Meine Van Noordwijk

Meine Van Noordwijk
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research | CGIAR · World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)

PhD Wageningen, 1987

About

668
Publications
265,931
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Introduction
Trained as an ecologist, I have worked at the scales of plant root systems, belowground interactions in agroforestry, water, carbon, nutrient relations, models of plant growth and land use, and the social, economic and policy aspects of payments and rewards for ecosystem services. Many publications can be downloaded from http://apps.worldagroforestry.org/region/sea/publications
Additional affiliations
June 1993 - present
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
Position
  • Patterns, drivers, consequences of tree cover transitions
June 1993 - present
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
Position
  • Formerly regional coordinator SE Asia, currently Chief Science Advisor

Publications

Publications (668)
Article
Mardiani MO, Kusumawati IA, Purnamasari E, Prayogo C, van Noordwijk V, Hairiah K. 2022. Local ecological knowledge of coffee agroforestry farmers on earthworms and their relation to soil quality in East Java (Indonesia). Biodiversitas 23: 3344-3354. Farmers manage their land-based on their understanding of biotic and abiotic factors, including soil...
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Participatory integrated assessment (PIA) emerged as a response to conventional integrated assessment methods in the mid-to-late 1990s. PIA is based on the tenet that more inclusive stakeholder involvement may lead to increased accountability and legitimacy in decision-making, greater levels of trust and social learning between participants, and im...
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Biomass is fundamental to circular agricultural systems. Estimates of above- and below-ground biomass on agricultural land based upon IPCC Tier 1 estimates are compared with an updated carbon density map based on remote sensing, with results indicating the methodology and initial estimations are robust. Two scenarios are evaluated to estimate carbo...
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Background and purpose Volcanic eruptions of pyroclastic tephra, including the ash-sized fraction (< 2 mm; referred to as volcanic ash), have negative direct impacts on soil quality. The intensity (deposit thickness, particle-size distribution) and frequency (return period) of tephra deposition influence soil formation. Vulnerability and subsequent...
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The Indonesian state forest managers have accepted farmer-managed coffee agroforestry in their estates as part of their social forestry program. Access by local farming communities to state-owned plantation forestry supports public motivation to maintain forest cover. However, balancing the expectations and needs of forest managers with those of th...
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Key highlights • Oil palm is native to West Africa with local (‘artisanal’) processing of palm oil, from where it spread and expanded globally as an essential commodity for several industries. • In Africa, oil palm production systems include agro-industrial plantations, contract plantations, and independent production systems, the latter either as...
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In order to facilitate hydrological restoration, initiatives have been conducted to promote tree growth in degraded and rewetted peatlands in Indonesia. For these initiatives to be successful, tree seedlings need to be able to survive flooding episodes, with or without shade. We investigated the survival rates and the formation of adventitious root...
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Backgrounds and aims Litter protects the underlying soil, depending on litterfall and decomposition, but dynamics of the standing litter stock in agroforestry systems remain poorly understood. We aimed to unravel effects of litter quality, temporal patterns, microclimate, and a possible home-field advantage (HFA) on standing litter dynamics across...
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Until recently, many so-called neglected and underutilized species (NUS) were not present in global markets despite playing a pivotal role in the local livelihoods in their places of origin. Today, some NUS receive substantial global interest and face growing global demands. Sudden increases in consumer demand trigger prices to rise; land-use chang...
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A main question in restoration of degraded forests and forest landscapes recovering from logging and fire is what to expect from natural regeneration through surviving propagules in the soil or seed sources and associated dispersal agents from the surrounding landscape mosaic, as alternative to tree planting. Tree diversity in secondary forests may...
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Peatlands are shaped by slow litter decomposition, but threshold decomposition rates that allow peat formation remain unclear. Can agroforestry in the tropics be compatible with paludiculture that allows peat formation? We explored the determinants of litter decomposition in wet agroforests adjacent to tropical peatlands in Central Kalimantan (Indo...
