Melissa Marschke

Melissa Marschke
University of Ottawa · School of International Development and Global Studies

Doctor of Philosophy
Labour, Livelihoods (seafood, sand), Sustainability

About

59
Publications
33,694
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,928
Citations
Citations since 2016
37 Research Items
2535 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Full-text available
Over the past year, scandals around what has been labelled slave labour in the industrial fisheries sector in Thailand have revealed not only the connections between northern buyers and southern labour practices, but also the relative lack of research on fisheries labour in Asia and the global South. The slavery and trafficking framings pervading t...
Article
Full-text available
Precarity has not been applied in the context of fisheries‐based work, even as working conditions in fisheries are emerging to be a real issue. There has been limited analysis of fish work outside the media spotlight or how changing ecological and biophysical conditions (e.g. climate change and its effects) intersect with poor working conditions. W...
Article
Full-text available
This paper builds on our earlier publication that examined COVID-19, instability and migrant fish workers in Asia during the initial six months of the pandemic. Drawing on interviews with port-based support organizations and various other international organizations, we outline how pre-existing structural marginalizations of seafarers in distant wa...
Article
Full-text available
Livelihoods in Cambodian fishing communities are complex and dynamic. Fluctuations in resource abundance, seasonal cycles of resource use, and changes in access create conditions that bring challenges for rural households, as do economic and policy drivers. Nonetheless, people are continuously "doing something" in response to these stresses and sho...
Article
Full-text available
Sand, gravel, and crushed rock – known as construction aggregates – are in high demand in the Asian region. Such demand is driven by high rates of urbanization, infrastructure development, and dam building: an unprecedented amount of sand is being extracted from the region's river, delta and estuary areas, only to be transported for infill or const...
Article
Full-text available
Across Southeast Asia, coastal livelihoods are becoming more diverse and more commodified, as maritime zone developments intensify. We review literature from the ten maritime states in Southeast Asia to assess how older and emerging forms of maritime zone developments influence the viability of small-scale fishing livelihoods. Applying a political...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 has changed the permeability of borders in transboundary environmental governance regimes. While borders have always been selectively permeable, the pandemic has reconfigured the nature of cross-border flows of people, natural resources, finances and technologies. This has altered the availability of spaces for enacting sustainability init...
Article
Alternative livelihood programs are a central feature of contemporary conservation planning that aim to aid efforts to reduce pressure on natural resources and avoid, minimize, or mitigate the impacts of conservation on the wellbeing of local stakeholders. Evidence of the effectiveness of these programs is, however, decidedly mixed. This research e...
Article
This paper draws on research on fisheries based in Taiwan and Thailand, to build an exploratory framework that identifies diverse and multilayered causes for unacceptable working conditions in industrial fisheries. We break down labour relations and working conditions into various elements that can be examined separately, including facilitation of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to establish how COVID-19 is impacting migrant fish workers through focusing on two global fish hubs, Thailand and Taiwan. Through a careful review of the news reports, social media, and NGO reports and press releases, three significant themes emerged: employment disruptions due to seafood system instabilities; travel or mobility r...
Article
Full-text available
In April 2016, toxic chemicals leaked into the ocean in central Vietnam during a trial of a waste discharge system for a newly built steel plant. This resulted in a significant fish kill that impacted coastal livelihoods and the seafood sector across four provinces. We surveyed 520 households to understand how people experienced this environmental...
Chapter
Full-text available
Key messages: The Koh Sralao community works together to safeguard mangrove forests which form a critical link to their livelihood. Community activism concerning coastal resource management issues and resistance to sand dredging contributed to the termination of nearby dredging activities. The development of a Special Economic Zone in the provi...
Article
Full-text available
The media spotlight on controversial ‘slave labour’ practices in the Asia-Pacific region has highlighted poor labour conditions across the seafood sector. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are being promoted by NGOs, businesses and governments to help handle such labour challenges. This systematic review examines the state of knowle...
Article
Full-text available
Positioning migrants as quintessential globalisation subjects, this paper reveals how the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the ambivalent positioning of migration as a pathway for human development. Drawing on interviews with international and domestic labour migrants from Bangladesh, India, Laos and Myanmar working in Laos, Myanmar, China, Singapore...
Article
Full-text available
The temporary foreign worker programme (TFWP) is widely used in many sectors in Canada. Research on the TFWP in Canada has documented multiple types of abuse within the programme, often related to worker lack of access to citizenship and social benefits. Less is known about how mobile and often precarious migrant workers are able to navigate negati...
Article
Integrated approaches to engage coastal communities in management are urgently needed to address coastal change and associated uncertainty. Towards this aim, understanding the complex relationships between coastal well-being and ecosystem services provides a foundation for a range of management and governance interventions. While these relationship...
