent...
Conference Paper
Background and Purpose: Preventing adolescent substance use, delinquency, and other problem behaviors is important to adolescent and community wellbeing. Coalitions are a popular change strategy for mobilizing stakeholders to address community goals, but the evidence is mixed about the effectiveness and sustainability of such strategies (Feinberg,...
Article
The association between community-aggregated levels of peer and individual risk and protective factors and prevalence of adolescent substance use was examined in repeated cross-sectional data among youth in 41 communities ranging in population from 1,578 to 106,221. The association between community levels of these peer and individual risk and prot...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes findings from the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS), a randomized controlled trial of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system, on the adoption and implementation fidelity of science-based prevention programming in 24 communities. Data were collected using the Community Resource Documentation (CRD), which entail...
Article
This study examines prevention system transformation as part of a community-randomized controlled trial of Communities That Care (CTC). Using data from surveys of community leaders, we examine differences between CTC and control communities 4.5 years after CTC implementation. Significantly higher levels of adopting a science-based approach to preve...
Article
While advances in prevention science over the past 2 decades have produced a growing list of tested and effective programs and policies for preventing adolescent delinquency and drug use, widespread dissemination and high-quality implementation of effective programs and policies in communities has not been achieved. The Community Youth Development...
Article
Full-text available
To test whether the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system reduces adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and delinquent behavior communitywide. The Community Youth Development Study is the first randomized trial of CTC. In 2003, 24 small towns in 7 states, matched within state, were randomly assigned to control or CTC conditions. A...
Article
Translational research (Pentz, Jasuja, Rohrbach, Sussman, & Bardo, 2006; Woolf, 2008) is concerned with moving advances in prevention science into everyday practice in communities, yet there are few models for ensuring this transfer of knowledge. Communities That Care (CTC) provides a planned, structured, and data-driven system that trains communit...
Article
Full-text available
Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system designed to reduce adolescent substance use and delinquency through the selection of effective preventive interventions tailored to a community's specific profile of risk and protection. A community-randomized trial of CTC, the Community Youth Development Study, is currently being conducted in 24 c...
Article
Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system designed to reduce levels of adolescent delinquency and substance use through the selection and use of effective preventive interventions tailored to a community's specific profile of risk and protection. This article describes early findings from the first group-randomized trial of CTC. A panel of...
Article
This paper describes the development, application, and results of an implementation monitoring component of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention framework used in the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS) to ensure high-fidelity prevention program implementation. This system was created based on research that community-based implementation...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence to suggest that the effects of behavioral interventions may be limited to specific types of individuals, but methods for evaluating such outcomes have not been fully developed. This study proposes the use of finite mixture models to evaluate whether interventions, and, specifically, group randomized trials, impact participants wit...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in prevention science provide evidence that adolescent health and behavior problems can be prevented by high-quality prevention services. However, many communities continue to use prevention strategies that have not been shown to be effective. Studying processes for promoting the dissemination and high-quality implementation of prev...
Article
Full-text available
There is mixed evidence regarding the extent to which communities can replicate science-based substance use and delinquency prevention programs with high implementation fidelity, that is, in close adherence to the theoretical rationale and specifications of the program. This article examines implementation of 16 tested and effective preventive inte...
Article
This article describes the degree to which high fidelity implementation of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention operating system was reached during the first 18 months of intervention in 12 communities in the Community Youth Development Study, a 5-year group randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of the CTC system. CTC inst...
Article
This study assesses a measure of community-wide collaboration on prevention-specific activities (i.e., prevention collaboration) in context of the theory of community change used in the Communities That Care prevention system. Using data from a sample of 599 community leaders across 41 communities, we examined the measure with regard to its factor...
Article
This study investigates community-level prediction of adolescent substance use and problem behaviors using ratings by community leaders to assess the effects of four risk factors on levels of drug use and problem behaviors. Three questions are examined: (a) Can psychometrically sound measures of community leader perceptions of risk factors in their...
Article
The Community Youth Development Study (CYDS) is a community-randomized trial of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system. Using data from 2001 and 2004 administrations of the Community Key Informant Survey, this study reports changes in three community-level outcomes 1.5 years after implementing CTC in 12 communities. Respondents consisted...
