Melita Keywood

Melita Keywood
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation | CSIRO · Oceans and Atmosphere Aspendale

PhD Environmental Geochemistry

About

177
Publications
25,620
Reads
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5,606
Citations
Citations since 2017
38 Research Items
2356 Citations
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Introduction
Dr Melita Keywood research interest lies in the chemical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol which applies in a range of projects including tracking long term changes in aerosol microphysics and chemical composition of the remote marine boundary layer, and understanding aerosol growth and secondary organic aerosol in urban airsheds and biomass burning.
Additional affiliations
September 1996 - present
CSIRO Marine And Atmospheric Research
Position
  • Group Leader

Publications

Publications (177)
Article
Full-text available
A comparative study and evaluation of boundary layer height (BLH) estimation was conducted during an experimental campaign conducted at the Cape Grim Air Pollution station, Australia, from 1 June to 13 July 2019. The temporal and spatial distributions of BLH were studied using data from a ceilometer, sodar, in situ meteorological measurements, and...
Article
Full-text available
Many of the population centres in southeast Australia were swathed in bushfire smoke during the 2019–2020 austral summer. Bushfires burning during what is now known as the Black Summer was historically large and severe, and the fire season historically long. The chemical composition in the gas and aerosol phase of aged plumes measured near Wollongo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite considerable efforts during the last decade, real-time characterization of the marine boundary layer and aerosol optical properties over the Southern Ocean remains scarce. We conducted simultaneous measurements of the marine boundary layer utilizing a synergy of remote sensing technology at the Baseline Air Pollution Station at Cape Grim in...
Article
Full-text available
The Southern Ocean region is one of the most pristine in the world and serves as an important proxy for the pre-industrial atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the natural processes in this region is likely to result in the largest reductions in the uncertainty of climate and earth system models. While remoteness from anthropogenic and contin...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosol measurements over the Southern Ocean have been identified as critical to an improved understanding of aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions, as there currently exists significant discrepancies between model results and measurements in this region. The atmosphere above the Southern Ocean provides crucial insight into an aerosol re...
Article
Full-text available
Long-range transport of biogenic emissions from the coast of Antarctica, precipitation scavenging, and cloud processing are the main processes that influence the observed variability in Southern Ocean (SO) marine boundary layer (MBL) condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations during the austral summer. Airborne part...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Stratocumulus clouds over the Southern Ocean have fewer droplets and are more likely to exist in the predominately supercooled phase than clouds at similar temperatures over northern oceans. One likely reason is that this region has few continental and anthropogenic sources of cloud‐nucleating particles that can form droplets and ice. In t...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Southern Ocean region is one of the most pristine in the world, and serves as an important proxy for the pre-industrial atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the natural processes in this region are likely to result in the largest reductions in the uncertainty of climate and earth system models. While remoteness from anthropogenic and cont...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aerosol measurements over the Southern Ocean have been identified as critical to an improved understanding of aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions, as there currently exists significant discrepancies between model results and measurements in this region. Previous springtime measurements from the East Antarctic seasonal ice zone revealed...
Preprint
Full-text available
Long-range transport of biogenic emissions from the coast of Antarctica, precipitation scavenging, and cloud processing are the main processes that influence the observed variability in Southern Ocean (SO) marine boundary layer (MBL) condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations during the austral summer. Airborne part...
Article
Objective: To quantify aerosol generation from respiratory interventions and the effectiveness of their removal by a personal ventilation hood. Design and setting: Determination of the aerosol particle generation (in a single, healthy volunteer in a clean room) associated with breathing, speaking, wet coughing, oxygen (O2) 15 L/min via face mask...
Article
Full-text available
Cloud–radiation interactions over the Southern Ocean are not well constrained in climate models, in part due to uncertainties in the sources, concentrations, and cloud-forming potential of aerosol in this region. To date, most studies in this region have reported measurements from fixed terrestrial stations or a limited set of instrumentation and o...
Article
Objective: To quantify aerosol generation from respiratory interventions and the effectiveness of their removal by a personal ventilation hood. Design and setting: Determination of the aerosol particle generation (in a single, healthy volunteer in a clean room) associated with breathing, speaking, wet coughing, oxygen (O2) 15 L/min via face mask...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosols deposited into the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) contain iron (Fe) and other trace metals, which may act as micronutrients or as toxins to this sensitive marine ecosystem. In this paper, we quantified the atmospheric deposition of Fe and investigated aerosol sources in Mission Beach (Queensland) next to the GBR. Leaching experiments were applie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Cloud-radiation interactions over the Southern Ocean are not well constrained in climate models, in part due to uncertainties in the sources, concentrations and cloud-forming potential of aerosol in this region. To date, most studies in this region have reported measurements from fixed terrestrial stations or a limited set of instrumentat...
Article
The rapid environmental changes in Australia prompt a more thorough investigation of the influence of transportation, local emissions, and optical-chemical properties on aerosol production across the region. A month-long intensive measurement campaign was conducted during spring 2016 at Mission Beach, a remote coastal site west of the Great Barrier...
Article
Full-text available