Article
Full-text available
Important environmental and economic changes are transforming livelihoods in coastal communes throughout the Mekong delta. In the process, the historical reliance on rice farming and fishing has become less viable and sustainable, forcing households to construct more complex livelihood strategies. To document these livelihood transformations, we ha...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the modern anti‐slavery movement through the lens of the slavery scandal in Thailand’s fisheries sector. The slavery framing provoked a response on the part of governments, corporations and NGOs that produced improvements in working conditions. Nevertheless, we argue that while the slavery framing was effective in drawing attent...
Article
Full-text available
Sand is a scarce resource, extracted from rivers and coasts at rates that exceed its natural renewal. Yet, little is understood about the political economy of sand extraction, the livelihood vulnerabilities produced, or why sand grabbing is occurring at unprecedented rates in particular locations. Drawing together literature on global production ne...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is threatening poverty reduction throughout the global South. One set of arguments found within the environmental change literature is that socio-ecological systems and people must have general development capacities and climate-adaptive capacities if development under climate change will be successful. This combination is known as a...
Article
The history of fisheries development in Myanmar is poorly understood. A growing body of evidence suggests that working conditions in some of Myanmar's fisheries are extremely precarious. The treatment of labour in the wider fisheries literature has been fragmented. Drawing together these strands, this paper addresses two central questions through a...
Chapter
Dawei, a coastal secondary city in southeastern Myanmar, is poised to face significant social and environmental change. Dawei’s location at the head of the Dawei River estuary, just 30 kilometres from the Andaman Sea and 350 kilometres to the west of Bangkok, has attracted increasing attention from foreign investors. Namely, to develop a Special Ec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Seafood is the world's most internationally traded food commodity. Approximately three out of every seven people globally rely on seafood as a primary source of animal protein (1). Revelations about slavery and labor rights abuses in fisheries have sparked outrage and shifted the conversation (2, 3), placing social issues at the forefront of a sect...
Article
Full-text available
Low-skilled migrant workers provide an important labour source in Atlantic Canada's seafood industry. This research unpacks the experiences of 22 workers from Thailand and the Philippines working in one Atlantic Canadian seafood processing company. We pay particular attention to migration routes, labour conditions, and worker mobility, along with w...
Conference Paper
The (experimental) research on community management of natural resources focuses on social dilemma situations between individuals. However, in most real-life situations natural resources are not only shared between individuals living in a community, but also between individuals belonging to different subgroups within the same community. For instanc...
Article
Full-text available
Seafood is the world's most internationally traded food commodity. Approximately three out of every seven people globally rely on seafood as a primary source of animal protein (1). Revelations about slavery and labor rights abuses in fisheries have sparked outrage and shifted the conversation (2, 3), placing social issues at the forefront of a sect...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines Cambodia’s current carbon pathway and considers if Cambodia could move towards a low carbon future. We do so by examining two of Cambodia’s largest carbon emitting sectors: energy and transportation. We argue that Cambodia has a unique window of opportunity to pursue a low carbon pathway given that, despite significant economic...
Article
This article is concerned with how far-reaching economic and ecological changes are affecting the livelihoods of coastal households in Vietnam. In particular, we are interested in the livelihood effects of two aspects of this changing environment: (1) the transformation of the fisheries sector, including declining stocks and species loss and the ra...
Chapter
Full-text available
Southeast Asia’s coastal ecosystems are under enormous pressure from a broad range of processes, including over-fishing and a growth in aquaculture, offshore oil and gas, the development of coastal tourist resorts and the extensive mining of coastal sand. These processes both impact and contribute towards the region’s economic transition. As popula...
Article
Full-text available
By 2050 most seafood will be sourced through aquaculture, with a range of production intensities being required to sustain livelihoods and to meet future needs from seafood. This makes Vietnam a particularly insightful case, since Vietnam is at the forefront of the trend toward greater aquaculture production. Our aim in this paper is to examine the...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture is the fastest growing global food system, providing nearly half of the world׳s seafood supply. A significant portion of aquaculture is produced in the global South and consumed in the North, with much of the production stemming from small producers in Asian countries. The rapid growth in this sector has led to a host of social, environ...
Article
Full-text available
Resilience deals explicitly with change and provides a middle ground between the social and the environmental sciences. However, a growing critique by social scientists questions the ability of resilience thinking to adequately examine the social dimensions of change. The question that emerges is how social scientists should engage with resilience....
Article
Full-text available
This paper sets out to explore fishers' perceptions of environmental change in coastal Cambodia and to then examine the role of local institutions in working with villagers to adapt to such challenges. The analysis shows that: (1) fishers observe species decline, irregular tides and a change in weather patterns; and (2) local institutions have been...