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In Indonesian development policy, soil security is primarily understood as part of food security, expansion of the plantation economy, and resettlement schemes rather than as soil-related Sustainable-Development-Goal concerns for health, water, energy, jobs, protection from disasters, changing climates, life in water and life on land. A recent pape...
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Metrics of hydrological mimicry ('mimetrics') reflect similarity in ecological structure and/or functions between managed and natural ecosystems. Only the land-surface parts of hydrological cycles are directly visible and represented in local knowledge and water-related legislation. Human impacts on water cycles (HIWC) can, beyond climate change, a...
Article
The urgent global reduction of greenhouse gas emissions depends on political commitments to common but differentiated responsibility. Carbon footprints as a metric of attributable emissions reflect individually determined contributions within, and aggregated national contributions between, countries. Footprints per unit product (e.g., of food, feed...
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In order to facilitate hydrological restoration efforts, initiatives have been conducted to promote tree growth in degraded and rewetted peatlands in Indonesia. For this initiatives to be successful, tree seedlings need to be able to survive flooding episodes, with or without shade. We investigated the survival of different shading and water levels...
Preprint
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Background and PurposeAbove- and belowground organic inputs feed decomposer communities in the soil enhancing soil organic matter (C org ) formation, depending on the vegetation, soil, contextual factors and human management of (agro)ecosystems. Plant-soil feedback in volcanic ash rapidly increases C org during transformation to Andisols. We quanti...
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Agroforestry generally contributes to rural food and nutrition security (FNS). However, specialization on commodity-oriented agroforestry practices or management strategies can weaken local food sourcing when terms of trade fluctuate, as is the case of coffee in Ethiopia. Hence, this study assessed the trade-offs that smallholder farming households...
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Increased agricultural use of tropical peatlands has negative environmental effects. Drainage leads to landscape-wide degradation and fire risks. Livelihood strategies in peatland ecosystems have traditionally focused on transitions from riverbanks to peatland forests. Riparian ‘Kaleka’ agroforests with more than 100 years of history persist in the...
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Agroforestry, land use at the agriculture-forestry interface that implies the presence of trees on farms and/or farmers in forests, has a history that may be as old as agriculture, but as an overarching label and topic of formal scientific analysis, it is in its fifth decade [...]
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Agroforestry as active area of multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary research aims to bridge several artificial divides that have respectable historical roots but hinder progress toward sustainable development goals. These include: (1) The segregation of “forestry trees” and “agricultural crops”, ignoring the continuity in functional properties and...
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Fire and overgrazing reduce aboveground biomass, leading to land degradation and potential impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) dynamics. However, empirical data are lacking on how prescribed burning and livestock exclusion impact SOC in the long-term. Here we analyse the effects of 19 years of prescribed annual burning and...
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Production landscapes depend on, but also affect, ecosystem services. In the Rejoso watershed (East Java, Indonesia), uncontrolled groundwater use for paddies reduces flow of lowland pressure-driven artesian springs that supply drinking water to urban stakeholders. Analysis of the water balance suggested that the decline by about 30% in spring disc...
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Agroforestry (AF)-based adaptation to global climate change can consist of (1) reversal of negative trends in diverse tree cover as generic portfolio risk management strategy; (2) targeted, strategic, shift in resource capture (e.g. light, water) to adjust to changing conditions (e.g. lower or more variable rainfall, higher temperatures); (3) veget...
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More than 500 lakes in Indonesia have been recognized as important parts of local economies and, at least in some cases, identity, but there is little literature on resource management and collective action. By reviewing literature and using a 'serious game', this paper aims to (1) review some of the currently used generic frameworks for understand...
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A systematic approach to tree planting and management globally is hindered by the limited synthesis of information sources on tree uses and species priorities. To help address this, the authors ‘mined’ information from 23 online global and regional databases to assemble a list of the most frequent tree species deemed useful for planting according t...
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Natural regeneration depends on surviving propagules in the soil, seed sources from a surrounding landscape mosaic, and dispersal agents. We compiled and analyzed four sets of case studies varying in degree of disturbance, for secondary forests recovering from logging, fire, and conversion to agroforest in Sumatra or Kalimantan (Indonesia) on miner...
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The way the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted human lives and livelihoods constituted a stress test for agroecosystems in developing countries, as part of rural–urban systems and the global economy. We applied two conceptual schemes to dissect the evidence in peer-reviewed literature so far, as a basis for better understanding and enabling ‘building back...
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The shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa, shields people, crops and livestock in West African parkland agroforestry systems from climate variability. Accurate estimates of accumulated biomass of such key species may support ways to secure financial incentives within global climate policies. In this quest, variation in allometric relations used for biomas...
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The conversion of natural forests to different land uses still occurs in various parts of Southeast Asia with poor records of impact on ecosystem services and biodiversity. We quantified such impacts on earthworm diversity in two communes of Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Both communes are situated within buffer zones of a nature reserve where remain...
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The shea tree, Vitellaria paradoxa, shields people, crops and livestock in West African parkland agroforestry systems from climate variability. Accurate estimates of accumulated biomass of such key species may support ways to secure financial incentives within global climate policies. In this quest, variation in allometric relations used for biomas...
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Migration connects land use in areas of origin with areas of new residence, impacting both through individual, gendered choices on the use of land, labor, and knowledge. Synthesizing across two case studies in Indonesia, we focus on five aspects: (i) conditions within the community of origin linked to the reason for people to venture elsewhere, tem...
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With 15–20% of Indonesian oil palms located, without a legal basis and permits, within the forest zone (‘Kawasan hutan’), international concerns regarding deforestation affect the totality of Indonesian palm oil export. ‘Forest zone oil palm’ (FZ-OP) is a substantive issue that requires analysis and policy change. While spatial details of FZ-OP rem...
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Volcanic eruptions disturb vegetation at a time it is needed for preventing mudflows. A resilient indigenous non-legume nitrogen-fixing tree that is adapted to the ash and spreads rapidly protects areas downstream in a volcanic landscape in Indonesia. Within the volcanic ring of fire both the long-term benefits (including densely populated, fertile...
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Alternating degradation and restoration phases of soil quality, as is common in crop-fallow systems, can be avoided if the restorative elements of trees and forests can be integrated into productive agroforestry systems. However, evidence for the hypothesis of ‘internal restoration’ in agroforestry is patchy and the effectiveness may depend on loca...
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In Southeast Asia, 8.5% of the global human population lives on 3.0% of the land area. With 7.9% of the global agricultural land base, the region has 14.7% and 28.9% of such land with at least 10% and 30% tree cover, respectively, and is the worlds’ primary home of ‘agroforests’. Landscapes in the region include the full range of ‘forest transition...
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Belowground roles of agroforestry in climate change mitigation (C storage) and adaptation (reduced vulnerability to drought) are less obvious than easy-to-measure aspects aboveground. Documentation on these roles is lacking. We quantified the organic C concentration (Corg) and soil physical properties in a mountainous landscape in Sulawesi (Indones...
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Nine Latin American countries plan to use silvopastoral practices—incorporating trees into grazing lands—to mitigate climate change. However, the cumulative potential of scaling up silvopastoral systems at national levels is not well quantified. Here, we combined previously published tree cover data based on 250 m resolution MODIS satellite remote...
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If 150 years of continued use counts as a sustainability indicator, the river-bank agroforests in the peat landscapes of Central Kalimantan suggest solutions for current challenges. The 2015 fire season in Indonesian peatlands triggered a fire ban and peatland restoration response, prioritizing canal blocking and rewetting. However, sustainable liv...
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Background and aims Trade-offs between ecological benefits and potential yield and growth reductions associated with the inclusion of shade trees in cocoa agroforests remain poorly understood. In this study we investigate interactions between shade and cocoa trees in cocoa agroforests in terms of soil fertility and cocoa productivity. Methods We q...
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Tree root systems stabilize hillslopes and riverbanks, reducing landslide risk, but related data for the humid tropics are scarce. We tested fractal allometry hypotheses on differences in the vertical and horizontal distribution of roots of trees commonly found in agroforestry systems and on shear strength of soil in relation to root length density...
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Restoration depends on purpose and context. At the core it entails innovation to halt ongoing and reverse past degradation. It aims for increased functionality, not necessarily recovering past system states. Location-specific interventions in social-ecological systems reducing proximate pressures, need to synergize with transforming generic drivers...
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Location-specific forms of agroforestry management can reduce problems in the forest–water–people nexus, by balancing upstream and downstream interests, but social and ecological finetuning is needed. New ways of achieving shared understanding of the underlying ecological and social-ecological relations is needed to adapt and contextualize generic...
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Forest conversion to agriculture can induce the loss of hydrologic functions linked to infiltration. Infiltration-friendly agroforestry land uses minimize this loss. Our assessment of forest-derived land uses in the Rejoso Watershed on the slopes of the Bromo volcano in East Java (Indonesia) focused on two zones, upstream (above 800 m a.s.l.; Andis...
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Plural valuation is about eliciting the diverse values of nature articulated by different stakeholders in order to inform decision making and thus achieve more equitable and sustainable outcomes. We explore what approaches align with plural valuation on the ground, as well as how different social-ecological contexts play a role in translating plura...
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Soil changes matter for the global carbon (C) balance although belowground response to land use change is slower and less obvious than that aboveground. Impacts of changes from natural forest to a range of intermediate tree-based land uses (‘agroforestry’) and non-tree agriculture remain contested. Standard C-stock accounting for a fixed sampling d...
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Agroforestry, as platform for harmonizing agriculture and forestry in their interactions with landscapes and rural and peri(urban) livelihoods, offers opportunities to benefit from synergies across sustainable development goals (SDGs), and deal with the unavoidable tradeoffs. Such synergy, however, may only emerge if site-specific analysis of the m...
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The degree to which the maintenance of carbon (C) stocks and tree diversity can be jointly achieved in production landscapes is debated. C stocks in forests are decreased by logging before tree diversity is affected, while C stocks in monoculture tree plantations increase, but diversity does not. Agroforestry can break this hysteresis pattern, rele...
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Decisions on the use of nature reflect the values and rights of individuals, communities and society at large. The values of nature are expressed through cultural norms, rules and legislation, and they can be elicited using a wide range of tools, including those of economics. None of the approaches to elicit peoples’ values are neutral. Unequal pow...
Preprint
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Abstract. Forest conversion to agriculture or agroforestry may increase risks of loss of hydrologic functions in an era of climate change. Infiltration during high-intensity rainfall is important for avoiding erosion and feeding aquifers but depends on land use practices that maintain soil macroporosity. In the forest-to-open-field-agriculture cont...
Chapter
This chapter reviews how global change affects forest-water interactions and water availability to ecosystems and people and synthesises current understanding of the implications of present and anticipated changes to forests and tree cover for local and global hydrology. Forest cover has declined in the past half-century, despite an increase in pla...
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Driven by increased global demand for vegetable oil in the food and biofuel sectors, oil palm plantations based on monoculture technology have expanded into lowland tropical forests. Interest in diversified, mixed oil palm systems is increasing as these might increase efficiency of the use of land and other resources, reduce farmer risk, and decrea...
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Palm oil expansion in tropical forest margins captures headlines, primarily out of concern that encroachment to tropical forest causes environmental problem and ignites social issues [1]. Sustainability has to be understood in the wider context of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), rather than as primarily a plot-level ecological concern...