Oceans cover over 70 % of the Earth's surface. Ship-based measurements are an important component in developing an understanding of atmosphere of this vast region. A common problem that impacts the quality of atmospheric data collected from marine research vessels is exhaust from both diesel combustion and waste incineration from the ship itself. D...
Article
Environmental cycling of the toxic metal mercury (Hg) is ubiquitous, and still not completely understood. Volatilisation and emission of mercury from vegetation, litter and soil during burning represents a significant return pathway for previously-deposited atmospheric mercury. Rates of such emission vary widely across ecosystems as they are depend...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a new technique to prepare statistically-robust benchmarking data for evaluating chemical transport model meteorology and air quality parameters within the urban boundary layer. The approach employs atmospheric class-typing, using nocturnal radon measurements to assign atmospheric mixing classes, and can be applied temporally (across the...
Article
Full-text available
We present findings from the Measurements of Urban, Marine and Biogenic Air (MUMBA) campaign, which took place in the coastal city of Wollongong in New South Wales, Australia. We focus on a few key air quality indicators, along with a comparison to regional scale chemical transport model predictions at a spatial resolution of 1 km by 1 km. We find...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose a new technique to prepare statistically-robust benchmarking data for evaluating chemical transport model meteorology and air quality parameters within the urban boundary layer. The approach employs atmospheric class-typing, using nocturnal radon measurements to assign atmospheric mixing classes, and can be applied temporally (across the...
Article
Full-text available
A likely important feature of the poorly understood aerosol-cloud interactions over the Southern Ocean (SO) is the dominant role of sea spray aerosol, versus terrestrial aerosol. Ice nucleating particles (INPs), or particles required for heterogeneous ice nucleation, present over the SO have not been studied in several decades. In this study, bound...
Article
Full-text available
Ship-based measurements are an important component in developing an understanding of the global atmosphere. A common problem that impacts the quality of atmospheric data collected from marine research vessels is exhaust from both diesel combustion and waste incineration from the ship itself. Described here is an algorithm, developed for the recentl...
Article
Full-text available
Particle number size distributions are among the most important parameters in trying to understand the characteristics of particle population. Atmospheric particles were measured in an interaction of mixed environments in the Southeastern coastal city of Wollongong, Australia, during a comprehensive field campaign known as Measurements of Urban, Ma...
Article
Full-text available
The SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season) campaign took place from 29 May until 30 June 2014 at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS) in the Northern Territory, Australia. The purpose of this campaign was to investigate emissions from fires in the early dry season in northern Australia. Measurements were made of bi...
Article
Full-text available
We have tested the ability of a high-resolution chemical transport model (CTM) to reproduce biomass burning (BB) plume strikes and ozone (O3) enhancements observed at Cape Grim in Tasmania, Australia, from the Robbins Island fire. The CTM has also been used to explore the contribution of near-field BB emissions and background sources to O3 observat...
Article
This study reveals that open-field biomass burning can be an important source of various semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) to the atmosphere including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and a range of pesticides. Emission factors (EFs) for 39 individual SVOCs are de...
Article
Full-text available
The Measurements of Urban, Marine and Biogenic Air (MUMBA) campaign took place in Wollongong, New South Wales (a small coastal city approximately 80 km south of Sydney, Australia) from 21 December 2012 to 15 February 2013. Like many Australian cities, Wollongong is surrounded by dense eucalyptus forest, so the urban airshed is heavily influenced by...
Article
Savanna fires contribute significantly to global aerosol loading and hence to the earth's radiative budget. Modelling of the climatic impact of these aerosols is made difficult due to a lack of knowledge of their size distribution. Australia is the third largest source of global carbon emissions from biomass burning, with emissions dominated by tro...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-decadal observations of aerosol microphysical properties from regionally representative sites can be used to challenge regional or global numerical models that simulate atmospheric aerosol. Presented here is an analysis of multi-decadal observations at Cape Grim (Australia) that characterise production and removal of the background marine aer...
Article
As water scarcity increases globally, reclaimed water is becoming an increasingly valuable and environmentally sustainable water source. In particular, use of reclaimed water in occupational settings involving high volume water use can potentially confer significant benefits. Prior to expansion of the use of reclaimed water, it is important that po...
Article
Full-text available
There is a lack of knowledge of how biomass burning aerosols in the tropics age, including those in the fire-prone Northern Territory in Australia. This paper reports chemical characterization of fresh and aged aerosols monitored during the 1-month-long SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season) field study, with an emphasis on the chemical s...
Article
Full-text available
The vast majority of Australia's fires occur in the tropical north of the continent during the dry season. These fires are a significant source of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the region, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the biomass burning aerosol (BBA) in the absence of other sources. CCN concentrations at 0.5 % sup...
Article
Full-text available
The Measurements of Urban, Marine and Biogenic Air (MUMBA) campaign took place in Wollongong, New South Wales (a small coastal city approximately 80 km south of Sydney, Australia), from 21st December 2012 to 15th February 2013. Like many Australian cities, Wollongong is surrounded by dense eucalyptus forest and so the urban air-shed is heavily infl...
Article
This study uses shipborne cloud radar and surface radiation measurements collected over the Southern Ocean to characterize the cloud frequency, cloud fraction, and cloud radiative effects on the ocean surface. These cloud and radiative properties are also used to evaluate a regional forecast model. Low-level clouds, either alone or cooccurring with...
Article