Article
Full-text available
Our aim in this paper is to examine the future for small-scale fishers and fish producers in the rapidly changing Tam Giang Lagoon in central Vietnam. The analysis shows: (1) the multi-dimensional and linked social, ecological and economic challenges confronting lagoon resource users and government officials, including the possibility that importan...
Article
Full-text available
We draw on empirical results from three case studies of property rights change across forest and fisheries ecosystems in central Vietnam to investigate the circumstances under which collective property rights may make sense. A generic property rights framework was used to examine the bundles of rights and associated rights holders in each case, and...
Chapter
Full-text available
Our interest lies in how small-scale fisheries in the Mekong region can be better managed and sustained to ensure that the needs and aspirations of the people associated with these fisheries are met. As elsewhere, fisheries in the Mekong region face a crisis of governance. Given this situation, adaptive co-management appears particularly appealing...
Book
Full-text available
In Life, Fish and Mangroves, Melissa Marschke explores the potential of resource governance, offering a case study of resource-dependent village life. Following six households and one village-based institution in coastal Cambodia over a twelve-year period, Marschke reveals the opportunities and constraints facing villagers and illustrates why local...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines an apparent 'early stage' governance transformation in the Tam Giang Lagoon, Vietnam. In this context, the role of key policy windows for innovative governance practice is assessed (e.g., changes to Land and Fisheries Laws). Also examined is the emergence of recent initiatives to catalyze a wider shift in governance practice in...
Article
Full-text available
The Tam Giang – Cau Hai lagoon is a microcosm of the complex social-ecological challenges experienced in similar systems throughout Southeast Asia. Intensification and rapid change in livelihood strategies (production and gear type) have increased conflict and placed a significant strain on aquatic resources in the lagoon. Such changes are compound...
Article
Full-text available
Building trust through collaboration, institutional development, and social learning enhances efforts to foster ecosystem management and resolve multi-scale society-environment dilemmas. One emerging approach aimed at addressing these dilemmas is adaptive co-management. This method draws explicit attention to the learning ( experiential and experim...
Article
Résumé Le Cambodge est souvent considéré comme une société postconflit et postsocialiste qui connaît des réformes économiques et politiques importantes : si des réformes administratives favorisant la démocratie locale décentralisée peuvent être observées dans tous les secteurs, ce que ces réformes signifient dans la vie quotidienne des villages cam...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores how development programming in rural poverty and the environment can work with indigenous peoples. It draws on research conducted in Asia and Latin America to suggest how indigeneity can be understood as specific kinds of marginalisation intersecting with self-identification and recognition as indigenous. Current obstacles to...
Article
Full-text available
'Good' governance and adaptive co-management hold broad appeal due to their positive connotations and 'noble ethical claims'. This paper poses a fundamental question: is adaptive co-management ethical? In pursuing an answer to this question, the concept of adaptive co-management is succinctly summarized and three ethical perspectives (deontology, t...
Article
Full-text available
Much emphasis has been placed on the importance of learning to support collaborative environmental management and achieve sustainability under conditions of social–ecological change. Yet, on-going struggles to learn from experience and respond to complex social–ecological conditions reflect an emerging paradox. Despite widespread support of learnin...
Article
Full-text available
Considerable attention is now being given to the role and importance of education and learning implications of participatory resource and environmental governance. The contention is that such learning has the potential to transform behaviour, and in the case of resource management, may help change current patterns in resource use towards a more sus...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY How do Cambodian villagers perceive sustainability and what do they do 'on the ground'? Looking at sustainability issues through the lens of two local resource management com- mittees, and using a triangulation of social science research methods, this paper examines the roles and responsibilities of these groups and how they grapple with re...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on how community-based management is unfolding in coastal Cambodia through the facilitation of a donor-funded, Cambodian-led government research team. Coastal communities in Peam Krasaop Wildlife Sanctuary illustrate the strong potential for community-government partnerships. Several lessons are highlighted: community-based manag...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The project’s goal is to examine how value is created in the dried fish economy at all stages of activity from production through processing, exchange, and consumption, viewing value chains as a framework for understanding human economic activity in the context of social, ecological, cultural, historical, political, and other forces. The partnership will generate the first comparative and richly detailed study of the regional dried fish economy. Project Website: https://driedfishmatters.org/
Project
We are a group of scholars thinking through the implications of sand extraction from multiple perspectives including political economy and ecology, economic geography, geopolitics, assemblage thinking, and the more-than-human. We are interested in what this overlooked material holds for our understanding of urbanization, resource grabs, property formation, environmental regulation and degradation, and resistance.
Project
See website: http://ndeg.apps01.yorku.ca/