Melanie Greenland

Melanie Greenland
University of Oxford | OX · Oxford Vaccine Group

Master of Science

About

44
Publications
9,203
Reads
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5,357
Citations
Citations since 2017
44 Research Items
5355 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500
Additional affiliations
March 2017 - present
University of Western Australia
Position
  • Research Associate
June 2015 - January 2017
University of Oxford
Position
  • Statistician

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Full-text available
Background In women with late preterm pre-eclampsia (i.e. at 34 ⁺⁰ to 36 ⁺⁶ weeks’ gestation), the optimal delivery time is unclear because limitation of maternal–fetal disease progression needs to be balanced against infant complications. The aim of this trial was to determine whether or not planned earlier initiation of delivery reduces maternal...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains a leading cause of pediatric morbidity, with no approved vaccine. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the Ad26.RSV.preF vaccine candidate in adults and children. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, phase 1/2a, placebo-controlled study, 12 adults (18-50 years) and 36 RSV-seropo...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We evaluated the best time to initiate delivery in late preterm pre-eclampsia in order to optimise long-term infant and maternal outcomes. Design: Parallel-group, non-masked, randomised controlled trial SETTING: 46 UK maternity units POPULATION: Women with pre-eclampsia between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks' gestation, without severe disease, w...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Populations at increased risk of dementia need to be identified for well-powered trials of preventive interventions. Weight loss, which often occurs in pre-clinical dementia, could identify a population at sufficiently high dementia risk. Methods: In 12,975 survivors in the Heart Protection Study statin trial of people with, or at...
Article
Background: Pregnancy is associated with complications which must be differentiated from adverse events associated with the administration of vaccines during pregnancy both in clinical trials and post licensure surveillance. The frequency of pregnancy related complications varies significantly by geographical location and the prevalence of pregnanc...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: There is currently limited evidence on the costs associated with late preterm pre-eclampsia beyond antenatal care and post-natal discharge from hospital. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the 24-month cost-utility of planned delivery for women with late preterm pre-eclampsia at 34+0-36+6 weeks' gestation compared to expectant management...
Article
BACKGROUND: Priming COVID-19 vaccine schedules have been deployed at variable intervals globally, which might influence immune persistence and the relative importance of third-dose booster programmes. Here, we report exploratory analyses from the Com-COV trial, assessing the effect of 4-week versus 12-week priming intervals on reactogenicity and th...
Article
Full-text available
Background Priming COVID-19 vaccine schedules have been deployed at variable intervals globally, which might influence immune persistence and the relative importance of third-dose booster programmes. Here, we report exploratory analyses from the Com-COV trial, assessing the effect of 4-week versus 12-week priming intervals on reactogenicity and the...
Article
Full-text available
Although medication adherence is commonly measured in electronic datasets using the proportion of days covered (PDC), no standardized approach is used to calculate and report this measure. We conducted a scoping review to understand the approaches taken to calculate and report the PDC for cardiovascular medicines to develop improved guidance for re...
Article
Background: priming COVID-19 vaccine schedules have been deployed at variable intervals globally, which may influence immune persistence and the relative importance of third-dose ‘booster’ programmes. Here, we report on the impact of 4- versus 12-week priming intervals on reactogenicity and the persistence of immune response up to 6 months followin...
Article
Full-text available
Background Given the importance of flexible use of different COVID-19 vaccines within the same schedule to facilitate rapid deployment, we studied mixed priming schedules incorporating an adenoviral-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 [ChAd], AstraZeneca), two mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 [BNT], Pfizer–BioNTech, and mRNA-1273 [m1273], Moderna) and a nanop...
Article
Full-text available
Background Typhoid fever remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries. Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TT) is recommended by WHO for implementation in high-burden countries, but there is little evidence about its ability to protect against clinical typhoid in such settings. Methods We did a par...
Article
Full-text available
Background Use of heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine schedules could facilitate mass COVID-19 immunisation. However, we have previously reported that heterologous schedules incorporating an adenoviral vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, AstraZeneca; hereafter referred to as ChAd) and an mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2, Pfizer–BioNTech; hereafter refer...
Article
Background and Purpose Although a target of 80% medication adherence is commonly cited, it is unclear whether greater adherence improves survival after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We investigated associations between medication adherence during the first year postdischarge, and mortality up to 3 years, to provide evidence-based targe...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To analyse the timing and scale of temporal changes in rates of hospitalised myocardial infarction (MI) in England by age and sex from 1968 to 2016. Methods MI admissions for adults aged 15–84 years were identified from electronic hospital data. We calculated age-standardised and age-specific rates, and examined trends using joinpoint. Result...
Article
It is generally recommended that medications only be used in pregnancy where the potential harms to both the mother and foetus are outweighed by the potential benefits. Despite the known harms associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy, the use of medication for the treatment of pregnant women with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) appears to...
Article
Full-text available
Background The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has been approved for emergency use by the UK regulatory authority, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, with a regimen of two standard doses given with an interval of 4–12 weeks. The planned roll-out in the UK will involve vaccinating people in high-risk categories with their first d...
Article
Full-text available
Background A new variant of SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7, emerged as the dominant cause of COVID-19 disease in the UK from November, 2020. We report a post-hoc analysis of the efficacy of the adenoviral vector vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), against this variant. Methods Volunteers (aged ≥18 years) who were enrolled in phase 2/3 vaccine efficacy studie...
Article
Full-text available
Background The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine has been approved for emergency use by the UK regulatory authority, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, with a regimen of two standard doses given with an interval of 4-12 weeks. The planned roll-out in the UK will involve vaccinating people in high-risk categories with their first d...
Article
Full-text available
Background A safe and efficacious vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), if deployed with high coverage, could contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a pooled interim analysis of four trials. Methods This analysis includes dat...
Article
Background In 2018, the World Health Organization prioritized control of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD), including disease surveillance. We developed strategies for estimating contemporary ARF/RHD incidence and prevalence in Australia (2015–2017) by age group, sex, and region for Indigenous and non‐Indigenous Australi...
Article
(Lancet. 2019;394:1181–1190) Preeclampsia occurs in 2% to 3% of pregnant women and is associated with substantial maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Prompt delivery is the recommended management for preeclamptic women after 37 weeks’ gestation, as this will decrease the risk of maternal complications while minimally affecting risk to th...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The E-Freeze trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial of fresh versus frozen embryo transfer for women undergoing in vitro fertilisation. This paper describes the statistical analysis plan for the E-Freeze trial. Methods and design: E-Freeze is a two-arm parallel-group, multi-centre, individually randomised controlled tria...
Article
Full-text available
Adherence to cardioprotective medications following myocardial infarction (MI) is commonly assessed using a binary threshold of 80%. We investigated the relationship between medication adherence as a continuous measure and outcomes in MI survivors using restricted cubic splines (RCS). We identified all patients aged ≥65 years hospitalised for MI fr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: International Classification of Diseases codes for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) (ICD-10 I05-I08) include valvular heart disease of unspecified origin, limiting their usefulness for estimating RHD burden. An expert opinion-based algorithm was developed to increase their accuracy for epidemiological case ascertainment. The algorithm inc...
Article
Full-text available
This retrospective study assessed maternal and perinatal outcomes for women with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) admitted to the largest tertiary obstetric hospital in Western Australia from 2009 to 2016. Of 54 women identified, 75.9% were Indigenous, 59.3% lived in rural areas and 40.7% had severe RHD. Heart failure developed in 10% who gave birth....
Conference Paper
Background Population-based coronary heart disease (CHD) studies have historically focused on myocardial infarction (MI) with limited data on trends across the spectrum of CHD. We investigated trends in hospitalisation rates for acute and chronic CHD subgroups in England and Australia from 1996–2013. Methods CHD hospitalisations for 35–84 year old...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In women with late preterm pre-eclampsia, the optimal time to initiate delivery is unclear because limitation of maternal disease progression needs to be balanced against infant complications. The aim of this trial was to determine whether planned earlier initiation of delivery reduces maternal adverse outcomes without substantial wors...
Article
Background Population-based coronary heart disease (CHD) studies have focused on myocardial infarction (MI) with limited data on trends across the spectrum of CHD. We investigated trends in hospitalisation rates for acute and chronic CHD subgroups in England and Australia from 1996 to 2013. Methods CHD hospitalisations for individuals aged 35–84 y...
Article
Full-text available
Background Electronic health care data contain rich information on medicine use from which adherence can be estimated. Various measures developed with medication claims data called for transparency of the equations used, predominantly because they may overestimate adherence, and even more when used with multiple medications. We aimed to operational...
Article
Objective: To investigate differences in the profile and outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians (WAs) hospitalized with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Setting: WA hospitals. Participants: TBI cases aged 15 to 79 years surviving their first admission during 2002-2011. Design: Patients identified from diagnostic code...
Article
Full-text available
The microbial dysbiosis associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants suggests that early exposure to probiotics may decrease and antibiotics may increase NEC risk. However, administration of Bifidobacterium breve strain BBG-001 to preterm infants did not affect NEC incidence in a multicenter randomised controlled phase 3 trial...

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