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Melissa Hunfalvay

Melissa Hunfalvay
RightEye, LLC · Science, research & development

PhD
Developing biomarkers using eye tracking for identification of conditions from disease states to elite performance.

About

63
Publications
24,476
Reads
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201
Citations
Introduction
Research Interests • Eye tracking as a biomarker for health, wellness and clinical conditions • Profiling specific cases for comparison and predictions • Differentiation of groups (clinical/normal/elite) • Predictors of success and recovery • On-field/life translations (interventions, on-field performance)
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
RightEye, LLC
Position
  • Principal Investigator
January 2005 - December 2012
Institute of Sport Science
Position
  • Principal Investigator
January 2001 - May 2004
University of Virginia
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (63)
Article
Full-text available
Considerable research has documented that successful performance in interceptive tasks (such as return of serve in tennis) is based on the performers’ capability to capture appropriate anticipatory information prior to the flight path of the approaching object. Athletes of higher skill tend to fixate on different locations in the playing environmen...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine if prior biped tennis playing experience results in different visual search strategies compared to no prior biped playing experience. Thirty-two wheelchair tennis players, 17 males, 15 females, ranked between 1-22 on the International Tennis Federation rankings participated in this study. Half the players ha...
Article
Full-text available
ImportanceChildren have the highest incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the United States. However, mTBI, specifically pediatric patients with mTBI, are notoriously difficult to detect, and with a reliance on traditional, subjective measurements of eye movements, the subtle but key oculomotor deficits are often missed.Objective The p...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose. To examine if differences occur in Interpupillary Distance (IPD) and Pupil Diameter (PD) between professional baseball players compared to non-athletes (males and females). Methods. 149 major League Baseball (MLB) athletes and 416 non-athletes (NA) were examined on the RightEye IPD/PD test. One-way analysis of variance with Levene tests fo...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly significant health concern worldwide, compounded by the difficultly in detection and diagnosis. Fortunately, a growing body of research has identified oculomotor behavior, specifically fixations, saccades and smooth pursuit eye movements as a promising endophenotype for neurotrauma. To dat...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Chronic low-level blast exposure has been linked with neurological alterations and trau- matic brain injury (TBI) biomarkers. Impaired smooth-pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are often associated with TBI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term operators of low- level blast exposure or high-caliber weapons use displayed...
Book
Full-text available
The perinatal temporal window is a highly vulnerable time in which environmental factors, such as nutrients, drugs, infections, chemicals, and stress, experienced by the mother can be communicated to the offspring and produce lasting consequences on the new-born brain, thus contributing the evolutionary origin of non-communicable neuropsychiatric d...
Book
This volume explores the latest eye-tracking methodologies that help researchers understand the background, methods, and applications involved in these studies. The chapters in this book cover topics such as methods and models of eye-tracking in natural environments; natural gaze informatics (i.e., assisted wheelchair mobility); eye-tracking applic...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to a) shed light on the importance and prevalence of Binocular Vision Disorder (BVD); b) examine the difficulties in testing for such a disorder; c) provide a reliable, valid, and expedient test that can be used to identify BVD; d) provide guidance for next steps should BVD be found; and e) provide guidance on the proce...
Patent
Full-text available
Systems and methods are disclosed for assessing user physiology via eye tracking data. One method includes determining a plurality of visual assessments; determining, for each assessment of the plurality of visual assessments, a data schema, where at least one data schema is associated with more than one assessment of the plurality of visual assess...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: A new, shorter version of cricket was introduced recently (Twenty20; T20). Since its inception, T20 cricket has rapidly become a popular and exciting format of cricket. However, there is little understanding of factors such as visual-motor control that influence expert performance. Objective: The purpose of this project is to determine...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Deficits in smooth-pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are often associated with mild traumatic brain injury(TBI). Eye tracking tests serve as a quick objective clinical tool to assess such predictive visual tracking. In this study, SPEM was assessed along circular, horizontal and vertical trajectories in adolescents with concussion and age-matched co...
Article
Full-text available
The size of our pupils changes continuously in response to variations in ambient light levels, a process known as the pupillary light reflex (PLR). The PLR is not a simple reflex as its function is modulated by cognitive brain function and any long-term changes in brain function secondary to injury should cause a change in the parameters of the PLR...
Article
Full-text available
The size of our pupils changes continuously in response to variations in ambient light levels, a process known as the pupillary light reflex (PLR). The PLR is not a simple reflex as its function is modulated by cognitive brain function and any long-term changes in brain function secondary to injury should cause a change in the parameters of the PLR...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prior concussion studies have shown that objective neurophysiological measures are sensitive to detecting concussive and subconcussive impairments in youth ice-hockey. These studies monitored brain vital signs at rink-side using a within-subjects design to demonstrate significant changes from pre-season baseline scans. However, practica...
Poster
Full-text available
The results indicate the combination of circular smooth pursuit assessment and neuronal activity in the alpha frequency have the potential to be a successful diagnostic tool for TBIs.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of the RightEye iScreener™ application is to identify people for the vision qualities they need to live their lives successfully. More specifically, the RightEye iScreener™ is unique in that it examines dynamic vision qualities and the processing or thinking associated with this visual information that enable a person to function in an...
Article
Full-text available
Balance control systems involve complex systems directing muscle activity to prevent internal and external influences that destabilize posture, especially when body positions change. The computerized dynamic posturography stability score has been established to be the most repeatable posturographic measure using variations of the modified Clinical...
Patent
Full-text available
Systems and methods are disclosed hosting multiple visual assessments, evaluating user performance on the assessments, and providing recommendations to assess and improve user visual performance. One method includes hosting a plurality of visual assessments; presenting, via a web portal, a user interface for selecting one or more visual assessments...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeSensorimotor variables have been shown to predict performance in professional baseball players. However, cardinal gaze speed in baseball players has received only limited attention. This study tested the hypothesis that the cardinal gaze speed in Major League Baseball (MLB) players would be faster than in amateur prospects and non-athletes....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Explains how oculomotor behavior, specifically saccades, pursuits and fixations change with mTBI versus aged matched controls.
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Neural deficits were measured via the eye tracking of vertical smooth pursuit (VSP) as markers of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study evaluated the ability of the eye tracking tests to differentiate between different levels of TBI severity and healthy controls. Methodology: Ninety-two individuals divided into four groups (those...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fixation Stability as an mTBI Biomarker Fixation Stability as a Biomarker for Differentiating Mild Traumatic Brain Injury from Age Matched Controls in Pediatrics Fixation Stability as an mTBI Biomarker Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly significant health concern worldwide, compounded by the difficultly in detection and diagnosis. Fort...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of oculomotor metrics in healthy individuals, to determine the normative values through cluster analysis, and to compare oculomotor metrics by age groups in a suite of digitized eye tracking tests. Design Experimental cross sectional Participants A large sample of 2993 participants...
Preprint
Full-text available
Saccadic eye movements are fast, conjugate eye movements that bring the object of focus onto the fovea of the eye. Limitations exist in the oculomotor training designed to measure and improve saccades. The purpose of this study is to determine if participants with pre-determined poor saccades improved via a standardized oculomotor training program....
Preprint
Full-text available
Purpose: Sensorimotor variables (including visual acuity, depth perception, contrast sensitivity, and near-far quickness) have been shown to predict performance in professional baseball players. However, cardinal gaze speed in baseball players has received only limited attention. This study tested the hypothesis that the cardinal gaze speed in Majo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the single biggest cause of mortality in the United States. However, TBI is notoriously difficult to detect, and with a reliance on traditional, subjective measurements of eye movements, the subtle but key oculomotor deficits are often missed. Recent research has illustrated the efficacy of eye tracking measures as p...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To determine if participants with saccadic dysfunction improved after participating in a standardized oculomotor training program. A secondary objective was to accurately quantify change in saccades after training using eye tracking technology. A third objective was to examine patients’ neurobehavioral symptoms before and after oculomot...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Eye tracking tests to measure vertical smooth pursuit as a proxy for neural deficitsassociated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were evaluated in the present study. Methodology: 92 participants reporting either no TBI, mild, moderate or severe TBI participated in an automated test of vertical smooth pursuit performance using a remote e...
Poster
Full-text available
Hyperbaric oxygen effects on acute concussion using oculomotor outcome measures.
Patent
Full-text available
Systems and methods are disclosed for assessing user physiology via eye tracking data. One method includes determining a plurality of visual assessments ; determining , for each assessment of the plurality of visual assessments , a data schema , where at least one data schema is associated with more than one assessment of the plurality of visual as...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Eye tracking tests to measure horizontal and vertical saccades as a proxy for neural deficits associated with TBI were evaluated in the present study. Methodology: 287 participants reporting either no TBI, mild, moderate or severe TBI participated in a suite of eye tracking tests to measure horizontal and vertical saccadic performance....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Eye tracking has recently been used to examine oculomotor behavior (OMB) for visual and neurological health and wellness with promise in determining characteristics of healthy eyes and in turn a healthy brain. Recent research has demonstrated that human eye movements reflect individual and group differences, however, clinical evaluati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Sensorimotor variables (including visual acuity, depth perception, contrast sensitivity, and near-far quickness) have been shown to predict performance in professional baseball players. However, speed of eye movements in the cardinal gaze positions (CGP) in baseball players has received only limited attention. This study tested the hyp...
Data
Initial reliability pilot testing of the RightEye Saccadometry Test. N = 20 healthy adults, males and females.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine if prior biped tennis playing experience results in different visual search strategies compared to no prior biped playing experience. Thirty-two wheelchair tennis players, 17 males, 15 females, ranked between 1-16 on the International Tennis Federation rankings participated in this study. Half the players ha...
Presentation
Full-text available
In this panel, four sport psychology consultants, with a long history of using state of the art technology in their consulting work with Professional, Olympic, Collegiate and youth athletes discuss their use of technology.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eye Tracking and Neurological Function examines the output of eye tracking data linking it to oculomotor function and brain regions associated with each major eye movement category. It also examines, major patterns of deviation in vertical gaze positioning and the lifestyle implications of all non-optimal functioning.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Eye tracking technologies and methodologies have advanced significantly in recent years. Specifically, the use of eye tracking to quantitatively measure oculomotor and psychophysiological constructs is gaining momentum. Reaction time has been measured in a number of different ways from a simple response to a stimulus to more challenging...
Article
Full-text available
Eye tracking technologies and methodologies have advanced significantly in recent years. Specifically, the use of eye tracking to quantitatively measure oculomotor and psychophysiological constructs is gaining momentum. Reaction time has been measured in a number of different ways from a simple response to a stimulus to more challenging choice or d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Eye tracking technologies and methodologies have advanced significantly in recent years. Specifically, the use of eye tracking to quantitatively measure oculomotor and psychophysiological constructs is gaining momentum. Reaction time has been measured in a number of different ways from a simple response to a stimulus to more challenging...
Article
Full-text available
The examination of elite athletes’ visual abilities has been of great interest to researchers, however, speed of gaze in the cardinal positions has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study was to examine Major League Baseball (MLB) players cardinal gaze positions (CGP) compared to Amateur Prospects (AP’s). A secondary purpose of this paper was...
Presentation
Full-text available
What is Brain Health EyeQ? The data driven approach: Begin with what we know, the science The importance of reliability What is “normal”? What does TBI look like?
Article
Full-text available
Eye tracking has become a popular tool in clinical practice and research for understanding brain function and eye health. Since 2010, there have been almost 80,000 research articles, books, and papers on eye tracking technology. Eye tracking technology has been used to examine clinical conditions and provide indicators for Autism Spectrum Disorder,...
