Meltem Muftuler-Bac

Meltem Muftuler-Bac
Sabanci University · Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

Ph.D

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78
Publications
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1,328
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Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Migration has become highly contentious. Turkey is no exception. Turkey faces even further challenges as the host to the world's largest refugee population, with Syrians as the majority. Fear about loss of control over borders, and its subsequent political, economic, social and cultural repercussions lies at the heart of migration debates. Parliame...
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In recent years, the externalization of migration governance and external protection of European borders stimulated the redesign of the Turkish migration regime. This externalization faced its major litmus test with the Syrian refugee crisis. This article proposes that Turkey’s accession process to the European Union (EU) and its ongoing collaborat...
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The Western Balkans have been on the path of European Union accession, officially since 2003. The European Union invested heavily in the region to stabilise and democratise these countries and prepare them for eventual EU accession. This paper proposes that the EU-with its democracy aid and progress on accession stages acted as an external actor th...
Article
Increasing numbers of women in Turkey are murdered by their relatives, spouses or significant others. The perpetrators plead provocation for their crimes, claiming their actions are provoked by women’s initial acts which they deem to violate societal norms. Pleading provocation enables more lenient sentences. This article investigates the interplay...
Article
In recent years, Turkey has allocated humanitarian aid that surpasses much richer economies, including the EU. This article provides a thorough look into the patterns of divergence, complementarity and cooperation opportunities that emerged between Turkey and the EU, on sectoral aid, allocated between 2005 and 2017. The empirical analysis demonstra...
Article
Judicial reform has been part and parcel of democratization process among countries preparing for European Union accession. The literature on EU enlargement, political conditionality conceptualizes the EU’s role in promoting rule of law and judicial reforms in its external neighbourhood, especially in the candidate states as largely positive. Howev...
Article
Turkey’s relations with the European Union are at a stalemate, with accession negotiations effectively frozen. Yet, Turkey opts into the EU acquis in multiple policy areas, where its voluntary compliance-prior to or an alternative to accession, could be conceptualized as external differentiated integration. We analyse Turkish compliance into the EU...
Article
Turkey’s accession to the European Union (EU) is one of the most controversial cases in its enlargement policy. Both external and domestic factors complicate its accession, bringing forth questions on geographical, cultural borders of Europe as well as the limits of EU’s institutional capacity. While Turkey’s accession seems to be farther away, it...
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This paper compares the EU’s accession negotiations with Bulgaria and Turkey to assess the conditions under which their negotiations unfolded and the role of bilateral issues in that aspect. To do so, the paper highlights the role of the member state vetoes and bilateral relations in the EU negotiations. It needs to be noted that even though the Eu...
Chapter
As of 2016, there are seven countries which are at different stages of their accession to the EU with key differences that set the current process apart from the previous round of enlargement. First, it seems to be that there is declining support amongst EU Member States to continue with the enlargement policy. Second, the Member States have visibl...
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This paper investigates the changes in Turkish foreign policy towards the EU in the light of the alterations in the EU’s external environment that makes enlargement less likely at least in the near future, and the least likely with regard to Turkey. That is because, while the EU is going through turbulent times internally, its external environment...
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Turkey adopted a new strategy for its European Union accession process in 2014, in an attempt to revitalize its relations with the EU. Turkish foreign policy towards the European Union has remained consistent with full membership as its main goal. However, since 2013, there have been significant challenges for the realization of that foreign policy...
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A prominent question in the literature on democracy is concerned with the role of external factors in stimulating the process of democratization and uploading rule of law. This paper tackles the following questions: How does the political conditionality of an international organization—the EU in this case—stimulate democracy in third countries? Equ...
Article
Turkey has always been one of the key players in the EU’s periphery, in terms of its economic capabilities, geographical position and political significance. While the EU’s stance towards Turkey has been ambivalent over recent decades, Turkey, nonetheless, plays an important role both regionally and globally: one that the EU cannot overlook. This p...
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What role does the European integration process play in shaping transatlantic relations, if any? The question brings forth the related issue of whether the EU is able to exercise leadership in fostering changes in the international system and through its relationship with the US. The article provides a literature review on the EU as a foreign polic...
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Executive Summary On December 14, 2015, the European Union member states unanimously agreed to open Chapter 17, the Chapter on Economic and Financial Matters, with Turkey as part and parcel of the accession negotiations. The opening of Chapter 17 came on the heels of a new wave of revitalization for Turkey's accession negotiations with the EU, with...
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Parliamentarians find themselves engaged in political struggle through the medium of language and constrained by their own rhetoric. These parliamentary debates reveal political perceptions. The external perceptions about the European Union emerge as a relatively understudied topic in political science. This brings forth the following question; how...