Article
Boys consistently report higher rates of serious offending during late adolescence than do girls, yet research is mixed regarding the ways in which males and females may differentially experience risk and protection in their families, schools, peer groups, and as individuals. This article examines gender differences in 22 psychosocial risk and prot...
Article
The Communities That Care Youth Survey measures risk and protective factors shown in prior studies to predict adolescent problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence. This paper describes the development and validation of cut points for the risk and protective factor scales in the Communities That Care Youth Survey that distinguish...
Article
Research has identified risk and protective factors related to adolescent substance use using individual-level data, but it is uncertain whether or not these relationships exist when data are aggregated to a community level. Using data from adolescents in 41 communities, this article found that most community and family risk and protective factors,...
Article
Full-text available
Some extant theory and empirical research suggests that youth problem behaviors, such as substance abuse and delinquency, reflect a single underlying dimension of behavior, whereas others suggest there are several different dimensions. Few studies have examined potential international differences in the structure of problem behavior, where cultural...
Article
The Community Youth Development Study (CYDS) will evaluate the Communities That Care (CTC) operating system for its effects on alcohol, tobacco, drug use, and other outcomes among adolescents resident in the 24 participating communities. The CYDS employs a combination of both cross-sectional and cohort designs. We use data from an earlier study tha...
Article
Although youth drug and alcohol harm minimization policies in Australia are often contrasted with the abstinence and zero tolerance policies adopted in the United States, there has been little research directly comparing youth substance use behaviour in the two countries. Three state representative samples in Victoria, Australia (n = 7898) and in t...
Article
Communities are the context in which many prevention activities take place. One approach to community prevention is to identify the most elevated risk factors and most depressed protective factors for substance use in a community and then to select and implement preventive interventions to address the most elevated risk factors and most depressed p...
Article
Prevention science has produced information about risk and protective factors that predict adolescent drug use and related problem behaviors. This paper investigates the Communities That Care Youth Survey that measures multiple risk and protective factors. Using a sample of 172,628 students who participated in surveys administered in seven states i...
Chapter
Prevention science provides a framework for community prevention planning that uses epidemiological data on empirically established predictors of health and behavior outcomes to identify specific short-term objectives for a community’s prevention efforts, and to select effective preventive interventions that have been shown to address these specifi...
Article
To compare risk and protective factors that influence youth substance use in Australia and the United States. The two countries have different policy orientations toward substance use: Australia has adopted harm-reduction policies, and the United States has adopted abstinence-focused policies. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from indepen...
Article
To compare risk and protective factors that influence youth substance use in Australia and the United States. The two countries have different policy orientations toward substance use: Australia has adopted harm-reduction policies, and the United States has adopted abstinence-focused polices.
Article
Full-text available
Youth substance use is an important social and health problem in the United States, Australia and other Western nations. Schools are recognized as important sites for prevention efforts and school substance use policies are a key component of health promotion in schools. The first part of this paper reviews the known status of school policies on to...
Article
To examine the convergence in the critiques and recommendations for the future of programs to promote healthy development and prevent problem behaviors among children and adolescents. A review of literature captures two streams of thought, those promoting positive youth development approaches to youth programming and those promoting prevention scie...
Article
Full-text available
Risk and protective factors predictive of adolescent problem behaviors such as substance abuse and delinquency are promising targets for preventive intervention. Community planners should assess and target risk and protective factors when designing prevention programs. This study describes the development, reliability, and validity of a self-report...
Article
In the past decade, prevention science has emerged as a discipline built on the integration of life course development research, community epidemiology, and preventive intervention trials [Am. Psychol. 48 (1993) 1013; Am. J. Community Psychol. 27 (1999) 463; Kellam, S. G., & Rebok, G. W. (1992). Building developmental and etiological theory through...
Article
Despite advances in knowledge about factors that predict substance abuse and interventions that have been effective at preventing alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among adolescents, the prevalence of drug use and abuse among American adolescents and young adults remains alarmingly high. The U.S. government spent $2.45 billion in 1999 on drug ab...
Article
Despite advances in knowledge about factors that predict substance abuse and interventions that have been effective at preventing alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among adolescents, the prevalence of drug use and abuse among American adolescents and young adults remains alarmingly high. The U.S. government spent $2.45 billion in 1999 on drug ab...
Article
Prevention science has suggested that preventive interventions should reduce risk factors and enhance protective factors. Recently, some researchers have proposed that preventive interventions focused on enhancing protective factors and promoting resilience will produce more positive outcomes than interventions that focus attention on risk factors....
Article
This chapter reviews comprehensive school and community interventions to reduce risks and enhance protection to prevent adolescent antisocial behavior. Although few of these programs have examined their impact on serious and violent juvenile (SVJ) offending, these types of programs that address multiple risk factors in multiple domains may be the m...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored adolescents'developmental strivings for autonomy and relatedness as motivations in socialproblem-solving competence, and the relevance of those strivings to explaining variation in delinquent activity. Eighty African American and Caucasian male adolescents (11 through 18 years of age) at high riskfor delinquency provided their l...
Article
This study investigates the relationship of panel accretion to panel attrition and examines its impact on threats to external validity in adolescent substance use research. Panel accretion involves the addition of new participants to a panel design after initial baseline data has been obtained. Accretion occurs in longitudinal studies in which data...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines four areas of "problem behavior" (i.e., delinquency, high-risk sexual behavior, school failure, and substance abuse) in a sample of urban sixth and seventh grade students. We report descriptive statistics regarding rates of problem behaviors in each of the four categories and examine their interrelationships. The results suggest...
Article
Although the prevalence of drug use among high school students and household members has been declining in recent years, high rates of substance use among arrestees, homeless individuals, and school dropouts, and an increasing trend in the number of drug-related hospital emergency room incidents, suggest that substance abuse among some populations...
Article
This article reviews available evidence regarding the effectiveness of prevention and treatment programs to reduce juvenile delinquency. A broad range of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs are considered. The conclusions reached from this review are that interventions must be broadly based, extend over long time periods of develop...
Article
Panel attrition threatens external validity in adolescent substance use research. A 7-year adolescent panel was examined to determine whether attrition effects varied by (a) type of substance assessed and (b) method of measurement and type of statistical analysis. Chi-squares and multivariate analyses of variance revealed that study dropouts were m...
Article
The present study examines the relationship among grade, substance assessed; and type of measurement and statistical analysis employed in the detection of external validity threats due to panel attrition in the modal follow-up study found in adolescent substance use research. Six successive 2-year panel samples are examined The results indicate tha...
Article
This study presents two-year follow-up results of the Adolescent Decision-Making Program initially implemented when students were in their sixth grade. The intervention was found to maintain a positive effect on mean tobacco use, but no differences were observed for mean alcohol, marijuana, or hard drug use. In a test of the differential effectiven...
Article
We examined the effectiveness of 2 models of arthritis self-care intervention, the home study model and the small group model. The effects of disease diagnosis and duration, self-care behavior, perceived helplessness, social support, treatment choice, and formal education level on outcomes among persons with arthritis who participated in these prog...
Article
Full-text available
Juvenile delinquency has become an increasing concern to society; aggressive behaviors are particularly harmful. This study examined parent and youth behaviors and personality types that may influence delinquent and aggressive behaviors. Youths were referred by the court to an intervention program; ratings of delinquency and aggression were derived...
Article
reviews knowledge about the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce risks and enhance protection against adolescent antisocial behavior and identifies leads for research and intervention / of specific interest here are community mobilization, media, and policy interventions that seek to reduce risk factors and enhance protective factors...

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Project (1)
Project
The International Youth Development Study (IYDS) is an ongoing longitudinal study that looks at the development of healthy and problem behaviours among young people in the state of Victoria, Australia and the state of Washington, United States. IYDS is one of the first studies designed to examine whether or not differences in Australian and American cultures and schools affect youth development. The study began in 2002 with an original sample of nearly 6000 participants across the two states. The study continues to follow-up participants into adulthood.