Mélanie Plourde

Mélanie Plourde
Université de Sherbrooke | UdeS · Department of Medicine

About

85
Publications
10,242
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2,576
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2015 - June 2016
Université de Sherbrooke
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Background Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are suggested to play a role in the prevention of cognitive decline. The evidence may be inconsistent due to methodological issues including interrelations with other long-chain (14 or more carbons) fatty acids (LCFAs) and use of sex as a confounding factor rather than an effect modifier....
Article
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The defining features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include alterations in protein aggregation, immunity, lipid metabolism, synapses, and learning and memory. Of these, lipid abnormalities are the least understood. Here, we investigate the role of Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), a crucial regulator of fatty acid desaturation, in AD pathogenesis. We sh...
Article
Objective To investigate whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) supplementation improve cognitive performance and if apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype or age were effect modifiers. Methods Healthy adults of 20 to 80 years old (n=193) were completed a 6-month double-blind randomized controlled trial with two groups: 2.5 g/day of n-3...
Article
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a lipid involved in ATP synthesis, exhibits very limited oral absorption, and its endogenous production decreases with ageing and with the occurrence of oxidative stress. Our group previously showed that monoglycerides omega-3 (MAG-OM3) increase OM3 plasma concentrations. Since CoQ10 is liposoluble, we hypothesised that its 48...
Article
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) consumption reduces spatial memory impairment in mice carrying the human apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) allele. The current study evaluated whether astrocyte and microglia morphology contribute to the mechanism of this result. APOE3 and APOE4 mice were fed either a DHA-enriched diet or a control diet from 4 to 12 months of a...
Article
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of several neurological disorders including AD. Studying the mechanisms underlying the olfactory dysfunction may lead to the discovery of biomarkers and/or treatments for neurodegenerative diseases...
Article
Olfactory dysfunction is observed in several neurological disorders including Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). These deficits occur early and correlate with global cognitive performance, depression and degeneration of olfactory regions in the brain. Despite extensive human studies, there has been little characterization o...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive neuron losses in memory-related brain structures. The classical features of AD are a dysregulation of the cholinergic system, the accumulation of amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Unfortunately, current treatments are unable to cure or even...
Article
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Background A diet low in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) results in low plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the two main long chain n-3 FA. n-3 FA supplements on the market are esterified in triglycerides (TG) or ethyl ester (EE); the latter is absorbed less than other esterification forms. The objectiv...
Article
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Many prospective studies have shown that a diet enriched in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can improve cognitive function during normal aging and prevent the development of neurocognitive diseases. However, researchers have not elucidated how n-3 PUFAs are transferred from the blood to the brain or how they relate to cognitive scor...
Article
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Given the focus on developing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) based on chronic disease risk reduction and recent research for omega-3 long chain PUFA since the last DRI review, the Canadian Nutrition Society convened a panel of stakeholders for a 1-day workshop in late 2019. Attendees discussed the new NASEM guidelines for establishing DRI values...
Article
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Background: Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplements increase blood concentrations of EPA and DHA. Most of the supplements on the market are esterified in triglycerides (TGs) or ethyl esters (EEs), which limits their absorption and may cause gastrointestinal side effects. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the 24-h AUC of the...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) and intraneuronal tau protein aggregations. One risk factor for developing AD is the APOE gene coding for the apolipoprotein E protein (apoE). Humans have three versions of APOE gene: ε2, ε3, and ε4 allele. Carrying the ε4 allele is an...
Article
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Symptoms include memory dysfunction, and also alterations in attention, planning, language and overall cognitive function. Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of several neurological disorders including AD. Studying the mechanisms underlying the olfac...
Article
Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often accompanied by metabolic abnormalities and inflammation that might play a role in the development of cognitive impairment. The use of ketogenic medium-chain triglycerides (kMCT) to improve cognition in this population has shown promising results but remains controversial because of the potential...