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What kind of a future is there for human rights governance, especially if the transatlantic partners-the key actors behind its establishment-are in decline? Do emerging powers participate and con-tribute to the inter-national liberal order regarding human rights issues and democratic govern-ance? These are impor-tant ques-tions that play critical r...
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This article proposes that Turkey's foreign policy towards Iraq changed radically after 2007, in response to external challenges and domestic developments. The article analyses how Turkey's role in Iraq has changed on two different levels: firstly, in terms of increased activism and diplomatic engagement, and secondly, in terms of its increased eco...
Chapter
. The discussions on the EU’s normative power acquire a new dimension when one looks at the critical areas for the future of Europe; the Caucasus and the Middle East. It is now possible to witness a change in Turkish foreign policy with respect to the EU, as well as the Turkish neighbours in the Middle East and Caucasus. A question that begs an ans...
Article
Since 2007, there seems to be a re-shuffling of economic and political strength between the great powers of the previous period and the challengers, altering the global landscape. One such player aspiring to be one of the new global powers is Turkey. This does not seem a far fetched goal given Turkey’s impressive economic clout, as the 15th largest...
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A critical juncture in Turkey's NATO membership arrived in 2010 with the NATO Council's decision, at its Lisbon summit, to build a ballistic missile defense system. After many deliberations, Turkey finally agreed to participate in NATO's missile defense by hosting the system's radar site in September 2011. Th is article investigates the main dynami...
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What role does the European integra-tion process play in shaping transatlantic relations, if any? The question brings forth the related issue of whether the EU is able to exercise le-adership in fostering changes in the in-ternational system and through its re-lationship with the US. The paper provides a literature review on the EU as a foreign pol...
Article
A critical juncture in Turkey’s NATO membership arrived in 2010 with the NATO Council’s decision, at its Lisbon summit, to build a ballistic missile defense system. After many deliberations, Turkey nally agreed to participate in NATO’s missile defense by hosting the system’s radar site in September 2011. is article investigates the main dynamics of...
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The paper analyzes the main factors leading to the Justice and Development Party’s 2011 electoral victory and proposes that the party’s ability to engage with the Turkish public and its effective governance are the main reasons behind its electoral successes. The AKP’s position could be characterized by “electoral hegemony,” yet it seems...
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The principle of gender equality is part and parcel of the “EU-niversal” canon which aspirants for membership to the European Union must adopt. This would appear in sync with a Turkish national project that long aspired to convergence with European modernity and which flagged women's emancipation as a symbol of such convergence. Yet, in recent year...
Article
Kibris, Arzu and Meltem Müftüler Baç. (2011) The Accession Games: A Comparison of Three Limited-Information Negotiation Designs. International Studies Perspectives, doi: 10.1111/j.1528-3585.2011.00437.x © 2011 International Studies Association We analyze the EU enlargement process from a rational institutionalist perspective and argue that the acce...
Article
This paper investigates whether Turkish foreign policy has changed in recent years, specifically in line with the EU accession process, and tries to uncover the main dynamics behind these changes. The main proposition in the paper is that domestic changes in Turkey have led to a reshuffling of foreign policy objectives with a renewed emphasis on im...
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The question of energy security is one of the main concerns for the future of Europe because of the growing dependency of the European countries on third parties, namely Russia, for natural gas. The future of European energy security will be shaped by the EU's dependence on Russia and its ability to find alternative sources of energy as well as mul...
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This article does not have an abstract
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When Turkey began its accession negotiations with the European Union on 3 October 2005, this constituted an important turning point for Turkey’s relations with the EU and for Turkish socio-political transformation. This paper poses the following questions; is there a Europeanisation of Turkish foreign policy as a result of Turkey’s accession negoti...
Article
The relationship between Turkey and the EU entered a new phrase on October 3, 2005 with the opening of Turkey’s accession negotiations. This paper proposes that the specific juncture that European integration finds itself in and the perceptions of Turkey’s fit into Europe are the main variables around which member states’ preferences and the Europe...
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The opening of accession negotiations between Turkey and the EU is a historic turning point for the European Union’s foreign policy. This paper proposes that the EU needs to accept Turkey as a member — subject to Turkey’s ability to meet all the accession criteria — for the realization of its foreign policy objectives. The opening of accession nego...
Article
This paper analyzes the impact of the EU enlargement process on Turkish collective identity formation. EU conditionality influences Turkish collective identity by bringing to the forefront issues on democracy, civilian control of the military, impartiality and independence of the judiciary, and minority rights. The paper investigates how different...