The emission factors (EFs) for a broad range of semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) from subtropical eucalypt forest and tropical savannah fires were determined for the first time from in-situ investigations. Significantly higher (t test, P < 0.01) EFs (µg kg-1 dry fuel, gas + particle-associated) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (∑13 PAHs)...
Article
Environmental contextThis study presents the first comprehensive set of ambient atmospheric concentrations of short-chain-chlorinated paraffins in the Southern Hemisphere. The data show a seasonal cycle with a summer maximum and a winter minimum. The seasonal cycle is consistent with temperature dependence of the vapour pressure of the short-chain-...
Article
Full-text available
We have tested the ability of high resolution chemical transport modelling (CTM) to reproduce biomass burning (BB) plume strikes observed at Cape Grim in Tasmania Australia from the Robbins Island fire. The model has also been used to explore the contribution of near-field BB emissions and background sources to ozone (O3) under conditions of comple...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-decadal observations of aerosol microphysical properties from regionally representative sites can be used to challenge regional or global numerical models that simulate atmospheric aerosol. Presented here is an analysis of multi-decadal observations at Cape Grim (Australia) that characterise production and removal of the background marine aer...
Article
Full-text available
The SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season) campaign took place from 29th of May, 2014 until the 30th June, 2014 at the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS) in the Northern Territory, Australia. The purpose of this campaign was to investigate emissions from fires in the early dry season in northern Australia. Measuremen...
Article
New particle formation (NPF) studies have been conducted in China since 2004. Formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles has been observed to take place in diverse environments, even under the circumstances of high pre-existing particle loading, challenging the traditional and present understanding of the physicochemical nucleation mechanisms,...
Article
Full-text available
Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron (Fe) and phosphorus in large regions of the global ocean. The deposition of soluble aerosol Fe can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from the Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season (SAFIRED) cam...
Article
Full-text available
The vast majority of Australia's fires occur in the tropical north of the continent during the dry season. These fires are a significant source of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the region, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the biomass burning aerosol (BBA) in the absence of other sources. CCN concentrations at 0.5 % sup...
Article
Full-text available
There is a lack of knowledge of how biomass burning aerosols in the tropics age, including those in the fire-prone Northern Territory in Australia. This paper reports chemical characterization and aging of aerosols monitored during the one month long SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season) field study, with an emphasis on chemical signatur...
Article
Full-text available
Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron and phosphorus in large areas of the global ocean. Up to 75 % of marine nitrogen fixation may be limited by iron supply due to the relatively high iron requirements of planktonic diazotrophs (Berman-Frank et al., 2001). The deposition of soluble aerosol iron can initiate nitrogen fixation...
Article
Full-text available
The biogenic emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes are one of the main drivers of atmospheric photochemistry, including oxidant and secondary organic aerosol production. In this paper, the emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes from Australian vegetation are investigated for the first time using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols fr...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric inputs of soluble iron (Fe) to the global ocean are an important factor determining marine primary productivity and nitrogen fixation. To investigate soluble aerosol Fe and fractional Fe solubility, marine aerosol sampling has been conducted from a number of platforms including aerosol towers, ship and buoy platforms. A number of these...
Article
Full-text available
The biogenic emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes are one of the main drivers of atmospheric photochemistry, including oxidant and secondary organic aerosol production. In this paper, the emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes from Australian vegetation are investigated for the first time using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols fr...
Article
Full-text available
Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer ai...
Article
Full-text available
Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) >...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosol observations above the Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice are scarce. Measurements of aerosols and atmospheric composition were made in East Antarctic pack ice on-board the Australian icebreaker Aurora Australis during the spring of 2012. One particle formation event was observed during the 32 days of observations. This event occurred on...
Article
Detailed chemical characterisation was performed for wintertime and summertime PM10 samples collected in Melbourne, Australia. The samples were analysed for marker compounds of biomass burning and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The chemical analysis showed that the site was significantly influenced by the emissions from wintertime domest...
Article
The first vegetation fires, or biomass burning, occurred shortly after the emergence of land vegetation around 400 million years ago. Biomass burning is now an integral part of many natural and human-influenced ecosystems with fires being widespread on all continents except Antarctica. They are ignited both naturally (lightning , volcanoes) and by...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of aerosols on clouds and their radiative properties is one of the largest uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. A recent study has concluded that better characterisation of pristine, natural aerosol processes leads to the largest reduction in these uncertainties. Antarctica, being far from anthropogenic activities, is...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosol observations above the Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice are scarce. Measurements of aerosols and atmospheric composition were made in East Antarctic pack ice on-board the Australian icebreaker Aurora Australis during the spring of 2012. One particle formation event was observed during the 32 days of observations. This event occurred on...