Melanie M Wall

Melanie M Wall
Columbia University | CU · Departments of Biostatistics and Psychiatry

PhD

About

554
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (554)
Article
Full-text available
This pilot study examined violence risk assessment among a sample of young adults receiving treatment for early psychosis. In this study, thirty participants were assessed for violence risk at baseline. Participants completed follow-up assessments at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months to ascertain prevalence of violent behavior. Individuals were on average 24.1...
Article
Objective: In the United States, adult cannabis use has increased over time, but less information is available on time trends in cannabis use disorder. The authors used Veterans Health Administration (VHA) data to examine change over time in cannabis use disorder diagnoses among veterans, an important population subgroup, and whether such trends d...
Article
Objective: Cross-national work on neurocognitive testing has been characterized by inconsistent findings, suggesting the need for improved harmonization. Here, we describe a prospective harmonization approach in an ongoing global collaborative study. Method: Visuospatial N-Back, Tower of London (ToL), Stop Signal task (SST), Risk Aversion (RA),...
Article
Importance: Intersecting factors of social position including ethnoracial background may provide meaningful ways to understand disparities in pathways to care for people with a first episode of psychosis. Objective: To examine differences in pathways to care by ethnoracial groups and by empirically derived clusters combining multiple factors of...
Article
Objective: The diagnostic criteria for opioid use disorder, originally developed for heroin, did not anticipate the surge in prescription opioid use and the resulting complexities in diagnosing prescription opioid use disorder (POUD), including differentiation of pain relief (therapeutic intent) from more common drug use motives, such as to get hi...
Article
Background Substance use disorders (SUD) elevate the risk for COVID-19 hospitalization, but studies are inconsistent on the relationship of SUD to COVID-19 mortality. Methods Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients treated in 2019 and evaluated in 2020 for COVID-19 (n=5,556,315), of whom 62,303 (1.1%) tested positive for COVID-19 (COVID-19+)...
Article
Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects 2–3% of the population and causes significant impairment in functioning and quality of life. OCD is often misdiagnosed in community practice. To address this problem, researchers in Sweden developed the Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale (BOCS), a measure derived from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-C...
Article
Readmission after inpatient care for a psychiatric condition is associated with a range of adverse events including suicide and all-cause mortality. This study estimated 30-day readmission rates in a large cohort of inpatient psychiatric admissions in New York State and examined how these rates varied by patient, hospital, and service system charac...
Article
Introduction: HIV continuum of care consists of five steps needed to effectively treat and prevent the spread of HIV. Linkage to and retention of patients to this Continuum of Care is a global priority. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the quality of this Continuum, as people living with HIV, have had to shelter reducing their access to...
Article
Objectives: People with severe mental illness (SMI) are ten times more likely to have HIV/AIDS than the general population, yet little is known about the characteristics and frequency of recognition of pre-existing HIV/AIDS diagnoses among inpatients with SMI. This study examines documentation rates of pre-existing HIV/AIDS among inpatients within...
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Background Most psychiatric disorders are associated with several risk factors, but a few underlying psychopathological dimensions account for the common co-occurrence of disorders. If these underlying psychopathological dimensions mediate associations of the risk factors with psychiatric disorders, it would support a trans-diagnostic orientation t...
Article
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Purpose The patterns or trajectories of serious antisocial behavior (ASB) in children are examined to determine the extent to which context, gender, and the severity and persistence of ASB from childhood/early adolescence to later adolescence/early adulthood is associated with negative outcomes. Methods A four wave longitudinal study obtained data...
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As opioid prescribing has declined, it is unclear how the landscape of prescription pain treatment across the U.S. has changed. We used nationally-representative data from the Medical Expenditure Health Survey, 2014 to 2018 to examine trends in prescriptions for opioid and non-opioid pain medications, including acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inf...
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Full-text available
Medical personnel working in emergency rooms (ER) are at increased risk of mental health problems and suicidality. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions can improve burnout and other mental health outcomes in health care providers. In contrast, few longitudinal prospective studies have examined protective functions of di...