Article
The European Union has played the most important role in stimulating political change in post-World War II Europe. Turkey had to become more democratic in order to attain candidacy for EU membership in the second half of the 1990s, and when it became a candidate, it had to adopt sweeping political reforms in order to fulfil the EU's accession crite...
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In a historic moment, the Republic of Cyprus - as represented only by the Greek Cypriots - signed its Accession Treaty with the European Union on 16 April 2003 to become a full member of the EU on 1 May 2004. This is a major turning point in the history of the Cyprus conflict in terms of its implications for the Cyprus question, that is, the divisi...
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In a historic moment, the European Council decided in its December 2004 summit to open accession negotiations with Turkey on 3 October 2005. Even though Turkey has been on the borders of the European Union since its Association Agreement in 1963, there has always been a degree of ambivalence towards Turkey's membership. This paper proposes that the...
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European Union policy changed considerably towards Turkey between 1997 and 1999. This paper analyses the circumstances surrounding this change, focusing on (a) the modification in the overall enlargement strategy of the EU and (b) the effect of the change in particular member states' preferences with regard to Turkish candidacy. We contend that the...
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This contribution addresses the lack of information on Turkish opinion regarding the European Union (EU) by interviewing a sample of deputies in the Turkish Grand National Assembly (TBMM). The results indicate overwhelmingly favorable attitudes towards Turkey joining the EU as a full member and great hope that this will happen within 10-15 years. F...
Article
The European Union (EU) has embarked on an ambitious programme of enlargement. In this process, Turkey, as one of the candidates, has a particularly difficult position. This article argues that Turkey's relationship with the Union should not be treated as bilateral, but rather should be placed in the larger framework of EU enlargement. In this cont...
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The restructuring of European security after the end of the Cold War has generally been to Turkey's disadvantage. With the reduction of the level of military threat, Turkey was no longer recognized as European, so its claim to EU membership fell on deaf ears, despite its best efforts to put its economy in order and to be helpful to the Western part...
Article
This article discusses Turkey's role in Europe as a question of identity. As Europe reinvents itself along ethnic, cultural, and to a certain extent, racial lines, European perceptions of the “Turk” constitute serious obstacles to Turkey's integration into Europe. Turkey's hopes for full membership in the EU are far from being materialized because...
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This paper analyzes the Cyprus conflict from a realist perspective based on the assumption that it has implications for regional and global security. At the end of the millennium, the UN negotiations for Cyprus have been resumed, the USA has become more actively involved and the European Union has decided to open accession negotiations with Greek C...
Article
To the foreign observer, Turkish women constitute an anomaly amongst Muslim societies. Since the creation of the Turkish Republic in 1923, Turkey has engaged in a project of modernization and secularization. As part and parcel of this process of modernization, Turkish women have been granted social, political, and legal rights. Despite Kemalist ref...
Article
The European Union must make some tough decisions in finding an answer to the ever-present question of 'What to do with Turkey?'. The matter was more or less settled by the Luxembourg summit of the European Council held on 12 December 1997, at which the European Council decided to open accession negotiations with all the applicant countries except...
Chapter
This chapter analyses the role of middle powers in international politics in times of uncertainty and in regions which are marked by a high degree of instability. The focus is on Turkey’s role in the post-Cold War era in the Near East region. Turkey has the personnel, resources and entrepreneurial capacities to become an impressive mid-level power...
Article
The ultimate objective of the modern Turkish republic was to be recognized as a European state. The Cold War structures enabled the realization of that goal. Turkey's Europeanness was defined according to its geostrategic position; it became a reliable ally for the West as a buffer state against the former Soviet Union. The disappearance of the Col...
Article
This paper attempts to analyze the impact of the end of the Cold War on Turkey's position in the European and the Middle Eastern subsystems of states. During the Cold War, Turkey enjoyed a relatively secure position within NATO as a buffer state to the Soviet Union, and it was integrated into the European order as an associate member of the Europea...
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This article addresses the extent to which economic reforms undertaken in the 1980s were shaped by the Turkish policy-makers' concerns on the ramifications of the ongoing European integration on the Turkish economy and the Turkish desire to be "a part of the team' rather than a spectator. The economic policies of the Turkish government have to be e...
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The normative role that the EU plays has been one of the critical aspects of the debate concerning Turkey’s accession. Turkey’s membership,negotiations are critical in terms of the future of the European integration process, specifically with respect to the EU’s role as a global actor. This paper focuses on the Turkish perceptions of the EU’s role...
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In the 21 st century, the information societies, particularly the media, began to play an impor-tant role in shaping world politics, as a result of which there is a recent literature in interna-tional politics analysing the impact of information societies on power and international poli-tics. There is an ongoing debate in terms of the impact of the...

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