Data
The comparison of chin rest vs no chin rest was evaluated using repeated measures ANOVA on the four bandwidth measures and Bivariate Contour Ellipse Area. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated comparing chin rest vs no chin rest. Alpha level was set at p<.05 for all statistical test. The correlation coefficients indicate the...
Article
Full-text available
The visual performance of athletes should be considered high on the list of variables fundamental to elite sport performance. One particular aspect of visual performance that has gained dominance over the last 25 years is the quiet eye. Quiet eye is the final visual fixation of long, steady duration prior to the execution of a motor skill. However,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Outline Evolution of vision and the nervous system Visual pathways and brain mapping Goals: The eye is not independent of the brain The retina is part of the brain The brain is highly involved in vision and visual processing
Data
Normative and reliability data associated with the RightEye essential vision tests.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of interpupillary distance (IPD) and pupil diameter (PD) measures using an infrared eye tracker and central point stimuli. Validity of the test compared to known clinical tools was determined, and normative data was established against which individuals can measure themselves. Meth...
Patent
Full-text available
Systems and methods are disclosed for evaluating human eye tracking. One method includes receiving data represent ing the location of and/or information tracked by an individual's eye or eyes before, during, or after the individual performs a task; identifying a temporal phase or a biomechanical phase of the task performed by the individual; identi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To investigate stereo acuity of professional athletes in an open (baseball) and closed (golf) skilled sport compared to nonathletes using a new digitized version of the Titmus Stereo Test/Wirt Circles. Additionally, to examine the new test for reliability and validity. Methods: Participants included professional baseball players (PBP; n =...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: First, to create a standard for testing DVA using all three testing protocols (head still, object moving; head moving, object still; head and object moving). Second, to examine reliability of the tests. Third, provide normative data. Methods: Participants (n = 138) were males (n = 83) and females (n = 55) between the ages of 18-44 years ol...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: First, to create a standard for testing DVA using all three testing protocols (head still, object moving; head moving, object still; head and object moving). Second, to examine reliability of the tests. Third, provide normative data. Methods: Participants (n = 138) were males (n = 83) and females (n = 55) between the ages of 18-44 years ol...
Article
Full-text available
Utilizing wearable technology in sport allows for the collection of motor behavior data during task engagement. This data can be assessed in real-time or retrospectively. Although enriching the scope of performance data, the consequences of wearable technology on the athlete-user, specifically the cognitive effects, has not been fully investigated,...
Presentation
Full-text available
A 95 mile an hour travels from release to the plate in less than the blink of an eye, yet sometimes the major league and minor league ball players hit it out of the park for a home run and other times they hit a foul ball. Why? What are the differences between where players look when they hit a home run versus a foul ball? And what can be done abou...
Presentation
Full-text available
Considerable research has well documented that successful performance in interceptive tasks (such as return of serve in tennis) is based on the performers' capability to capture appropriate anticipatory information prior to the flight path of the approaching object. Furthermore, research has indicated that much of visual information is available du...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A limitation in studies examining the effectiveness of different cueing strategies in conjunction with modeling identified by Janelle et al. (2003) is that "mere inferences can be made concerning whether the cued model attributes were those in fact attended to" (p. 836). Using eye-tracking equipment, Coker and Hunfalvay (2006) examined the effectiv...
Thesis
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine visual selective attention strategies of elite wheelchair (WC) tennis players. As an extension of research, elite able-bodied (AB) tennis players were examined and as a second research extension, a new piece of equipment, not previously used in sport, the Eye-gaze Response Interface Computer Aid (ERICA) was...

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
Connecting technology with medicine to identify health, wellness and clinical status. To improve clinical symptoms. To track symptoms over time.
Project
Use of mobile eye tracking for performance assessment and interventions
Project
Understanding eye movements as a biomarker for health, wellness and disease states using eye tracking.