Article
In Canada, 5.5 million (16% of Canadians) adults are >65 years old and projections suggest this number will be approximately 20% of Canadians by 2024. A major concern regarding old age is a decline in health, especially if this entails a loss of self-sufficiency and independence caused by a decline in cognition. The brain contains 60% of fat and is...
Article
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In Canada, ∼17 millions of adults between 30–64 years old could benefit from a prevention strategy to lower the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). My group is working on a population that is particularly at risk of AD, the carriers of an epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (E4), a genetic risk. Around 20% of the population in industrial countries h...
Article
Fatty acids are among the most studied nutrients in human metabolism and health. Endogenous fatty acid status influences health and disease via multiple mechanisms at all stages of the life cycle. Despite widespread interest, attempts to summarize the results of multiple studies addressing similar fatty acid-related outcomes via meta-analyses and s...
Article
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Background HNF4α, also referred as maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY-1), is a transcription factor that regulates differentiation, inflammation and metabolism. HNF4α regulatory function of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism has been mostly studied in relation to liver and pancreatic functions. Since the gut can actively participate in regulatin...
Article
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Background HNF4α is a transcription factor known to regulate the intestinal epithelium homeostasis. Since HNF4α is also involved in nutrient metabolism, we questioned its ability to regulate systemic physiology from its specific alteration in the intestine. Upon a conditional deletion of HNF4A from the intestinal epithelium, we evidenced a deficien...
Article
Background: The goal was to evaluate whether there was neurodevelopmental deficits in newborns born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to control newborns born to healthy mothers. Methods: Forty-six pregnant women (21 controls and 25 GDM) were recruited. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in the newborns within 48...
Article
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to prevent, and partially reverse, neurotoxin-induced nigrostriatal denervation in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the accumulation of α-synuclein (αSyn) in cerebral tissues is equally important to the pathophysiology. To determin...
Article
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In intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), it was reported that the activation of the P2X7 receptor leads to the internalization of the glucose transporter GLUT2, which is accompanied by a reduction of IEC capacity to transport glucose. In this study, we used P2rx7−/− mice to decipher P2X7 functions in intestinal glucose transport and to evaluate the im...
Article
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Background: Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations increase with age. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate EPA and AA metabolism in young and old men by using uniformly labeled carbon-13 (¹³C) fatty acids. Design: Six young (∼25 y old) and 6 old (∼75 y old) healthy men were recruited. Each participan...
Article
Carriers of an epsilon 4 allele (E4) of apolipoprotein E (APOE) develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) earlier than carriers of other APOE alleles. The metabolism of plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n − 3), an omega-3 fatty acid (n − 3 FA), taken up by the brain and concentrated in neurons, is disrupted in E4 carriers, resulting in lower levels of b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations increase with age.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate EPA and AA metabolism in young and old men by using uniformly labeled carbon-13 ((13)C) fatty acids.Design: Six young (∼25 y old) and 6 old (∼75 y old) healthy men were recruited. Each participan...
Article
At a population level, dietary consumption of fish rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with prevention of cognitive decline but this association is not clear in carriers of the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele (E4). Plasma and liver DHA concentrations show significant alterations in E4 carriers, in part corrected by DHA supplementatio...
Article
Objective: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is vital for fetal development especially during the third trimester of gestation when the speed of fetal brain growth is at its peak. Diabetes modifies the maternal fatty acid profile, which may in turn change the quantity and/or quality of lipids transferred to the fetus. Neonates born to diabetic mothers mi...
Article
The case for supporting nutrition research in Canada is many-fold. The enormous healthcare spending on largely preventable chronic diseases in all major countries, including Canada, is well documented. These issues have reached epidemic proportions costing billions in direct and indirect costs to the Canadian healthcare system and many years of los...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the fatty acid profile of cord blood phospholipids (PL), cholesteryl esters (CE), triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to non-diabetic mothers. Methods: The offspring of 30 pregnant women (15 non-diabetic controls, 15 with die...
Article
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Background: Metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) is disturbed in carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele (APOE4). More specifically, APOE4 carriers are lower responders to ω-3 (n-3) LC-PUFA supplementation; this might be because LC-PUFA transport into cells or β-oxidation is disturbed. However, high doses of di...