Article
Introduction Although health coverage facilitates service access to adults in the general population, uncertainty exists over the extent to which this relationship extends to low-income adults with substance use disorders. Methods The health status and service use patterns of low-income adults with substance use disorders who had continuous, disco...
Article
Background Although the DSM-5 was adopted in 2013, the validity of the new substance use disorder (SUD) diagnosis and craving criterion has not been investigated systematically across substances. Methods Adults ( N = 588) who engaged in binge drinking or illicit drug use and endorsed at least one DSM-5 SUD criterion were included. DSM-5 SUD criter...
Article
Emerging evidence suggests a cross-sectional association between food insecurity (FI) and disordered eating among adults, while evidence among adolescents is limited. Longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the temporality of this relationship and clarify whether the association differs by age. Three waves of prospective data came from 1813 pa...
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The evolving nature of the opioid epidemic and continued increases in overdose deaths highlight a need for fundamental change in the collection and use of surveillance data to link them to implementation of effective service, treatment, and prevention approaches. Yet at present, the quality and timeliness of US surveillance data often limits data-d...
Article
With the preliminary report of 94 134 overdose deaths in the US for the 12 months ending on January 1, 2021, it is likely that 2020, in addition to being marred by COVID-19, was also the most deadly drug overdose year on record.¹ This unacceptable human toll highlights the urgent need for new strategies to combat the opioid epidemic, particularly a...
Article
Objective: The authors sought to determine the association of cannabis indicators with self-reported psychotic disorders in the U.S. general population. Methods: Participants were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; 2001-2002; N=43,093) and NESARC-III (2012-2013; N=36,309). Logistic regression was us...
Article
Objective: Variation in prescription of psychotropic medications to patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders may underlie health inequities. Using a national U.S. Medicaid sample, the authors examined prescription patterns of psychotropic medications commonly used for managing schizophrenia. Methods: Data from the 2011-2012 Medicaid Analyt...
Article
Individuals with serious mental illness are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19. The New York State (NYS) Office of Mental Health implemented patient and staff rapid testing, quarantining, and vaccination to limit COVID-19 spread in 23 state-operated psychiatric hospitals between November 2020 and February 2021. COVID-19 infection rates in inpatien...
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Full-text available
Background Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) programs provide evidence-based services for young people with a recent onset of a psychotic disorder. OnTrackNY is a nationally recognized model of CSC treatment in New York state. In 2019, OnTrackNY was awarded a hub within the Early Psychosis Intervention Network (EPINET) to advance its learning health...
Article
Disordered eating and muscle building behaviors are common among emerging adults, and friends may be a particularly salient social influence. Epidemiologic research often includes questions about participants' perceptions of their friends. A less common approach, with greater logistical challenges, is to ask for friend nominations and then survey f...
Article
Background In clinical trials of pharmacotherapy for substance use, abstinence is the primary endpoint accepted by regulatory agencies. However, this endpoint could be overly restrictive, impeding efforts to identify effective medications for cocaine use disorder. To examine non-abstinent gradations in cocaine use as potential indicators of improve...
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Full-text available
The paper proposes a joint mixture model to model non-ignorable drop-out in longitudinal cohort studies of mental health outcomes. The model combines a (non)-linear growth curve model for the time-dependent outcomes and a discrete-time survival model for the drop-out with random effects shared by the two sub-models. The mixture part of the model ta...
Article
Objective: This study examined the extent to which prehospital treatment engagement is related to posthospital follow-up treatment among psychiatric inpatients and whether the effects of inpatient discharge planning on posthospital follow-up treatment vary by level of pretreatment engagement in care. Methods: New York State Medicaid and other ad...
Article
Background: Hazardous drinking imposes a major public health burden worldwide, especially in low-income countries such as Mozambique. Implementation of the Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) approach to address problem drinking is recommended. However, evidence regarding the best strategies to implement SBIRT at scale is...
Article
Objective: This study examined hospital and emergency room (ER) use among Medicaid enrollees before and after discharge from OnTrackNY, a coordinated specialty care program for recent-onset psychosis. Methods: Medicaid claims data were linked to program data. Inpatient hospitalization, inpatient days, and ER visits were assessed in the 6 months...
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Full-text available
Resting functional MRI studies of the infant brain are increasingly becoming an important tool in developmental neuroscience. Whereas the test-retest reliability of functional connectivity (FC) measures derived from resting fMRI data have been characterized in the adult and child brain, similar assessments have not been conducted in infants. In thi...
Article
We sought to evaluate whether the timing of co-occurrence of psychiatric disorder groups provides evidence for one disorder group predisposing individuals to subsequent onset of other disorder groups above and beyond a common liability model. Data were drawn from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (n =...
Article
The recent signing into law of the $1.9 trillion American Rescue Plan aims to improve the financial security of millions of people with low and middle incomes in the US through extending unemployment benefits, providing direct payments, funding emergency paid leave, and several other measures. The epidemiologic literature connecting financial crise...
Article
Importance Although adults with schizophrenia have an increased risk of suicide, sample size limitations of previous research have hindered characterizations of suicide risk across the life span. Objective To describe suicide mortality rates and correlates among adults with schizophrenia across the life span and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs...
Article
Chronic pain is associated with mental and physical health difficulties and is prevalent among veterans. Cannabis has been put forth as a treatment for chronic pain, and changes in laws, attitudes, and use patterns have occurred over the last two decades. Differences in prevalence of non-medical cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD) were exa...
Article
Objective: Stepped mental health care requires a rapid method for nonspecialists to detect illness. This study aimed to develop and validate a brief instrument, the Mental Wellness Tool (mwTool), for identification and classification. Methods: Cross-sectional development and validation samples included adults at six health facilities in Mozambiq...
Article
Objective: The authors assessed changes in health care coverage in nationally representative samples of low- and middle-income adults with and without substance use disorders following the 2014 Affordable Care Act marketplace launch and Medicaid expansion. Methods: Data from the 2012-2018 (N=407,985) National Survey on Drug Use and Health identi...
Article
Importance: Racial/ethnic and sex disparities in suicide ideation and attempts are well established, with higher risk of suicide ideation and attempt among US racial/ethnic minority school-aged youths (than their White peers) and girls and women (than boys and men). The suicide-related risk of racial/ethnic minority young adults, especially young...
Article
Background Collaborative data sharing between research groups provides an opportunity to explore the basis for the heterogeneity in cognitive training outcomes reported in the schizophrenia literature. The current analyses focused on the contribution of site and participant characteristics to these heterogeneous outcomes. Methods Data from two ind...
Article
Marijuana use may increase schizophrenia risk, and this effect may be genetically moderated. We investigated how hypothetical genetic test results indicating the presence or absence of heightened schizophrenia risk in reaction to marijuana use would affect attitudes toward marijuana use. In two experiments, participants were randomized to hypotheti...
Article
Full-text available
Background : Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) programs provide evidence-based services for young people with a recent onset of a psychotic disorder. OnTrackNY is a nationally recognized model of CSC treatment in New York state. In 2019, OnTrackNY was awarded a hub within the Early Psychosis Intervention Network (EPINET) to advance its learning heal...
Article
Suicide is a major cause of death in psychosis and associated with significant morbidity. Suicidal ideation (SI) is very common in those at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR) and predicts later suicide. Despite substantial work on the pathobiology of suicide in schizophrenia, little is known of its neurobiological underpinnings in the CHR or pu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Substantial data from high-income countries support early interventions in the form of evidence-based Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) for people experiencing First Episode Psychosis (FEP) to ameliorate symptoms and minimize disability. Chile is unique among Latin American countries in providing universal access to FEP services through...
