Menno-Jan Kraak

Menno-Jan Kraak
University of Twente | UT · Department of Geo-information Processing (GIP)

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279
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Publications

Publications (279)
Article
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Understanding and quantifying ES flows is essential for the sustainable management of social-ecological systems, as it directly captures the human-nature interactions within the system and not solely its individual elements. Especially in degrading marine systems, most ES assessments focus solely on either biophysical or socio-economic elements of...
Article
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Large‐scale biodiversity data, e.g. on species distribution and richness information, are being mobilized and becoming available at an increasing rate. Interactive web applications like atlases have been developed to visualize available datasets and make them accessible to a wider audience. Web mapping tools are changing rapidly, and different unde...
Conference Paper
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To achieve the 17 ambitious Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) set by the United Nations (UN), 169 targets and over 200 indicator datasets have been identified to monitor progress to achieve these goals worldwide. The aim of these goals is to find actionable localized solutions to wicked problems such as poverty, hunger, access to water, environme...
Article
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Article
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Airline route maps show the flights an airline operates between destination airports. Maps like these tend to become cluttered quickly. The clutter depends on the amount of flights to display; the routes of flight paths, the balance between shorter (e.g., domestic) and longer (e.g., intercontinental) flights, and the geographic locations of route e...
Article
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Epidemics and pandemics are geographical in nature and constitute spatial, temporal, and thematic phenomena across large ranges of scales: local infections with a global spread; short-term decisions by governments and institutions with long-term effects; and diverse effects of the disease on many aspects of our lives. Pandemics pose particular chal...
Article
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On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization announced the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic. Despite an increasing number of international attempts using maps to present and communicate COVID-19-related information in different organizations, most map products have only used the presentation function of maps. Against this back...
Chapter
Today we are witnessing an increased use of data visualization in society. Across domains such as work, education and the news, various forms of graphs, charts and maps are used to explain, convince and tell stories. In an era in which more and more data are produced and circulated digitally, and digital tools make visualization production increasi...
Article
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Nowadays large amounts of movement data is available. This makes it important not only to be aware of how to collect and store this data, but also how to visually represent the information to get insights and “read” the story behind data. When visualising origin-destination data, the traditional flow map is the solution most often selected. A singl...
Article
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Many world maps visualize global data to represent the statistical and spatial relationships among countries. These maps are typically printed in reports or displayed online at a small scale. At such scale, small nations are difficult to perceive or even disappear, as is often the case for Small Island Developing States (SIDS), a group of more than...
Book
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In 2015, the United Nations identified 17 Sustainable Development Goals (henceforth SDGs) in an effort to address, collectively, the most pressing problems facing our world. The SDGs relate to broad social, economic, and environmental challenges, and provide a framework for shared action. Each of the 17 SDGs has a set of targets and indicators to a...
Article
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Thematic maps facilitate spatial understanding of patterns and exceptions. Cognitive ability, spatial cognition, and emotional state are related, yet there is little research about map readers’ emotions. Feminist critiques of cartography recognize emotion and affect as legitimate experiences on par with quantitative ways of knowing. We conducted an...
Conference Paper
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Purpose: In this presentation, we announce a book project to map the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The book project is a collaboration between the UN Cartographic Unit, Geospatial Information Section, and the International Cartographic Association (ICA), with layout and production completed by the University of Wisconsin...
Article
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Why do we teach cartography? The need for cartographic education: In our day to day life, on an individual or societal level there is a continual need or even demand for geospatial information. On an individual level this need is expressed by questions like: Where am I?, How far away is my new doctor’s office?, Which route should I take to get to m...
Article
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Since its commencement eight years ago, the Cartography Master program has enrolled 155 students in eight annual intakes from 58 different countries. In this paper we share the experiences of the alumni of the first 5 intakes of the Cartography M.Sc. program that were gained via an online survey. Through the results of the survey we are able to ans...
Article
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The choropleth is a widely used thematic map type. But it is not always ideal to visualize social data in engaging and accurate ways, especially as a standalone map. In this paper we discuss choropleths and two thematic map types with altered geometry: area cartograms and tile maps with repeating icons. To identify benefits and drawbacks of each, w...
Article
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Small-scale thematic maps help to visualize world-wide data, yet small nations can be difficult to discern or are omitted completely. This occurs for small island developing states (SIDS), a group of more than fifty states recognized by the United Nations for their social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities. Through this study we proposed a...
Article
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Smart cities are urban environments where Internet of Things (IoT) devices provide a continuous source of data about urban phenomena such as traffic and air pollution. The exploitation of the spatial properties of data enables situation and context awareness. However, the integration and analysis of data from IoT sensing devices remain a crucial ch...
Article
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The global population is growing at an incomprehensible rate and with it come complex environmental consequences that often result in social injustices. The United Nations has established a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in an attempt to ameliorate inequality and promise safety for the masses. To reach these goals, a set of indicators...
Poster
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Poster abstract for track Advances in eScience for the Humanities and Social Sciences at the 2018 IEEE 14th International Conference on e-Science in Amsterdam (29 October - 1 November). For published full abstract click here: https://doi.org/10.1109/eScience.2018.00129
Article
This paper reports on the results of an empirical evaluation that aimed to define the effectiveness and efficiency of different visual variables in depicting the Space-Time Cube’s content. Existing Space-Time Cube applications demonstrate that the most used visual variables are size and color hue. Less is known, however, about their usability metri...
Article
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Collaboration across disciplines is recognized as one of the great challenges for research in visual analysis of geographic information (GeoVisual Analytics, GVA). Considering the increasing availability of geodata and the complexity of analytical problems, the need to advance the support for collaborative work is becoming more pressing and promine...
Article
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Flow maps have long been servicing people in exploring movement by representing origin-destination data (OD data). Due to recent developments in data collecting techniques the amount of movement data is increasing dramatically. With such huge amounts of data, visual clutter in flow maps is becoming a challenge. This paper revisits flow maps, provid...
Article
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Since the movement data exist, there have been approaches to collect and analyze them to get insights. This kind of data is often heterogeneous, multiscale and multi-temporal. Those interested in spatio-temporal patterns of movement data do not gain insights from textual descriptions. Therefore, visualization is required. As spatio-temporal movemen...
Article
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The use of mobile applications on smartphones has a vast potential to support learning in the field. However, all learning technologies should be properly designed. To this end, we adopt User-Centered Design (UCD) to design a mobile application, called GeoFARA (Geography Fieldwork Augmented Reality Application), for university geography fieldwork....
Article
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As one spatio-temporal data mining task, clustering helps the exploration of patterns in the data by grouping similar elements together. However, previous studies on spatial or temporal clustering are incapable of analysing complex patterns in spatio-temporal data. For instance, concurrent spatio-temporal patterns in 2D or 3D datasets. In this stud...
Article
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Since current studies on clustering analysis mainly focus on exploring spatial or temporal patterns separately, a co-clustering algorithm is utilized in this study to enable the concurrent analysis of spatio-temporal patterns. To allow users to adopt and adapt the algorithm for their own analysis, it is integrated within the server side of an inter...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Flow maps have long been servicing people in exploring movement by representing origin-destination data (OD data). Due to recent developments in data collecting techniques the amount of movement data is increasing dramatically. With such huge amounts of data, visual clutter in flow maps is becoming a challenge. This paper revis-its flow maps, provi...
Article
Full-text available
Clustering is often used to explore patterns in georeferenced time series (GTS). Most clustering studies, however, only analyze GTS from one or two dimension(s) and are not capable of the simultaneous analysis of the data from three dimensions: spatial, temporal, and any third (e.g., attribute) dimension. Here we develop a novel clustering algorith...
Conference Paper
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A GeoVisual Analytics (GVA) environment is based on highly interactive and dynamic visualization techniques intending to reveal knowledge in complex and multivariate datasets. By depicting information, these techniques amplify human capabilities and facilitate the performance of cognitive tasks for pattern recognition, decision-making or analytical...
Conference Paper
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This paper describes a pilot study that implements a novel approach for crowdsourcing the validation of clusters created from user-generated geographic content, or UGGC (Craglia et al., 2012). This validation is done by letting the crowd train a classifier. Although UGGC has proven its utility for a variety of tasks and purposes (Fast and Rinner, 2...
Article
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In this contribution, we first focus on maps as landmarks of cartographic innovation in the context of societal and technical developments in history. This historical analysis stimulated us to offer a new definition for the map that reflects our intention to provide a succinct and flexible, yet inclusive and sustainable definition of our discipline...
Article
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Some map users still experience difficulties when attempting to route plan, navigate and/or wayfind. This paper provides information on the outcomes of a research project that aims to identify the nature of the difficulties/challenges these users experience. The paper draws on findings from studies of strategies used by novice and experienced map u...
Chapter
Well-designed maps offer insight into spatial patterns and relations among the mapped phenomena, and do this well because they symbolize and abstract the reality represented. Map design is guided by the cartographic visualization process and based on a proper data analysis to make sure the symbology selected matches the perceptual properties of the...
Article
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Geospatial big data present a new set of challenges and opportunities for cartographic researchers in technical, methodological and artistic realms. New computational and technical paradigms for cartography are accompanying the rise of geospatial big data. Additionally, the art and science of cartography needs to focus its contemporary efforts on w...
Article
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The Space–Time Cube (STC) is a suitable representation to display multiple characteristics of movement data and will especially reveal temporal patterns in the data. By adding annotations to the cube’s paths and stations, the narrative of the display is enhanced. To illustrate the STC’s storytelling capabilities, a historical event, Napoleon’s cros...
Article
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The content of an Origin and Destination matrix informs about the nature of movement and connectivity between locations. These could be point locations, like airports, or regions, like countries. The path of the flow can be known in detail (the path of an airplane) or only be abstract (migration between provinces). The type of movement or flow can...
Article
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A time cartogram visualizes travelling-times between locations. It replaces the geographic distance by time distance and distorts the underlyingmap accordingly. By distorting themap, time cartogramsmay give a more intuitive and clear picture of travelling-times. The distortion of the map, however, can make time cartograms harder to recognize and us...
Chapter
This paper presents a refined taxonomy of user tasks and interactive tasks based on a review of the fields of information visualization, geovisualization and visual analytics. Our aim is to find common ground across previous studies to support those who seek parameters for designing visual solutions to users’ domain problems. We first abstract the...
Chapter
The combined use of mobile Augmented Reality (AR) and various visualizations has a potential to support geography fieldwork. Central to the development of a usable mobile tool is adopting the principle of User-Centered Design (UCD), the first phase of which is identifying user requirements. This research first establishes the current situation of u...
Article
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The study of phenological patterns and their dynamics provides insights into the impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems. Here we present a novel analytical workflow, based on co-clustering, that enables the concurrent study of spatio-temporal patterns in spring phenology. The workflow is illustrated with a long-term time series of firs...
Article
In several domains, there has been an increasing interest in analysing moving objects due to the recent ubiquity of location tracking devices. These locations are commonly abstracted and stored as trajectories: a finite set of ordered in time geometries. Tracked objects tend to move in a certain environment that influences their movement behaviour....
Article
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3D desktop-based virtual environments provide a means for displaying quantitative data in context. Data that is inherently spatial in three-dimensions may benefit from visual exploration and analysis in relation to the environment in which they were collected and to which they relate. We empirically evaluate how effectively and efficiently such dat...
Article
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Wind speed and direction vary over space and time due to the interactions between different pressures and temperature gradients within the atmospheric layers. Near the earth’s surface, these interactions are modulated by topography and artificial structures. Hence, characterizing wind behaviour over large areas and long periods is a complex but ess...
Article
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This paper reports the results of an empirical usability experiment on the performance of the space-time cube in a GeoVisual analytics environment. It was developed to explore movement data based on the requirements of human geographers. The interactive environment consists of multiple coordinated views incorporating three graphical representations...
Article
Human sensing is a notion of crowd-sourcing whereby ICT devices are utilized for data collection. Human Sensor Web (HSW) is a network of people who interact with their devices in order to forward their observations to a designated receiving server in the form of messages (such as SMS and USSD). It capitalizes on the accessibility of ICT tools (such...
Conference Paper
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Wind has become increasingly important as a source of energy although the generation of wind energy is quite erratic because of its changeable nature. For a given location, wind speed and direction change over time and at different heights. Previous studies have discovered different pattern of wind profiles, however an improved understanding of its...
Article
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This article presents an overview of a research project focusing on improving the usability of pedestrian navigation systems by following a User-Centered Design (UCD) approach. One of the main problems with those systems is how to adequately support and enhance the spatial interactions of a traveler to new urban areas, which is crucial for successf...
Chapter
The cartographic visualization process, based on the statement How do I say what to whom, and is it effective is explained for both presenting and exploring spatiotemporal data. The visualization environment and required functionality are described.
Article
Full-text available
Clustering allows considering groups of similar data elements at a higher level of abstraction. This facilitates the extraction of patterns and useful information from large amounts of spatio-temporal data. Till now, most studies have focused on the extraction of patterns from a spatial or a temporal aspect. Here we use the Bregman block average co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Checking the consistency of volunteered geographic information is a challenging task. Current approaches addressing this challenge are costly and time consuming as they heavily rely on human interventions. Here, we propose a geocomputational workflow based on the availability of relevant contextual geoinformation. The workflow consists of three mai...