Conference Paper
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Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are involved in signalling pathways that control a wide range of bodily functions, notably inflammatory response. We previously gave a single dose of 13C-docosahexaenoic acid (13C-DHA) to six young (~25 yrs old) and six older (~75 yrs old) participants and we found that 4 h after the tracer intake, 1...
Article
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Background: Carriers of the apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APOE4) allele are lower responders to a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplement than are noncarriers. This effect could be exacerbated in overweight individuals because DHA metabolism changes according to body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²). Objectives: We evaluated the plasma fatty acid (FA) response t...
Article
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DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid, is an important constituent of brain membranes and has a key role in brain development and function. This review aims to highlight recent research on DHA's role during age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Animal and in vitro studies have provided some interesting mechanistic leads, especially on brain g...
Article
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) metabolism seems to be disrupted in carriers of the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (E4+). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the ω-3 PUFA distribution in the high and low density lipoproteins is APOE-genotype dependant before and after supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs. Eighty par...
Article
Full-text available
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein playing a pivotal role in lipid homeostasis since it regulates cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid metabolism in the blood and the brain. APOE gene regulates the expression of this protein and has three different alleles: ε2, ε3 and ε4. Carrying an APOE4 allele is recognised as a genetic risk factor of la...
Article
Full-text available
We have previously demonstrated that carrying the apolipoprotein (apo) E epsilon 4 (E4+) genotype disrupts omega-3 fatty acids (n − 3 PUFA) metabolism. Here we hypothesise that the postprandial clearance of n − 3 PUFA from the circulation is faster in E4+ compared to non-carriers (E4−). The objective of the study was to investigate the fasted and p...
Article
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Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) kinetics appear to change with intake, which is an effect that we studied in an older population by using uniformly carbon-13-labeled DHA ((13)C-DHA). Objective: We evaluated the influence of a fish-oil supplement over 5 mo on the kinetics of (13)C-DHA in older persons. Design: Thirty-four healthy, cognit...
Article
Higher intakes of omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mainly through the consumption of fatty fish, are associated with a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease. However, omega-3 supplementation trials in Alzheimer's disease patients failed to delay the progression of cognitive decline suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids are likely a...
Article
Benefits on cognition from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) intake are absent in humans carrying apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4), the most important genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). To test the hypothesis that carrying APOE4 impairs DHA distribution, we evaluated plasma and brain fatty acid profiles and uptake of [(14) C]-DH...
Article
The aim of the present study was to perform a short-term safety evaluation of dietary mono-conjugated α-linolenic acid isomers (CLNA; c9-t11-c15-18:3 + c9-t13-c15-18:3) using a neonatal pig model. CLNA diet was compared with three other dietary fats: 1) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; c9-t11-18:2 + t10-c12-18:2), 2) non-conjugated n-3 PUFA and 3) n-...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological studies fairly convincingly suggest that higher intakes of fatty fish and n-3 fatty acids are associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). DHA in plasma is normally positively associated with DHA intake. However, despite being associated with lower fish and DHA intake, unexpectedly, plasma (or brain) DHA is frequently n...
Article
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There is an increased interest in the benefits of conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA) on obesity-related complications such as insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a 1 % dietary supplementation of mono-CLNA isomers (c9-t11-c15-18:3 + c9-t13-c15-18:3) improved glucose and lipid metabolism in neonatal pigs....
Article
Full-text available
Carrying the apoE ε4 allele (E4+) is the most important genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. Unlike non-carriers (E4 - ), E4+ seem not to be protected against Alzheimer's disease when consuming fish. We hypothesised that this may be linked to a disturbance in n-3 DHA metabolism in E4+. The aim of the present study was to evaluate [13C]DHA metaboli...
Article
Inflammation is an important factor linking abdominal obesity with insulin resistance and related cardiometabolic risk. A genome-wide association study of adiposity-related traits performed in the Quebec Family Study (QFS) revealed that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the LRRFIP1 gene (rs11680012) was associated with abdominal adiposity (...