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Importance People with schizophrenia are at high risk of receiving a diagnosis of dementia. Understanding the magnitude and timing of this increased risk has important implications for practice and policy. Objective To estimate the age-specific incidence and prevalence of dementia diagnoses among older US adults with schizophrenia and in a compari...
Article
Objective: This study examined associations of patient, hospital, and service system factors with provision of discharge planning to individuals treated in hospital psychiatric units. Methods: This retrospective cohort analysis used 2012-2013 New York State Medicaid claims data of 18,185 patients ages <65 years who were treated in hospital psych...
Article
Full-text available
Most psychiatric disorders, when examined individually, are associated with a broad range of adverse outcomes. However, psychiatric disorders often co-occur and their co-occurrence is well explained by a limited number of transdiagnostic factors. Yet it remains unclear whether the risk of these adverse outcomes is due to specific psychiatric disord...
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Discourse on deaths of despair, which include suicide, poisoning, and chronic liver disease, has focused on middle-aged White working-class adults with less than a college education. Yet longitudinal research has not examined what groups are at highest risk for these causes of death. Respondents to the 2008 American Community Survey were followed t...
Article
Background Mass shootings account for a small fraction of annual worldwide murders, yet disproportionately affect society and influence policy. Evidence suggesting a link between mass shootings and severe mental illness (i.e. involving psychosis) is often misrepresented, generating stigma. Thus, the actual prevalence constitutes a key public health...
Article
Full-text available
With the world's population aging, age-related memory decline is an impending cognitive epidemic. Assessing the impact of diet on cognitive aging, we conducted a controlled, randomized, parallel-arm dietary intervention with 211 healthy adults (50–75 years) investigating effects of either a placebo or 260, 510 and 770 mg/day of cocoa flavanols for...
Article
Background: Age-related hearing loss (HL) has been associated with dementia, though the neurocognitive profile of individuals with HL is poorly understood. Objective: To characterize the neurocognitive profile of HL. Methods: N = 8,529 participants from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center ≥60 years and free of cognitive impairment who...
Article
Objective: Little is known about clients' preferences for family involvement and subsequent family contact in naturalistic, community-based coordinated specialty care (CSC) settings. The study's primary goal was to characterize clients' preferences and longitudinal patterns of family contact with providers across the OnTrackNY network in New York....
Preprint
Medical personnel working in emergency rooms (ER) are at increased risk of mental health problems and suicidality. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness-based interventions can improve burnout and other mental health outcomes in health care providers. In contrast, few longitudinal prospective studies have examined protective functions of di...
Article
Objective: Little is known about change over time in the prevalence of World Health Organization (WHO) risk drinking levels (very high, high, moderate, low) and their association with health conditions, overall and by gender. The authors used two sets of nationally representative U.S. survey data to determine whether changes over time varied by ge...
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Full-text available
Importance Limited information is available regarding the association between parental and adolescent medical prescription opioid use and misuse in the US. Objective To examine the associations between parental and adolescent prescription opioid medical use and misuse. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional, nationally representat...
Article
Importance Because more than one-third of people making nonfatal suicide attempts do not receive mental health treatment, it is essential to extend suicide attempt risk factors beyond high-risk clinical populations to the general adult population. Objective To identify future suicide attempt risk factors in the general population using a data-driv...
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Full-text available
This article examined substance use and sexual behavior by conducting an analysis of college students’ reported behaviors using a daily diary approach. By isolating particular sexual events across a 2-month period, we examined situational predictors of engagement in sex and of negative sexual experiences (coerced sex and/or sex that lacks perceived...
Article
Background: Mental health conditions impose a major burden worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where health specialists are scarce. A challenge to closing LMICs' mental health treatment gap is determining the most cost-effective task-shifting pathway for delivering mental health services using evidence-based interven...
Article
Background This study explores cross‐sectional associations between yoga and body image, mindful eating, disordered eating, and muscle‐enhancing behaviors among a population‐based sample of ethnically/racially diverse emerging adults. Method An ethnically/racially diverse population‐based sample of 1,568 emerging adults (18–26 years) completed sur...
Article
A strengthened evidence base and earmarked federal funding have spurred the implementation of coordinated specialty care (CSC) for people experiencing early psychosis. However, existing funding mechanisms are insufficient and unsustainable to support population-wide deployment of CSC. This article describes the design framework of an innovative pay...
Article
Background: Children with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are more likely to develop Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The reverse relationship - ADHD predicting subsequent ACEs - is vastly understudied, although it may be of great relevance to underserved populations highly exposed to ACEs. Methods: Participants were 5- to 1...
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Full-text available
Nationwide population-based cohort provides a new opportunity to build an automated risk prediction model based on individuals’ history of health and healthcare beyond existing risk prediction models. We tested the possibility of machine learning models to predict future incidence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using large-scale administrative health...
Article
Problems accessing affordable treatment are common among low-income adults with substance use disorders. A difference-in-differences analysis was performed to assess changes in insurance and treatment of low-income adults with common substance use disorders following the 2014 ACA Medicaid expansion, using data from the 2008–2017 National Surveys on...
Article
Aim In DSM-5, the definitions of substance use disorders (SUD) were changed considerably, yet little is known about the reliability of DSM-5 SUD and its new features. Methods The test-retest reliability of DSM-5 SUD and DSM-IV substance dependence (SD) was evaluated in 565 adult substance users, each interviewed twice by different clinician interv...
Article
Objective Slowed processing speed and executive dysfunction are associated with poor outcomes in Late Life Depression (LLD), though it is unclear why. We investigated whether these variables interfere with the development of positive treatment expectancies in an antidepressant trial. Methods Depressed older subjects were randomized to Open (intend...
Article
Despite the burden of sexual assault on college campuses, few effective prevention programs exist. Understanding the socio-ecological context in which sexual assaults occur may illuminate novel pathways to augment prevention. We examined data from 349 students at two inter-connected urban universities who completed a population-based survey ( N = 1...
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Full-text available
Background: Suicide risk among individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) is intractably high, with over 40% of individuals attempting to take their own lives during their lifetime and an estimated 5-10% completing suicide. At present, available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments offer limited risk reduction benefits, and thus, there remains...
Article
Aim We sought to explore the complex phenomenological overlap between obsessive and compulsive symptoms (OCS), and attenuated positive symptoms among 156 young people at clinical high‐risk (CHR) for psychosis. Methods In order to explore the hypothesis that OCS of an implausible nature might optimally predict future transition to syndromal psychos...
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Full-text available
Many privately insured adults with drug use disorders in the United States do not have health care coverage for drug use treatment. The Affordable Care Act sought to redress this gap by including substance use treatments as essential health benefits under new plans offered. This study used data from 11,732 privately insured adult participants of th...
Article
Background: Hearing loss (HL), late-life depression, and dementia are three prevalent and disabling conditions in older adults, but the inter-relationships between these disorders remain poorly understood. Methods: N=8,529 participants ≥60 years who were free of cognitive impairment at baseline were analyzed from National Alzheimer's Coordinatin...
Article
Objective: This study examined a cohort of 15,520 inpatient psychiatric discharges to determine associations between scheduling an outpatient mental health appointment as part of discharge planning and attending outpatient care following discharge after control for patient, hospital, and system characteristics. Methods: 2012-2013 New York State...
Article
Child maltreatment and elevated sensation seeking are associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. Longitudinal data from a study of Puerto Ricans living in two sociocultural contexts were used to determine whether child maltreatment subtypes, sex, or sociocultural context relate to trajectories of sensation seeking. Participants were 2,489 i...
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We report on the rationale and design of an ongoing NIMH sponsored R61-R33 project in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. This project studies augmenting the efficacy of auditory neuroplasticity cognitive remediation (AudRem) with D-serine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) glycine-site agonist. We operationalize improved...