Article
Aging is the most important risk factor of cognitive decline and dementia. Genetics clearly increase the risk of cognitive decline whereas nutrition is an environmental factor potentially affecting the risk. This chapter reviews the available data with regard to dietary fatty acid intake and risk of cognitive decline. The focus is specifically on t...
Article
Full-text available
The usefulness of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a nutraceutical remains ambiguous. Our objective was, therefore, to investigate the effect of CLA on body composition, blood lipids, and safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. A double-blinded, 3-phase crossover trial was conducted in overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), borderline hyperch...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological studies suggest a protective role of omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) against Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, most intervention studies of supplementation with n-3 PUFA have yielded disappointing results. One reason for such discordant results may result from inadequate targeting of individuals who might benefit fr...
Article
Canada's population is expected to age more rapidly in the coming years and a major concern about old age is a decline in health, especially if this means a loss of self-sufficiency and independence. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is associated with a lower risk of cardiac infarct and cognitive decline. However, we have outlined f...
Article
Full-text available
Very preterm infants are vulnerable to deficiency in DHA. In a longitudinal study, 10 mothers who delivered ≤29 wk gestation and planned to breast-feed received DHA (1200 mg/d) until 36 wk after conception. The plasma DHA status was assessed in their 12 infants (including 2 pairs of twins) from birth to d 49. Fatty acid profiles were measured weekl...
Article
Full-text available
Higher fish or higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake normally correlates positively with higher plasma DHA level, but recent evidence suggests that the positive relationship between intake and plasma levels of DHA is less clear in the elderly. We compared the metabolism of 13C-DHA in six healthy elderly (mean - 77 y old) and six young adults (me...
Article
Aging is the most important risk factor of cognitive decline. Genetic and environment both modulate the risk of cognitive decline and may somehow interact together. Better cognition during aging is apparently linked to higher omega-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes notably eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) mostly coming from fish a...
Article
Full-text available
Our objective was to determine whether bezafibrate, a hypotriglyceridemic drug and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonist, is ketogenic and increases fatty acid oxidation in humans. We measured fatty acid metabolism and ketone levels in 13 mildly hypertriglycemic adults (67 +/- 11 years old) during 2 metabolic study days la...
Article
The elderly reportedly have a significantly higher % of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in plasma and red cell lipids. However, these observations are from a few small studies and the health status of the elderly in these studies is for the most part unclear. Since the elderly are susceptible to cardiovascular and neurologica...
Article
Aging is the most important risk factor of cognitive decline. Genetic and environment both modulate the risk of cognitive decline and may somehow interact together. Better cognition during aging is apparently linked to higher omega-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes notably eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) mostly coming from fish a...
Chapter
Cognitive impairment in the elderly, particularly in the form of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), has emerged in the past 20 years as a major challenge to the quality of life for the elderly and their caregivers, and to healthcare resources. AD is the most common form of dementia and the primary neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly. Once it is clinic...
Article
Full-text available
The risk of Alzheimer's disease is increased for carriers of apoE4 (E4) or the PPAR-alpha L162V polymorphism (L162V), but it is decreased in fish and seafood consumers. The link between high fish intake and reduced risk of cognitive decline in the elderly appears not to hold in carriers of E4, possibly because better cognition is linked to EPA+DHA...
Article
Cognitive decline in the elderly, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a major socio-economic and healthcare concern. We review here the literature on one specific aspect of diet affecting AD, that of the omega3 fatty acids, particularly the brain's principle omega3 fatty acid - docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA has deservedly received wide atte...
Article
Full-text available
To determine whether the metabolism of glucose or ketones differs in the healthy elderly compared to young or middle-aged adults during mild, short-term ketosis induced by a ketogenic breakfast. Healthy subjects in three age groups (23 +/- 1, 50 +/- 1 and 76 +/- 2 y old) were given a ketogenic meal and plasma beta -hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin...