Mei-Fu Zhou

Mei-Fu Zhou
The University of Hong Kong | HKU · Department of Earth Sciences

PhD

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461
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Publications

Publications (461)
Article
Podiform chromitites in the mantle sections of ophiolites belong to either high-Cr (metallurgical) or high-Al (refractory) varieties. Their highly variable compositions are reflected by different Cr#s [100Cr / (Cr + Al)] and Cr2O3 and Al2O3 contents of the chromite, falling in the boninitic and MORB fields, respectively. Parental magmas of high-Cr...
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The Yangtze Block has a Paleoproterozoic and Archean basement and was traditionally thought to have been cratonized after the Neoproterozoic. Recent studies reveal that the southwestern part is remarkably different from other parts of the block. Major Fe-Cu deposits are present in the southwestern part where they form the Kangdian IOCG metallogenic...
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The Yinachang deposit in the Kangdian region, Southwest China, contains large amounts of Fe, Cu and REE, and formed at ∼1700 Ma. In this deposit, there are three stages of alteration and mineralization, including pre-ore Na–(Fe) alteration, Fe–(REE) mineralization, and Cu–(REE) mineralization. In the Fe–(REE) mineralization stage, REE-rich fluorapa...
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The giant Shilu Fe-Cu-Co deposit in Hainan Island, South China, which was structurally and hydrothermally superimposed, is mainly hosted in highly metasomatized dolostones/marbles of the ~ 900 Ma Shilu Group. This study confirmed that the ore bodies are originally strata-bound and epigenetic, but do not have spatial relations with any coeval intrus...
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Carbonate-hosted Pb–Zn deposits frequently contain significant amounts of critical metals such as germanium in sphalerite. However, the textural and chemical controls leading to Ge enrichment remain poorly constrained. Based on textural observations and laser-ablation (multi-collector) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis, we inves...
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Scandium is important in modern technology and is regarded as a strategic metal in many countries. It is highly dispersed in Earth’s crust and rarely forms independent minerals. Clinopyroxene is the most important Sc-bearing mineral in some world-class deposits hosted in mafic-ultramafic intrusions, which are also the major source of laterite-hoste...
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The Toba volcanic system in Indonesia has produced two of the largest eruptions (>2,000 km ³ dense-rock equivalent [DRE] each) on Earth since the Quaternary. U–Pb crystallization ages of zircon span a period of ∼600 ky before each eruptive event, and in the run-up to each eruption, the mean and variance of the zircons’ U content decrease. To quanti...
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Microbial and hydrothermal venting activities on the seafloor are important for the formation of sediment-hosted stratiform sulfide (SHSS) deposits. Fe isotopic compositions are sensitive to both microbial and hydrothermal activities and may be used to investigate the formation of these deposits. However, to the best of our knowledge, no Fe isotopi...
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After over 8 years of successful surface operations on Mars, the Curiosity rover has revealed much about the environment in Gale crater. Despite early observations of a lacustrine environment, few of the subsequent deposits exhibit demonstrable lacustrine character. We suggest instead that most of the stratigraphic section explored to date can be b...
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Precambrian iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits are generally encountered with multistage hydrothermal overprints and hence have complex isotopic records. Precise dating of ore-forming and overprinting events and assessment of time-resolved metal sources are fundamental for understanding ore genesis. Here, we quantify the evolution history by in...
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The magmatic processes beneath the active continental margins are very complicated and affect structures and compositions of the arc roots. Neoproterozoic igneous rocks are widely distributed around the margins of the Tarim Block in NW China. The Xingdier mafic-ultramafic intrusion is a composite body, located at the northern margin of the Tarim Bl...
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In order to understand the effect of fluid-induced alteration on the Sm-Nd isotope systematic in apatite, a series of fluid/apatite reaction experiments, which involve reacting the well-characterized Durango fluorapatite with CO2 ± CaCO3-, NaF- or HCl ± CaCl2-bearing solutions with a known ¹⁴³Nd/¹⁴⁴Nd ratio, were conducted at 800 or 600 °C at 200 M...
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Rare earth elements (REEs) mobilize, fractionate, and are re-distributed during supergene processes, and thus provide a powerful tool with which to quantitatively reconstruct the effects of chemical weathering. Moreover, under certain conditions, the REEs can concentrate to levels in the regolith sufficient to form giant regolith-hosted REE deposit...
Article
The first major mass extinction of trilobites occurred at the transition from Cambrian Series 2 (CS2) to Miaolingian (M) and coincided with a large marine transgression and volcanic eruptions of a large igneous province (LIP). Understanding the causal links between these events is important in deciphering environmental changes and life evolution at...
Article
Significant perturbations in ocean redox states have been thought to be one of the major causes for the biological evolution from the Ediacara biota to the Cambrian fauna. However, the driving force of these changes in the ecosystem across the Ediacaran–Cambrian (E–C) boundary is still a matter of debate. In this study, we reported stratigraphic va...
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Isotopic dating studies have revealed that many carbonatite-related REE ore systems have protracted and complex temporal evolution histories. The mechanisms that cause these complex dating results remain poorly understood. Here, we present an in-situ Sm-Nd and Th-Pb isotopic investigation of monazite and bastnäsite from a geologically-complicated d...
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In Southeast China, large-scale W and Cu mineralization is traditionally thought to be related to the Late Mesozoic granitoids. However, recent studies have revealed that the Early Paleozoic granitoids have great potentials for exploration of W and Cu deposits. A critical review of magmatic differentiation, oxygen fugacity and sources of major Earl...
Article
The Acoje block of the Zambales ophiolite in the Northwest Philippines is a remnant of forearc lithosphere that formed during an Oligocene subduction initiation event in the Western Pacific Ocean. It hosts abundant high-Cr chromitites in the uppermost part of the mantle sequence and the overlying dunitic Moho transition zone. The host harzburgites...
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Boninites in many supra-subduction zone ophiolites are thought to mark the early stage of subduction. The Troodos ophiolite in Cyprus contains a variety of volcanic rocks including the lower pillow lavas and the boninite-bearing upper pillow lavas (UPL). Here we present major, trace element and Pb isotope data for melt inclusions in olivine from th...
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Continental weathering is a fundamental process in releasing magnesium (Mg) from crystalline rocks to the hydrosphere and biosphere. Mg isotopes can be substantially mobilized, re-distributed, and fractionated during weathering, and therefore can be used as a powerful tool to trace the biogeochemical cycle of Mg. Causes of significant Mg isotopic f...
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Scandium (Sc), known as the “miracle metal”, has unique properties in material sciences, and is a critical resource in the world due to the low supply but wide applications in advanced technology. Although not extraordinarily sparse in the Earth’s crust, Sc is often dispersed and does not form ore deposits. Nonetheless, Sc can be occasionally conce...
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Subtropical weathering of granitic catchments in South China has led to the formation of numerous giant regolith-hosted rare earth element (REE) deposits that currently account for more than 15% of global REE production and more than 95% of global heavy REE (HREE) production. Understanding the controls on mobilization and redistribution of the REEs...
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The role of the Cathaysia Block, South China, and its linkage with orogenesis in the Rodinia and Gondwana supercontinents remain unresolved because of uncertainties in its paleoposition in supercontinental reconstructions. The lithostratigraphic, geochro-nologic, geochemical (including isotopic), and paleocurrent data on late Neoproterozoic to earl...
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Rare earth elements (REE) and scandium (Sc) have become strategical and critical resources to nations worldwide. Currently, regolith-hosted REE deposits in South China and the neighbouring regions provide more than 90% of the global heavy REE (HREE) production. Recent discoveries highlight the potential of exploitable Sc resources from regolith-hos...
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Permian-Triassic granites and associated tin deposits are widespread in the Eastern and Western belts of Peninsular Malaysia. The ages and key controlling factors of tin mineralization, however, are poorly constrained. Cassiterite separates from the Sintok and Rahman tin deposits in the Western belt, and Bandi, Setahum, Lembing, and Cherul tin depo...
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The petrography and compositions of chromitites and peridotites from the Tibetan Luobusa ophiolite, a fragment of Neo-Tethyan forearc lithosphere, are used to study the origin of high-Cr chromite deposits and relevant magmatic evolution in nascent mantle wedges during subduction initiation. The mantle sequence of the ophiolite has a two-layered str...
Article
Contrasting models for internal and external locations of South China within the Nuna and Rodinia supercontinents can be resolved when the current lithotectonic associations of Mesoproterozoic and older rocks units that constitute the craton are redefined into four lithotectonic domains: Kongling, Kunming-Hainan, Wuyi, and Coastal. The Kongling and...
Article
The compositions of (titano)magnetite in magmatic and hydrothermal ore deposits have shown the potential to discriminate mineral deposit types. However, primary Fe-Ti oxides were sometimes overprinted by metamorphic event(s) over the long geologic history. To what extent the Fe-Ti oxide aggregates in mafic rocks can be modified, either by re-equili...
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Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important to our modern society due to their strategical significance and numerous high technological applications. Regolith-hosted heavy rare earth element (HREE) deposits in South China are currently the main source of the HREEs, but the ore-forming processes are poorly understood. In these depo...
Article
The Upper Yangtze Pb-Zn metallogenic province in South China consists of >400 carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposits within Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic strata. Origin of these deposits has been a matter of debate and is thought to be related to Proterozoic basement rocks, Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and the late Permian flood basalts of the Emeishan large...
Article
Phosphorite successions in the nearshore Meishucun section and the offshore Gezhongwu section of the Nanhua Basin, South China, were investigated to decipher the circulation pattern of the early Cambrian ocean. The 539–535 Ma phosphorites from the Meishucun section contain authigenic phosphorus-rich mineral aggregates (collophanite grains) with muc...
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Precisely dating different generations of mineralization is important for understanding the origin and tectonic environment of ore formation. In this study, we have dated two generations of sulfides from the Lala Fe-Cu deposit, SW China, using in situ Pb-Pb isotopic data obtained by the LA-MC-ICPMS technique. The Lala deposit is composed of Fe-Cu o...
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Subduction of oceanic slabs can physically and chemically modify mantle wedges, but how mantle wedges are temporally evolved is difficult to be constrained. In this study, we use in situ zircon U–Pb ages and Hf–O isotopes of mafic intrusions to examine a coupled evolution of magmas and mantle sources above a subduction zone. Neoproterozoic mafic in...
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The Khetri Copper Belt (KCB) in northwestern India contains several economically important hydrothermal Cu–(Au) deposits. Orebodies in these deposits are locally rich in monazite-(Ce). In this study, in situ U–Pb ages and Sm–Nd isotopic compositions of monazite-(Ce) are used to constrain the timing of mineralization and to better understand the gen...
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The NE striking Longmen Shan Thrust Belt (LSTB) forms the northeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau and merges northward with the southwestern Qinling orogenic belt. The LSTB is characterized by the Late Cenozoic SE-ward overthrusting and a current 60- to 70-km crustal thickness. Structural constraints link the Late Cenozoic deformation and crustal th...
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The Yamansu Fe deposit (32 Mt at 51% Fe) in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt of NW China is hosted in early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary rocks and spatially associated with skarn. The paragenetic sequence includes garnet-diopside (I), magnetite (II), hydrous silicate-sulfide (III), and calcite-quartz (IV) stages. Pyrite associated with magne...
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The Li-O isotopes of olivine and pyroxene from the mantle sequence of the Luobusa ophiolite, a fragment of Neo-Tethyan forearc lithosphere in Tibet, reveal a series of magmatic processes and geochemical evolution in a nascent mantle wedge during subduction initiation. Olivine grains from the ophiolitic mantle sequence display δ¹⁸O values similar to...
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Phanerozoic large igneous provinces (LIPs) have a significant influence on global climate changes and mass extinction events (MEEs). Most of the Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Points in the Phanerozoic international chronostratigraphic scale are coeval with LIPs and are marked in the sedimentary record by global-scale MEEs and/or by ocean a...
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The Neoproterozoic (840 Ma) Sin Quyen deposit in northwestern Vietnam contains replacement Cu-LREE-Au orebodies in Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks. In this deposit, LREE-bearing minerals include allanite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), chevkinite-(Ce), and fluorapatite. Fluorapatite from orebodies has undergone variable degrees of metasomatic alteration. Sa...
Article
The Late Devonian Dajiangping pyrite deposit in South China is a giant sediment-hosted stratiform deposit and contains >200 Mt of pyrite ores with an average grade of 30 wt % S. The orebodies are hosted in carbonaceous siltstone and black shale and consist mainly of laminated pyrite ore. Small euhedral pyrite crystals (pyrite 1) and larger subhedra...
Article
SEDEX sulfide deposits hosted in black shale and carbonate are common in the South China Block. The Dajiangping pyrite deposit is the largest of these deposits and is made up of stratiform orebodies hosted in black shales. Sandstone interlayered with stratiform orebodies contains detrital zircon grains with the youngest ages of 429 Ma. Pyrite from...
Article
The Neoproterozoic (~840 Ma) Sin Quyen deposit in northwestern Vietnam is a rare example of an allanite- (Ce)-rich iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG)-type deposit. This deposit contains economic concentrations of Cu and Au and subeconomic concentrations of light rare earth elements (LREEs) (La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) in massive or banded replacement ores hoste...
Article
Bulk rock elemental, C, O and Sr isotopic data for carbonates of the Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic Luoxue and Luzhijiang formations from the southwestern margin of the South China Block are studied to infer aspects of the provenance and depositional environment. Elemental tracers demonstrate that the upper Luoxue and Luzhijiang carbonates we...
Article
In the western margin of the Yangtze Block, SW China, the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) is spatially associated with >400 carbonate-hosted epigenetic Pb–Zn deposits. These deposits form the giant Upper Yangtze Pb–Zn metallogenic province with >20 Mt base metals. In the southeastern part of this province, the important Pb–Zn deposits includ...
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The Sin Quyen deposit in northwestern Vietnam contains economic concentrations of Cu, Au and LREE, and sub-economic concentration of U. In this deposit, massive and banded replacement ores are hosted in Neoproterozoic metapelite. The paragenetic sequence includes sodic alteration (stage I), calcic-potassic alteration and associated Fe-REE-(U) miner...
Article
The Baoshan scheelite deposit, located in the Nanling region, South China, is a skarn-type tungsten ore deposit. Orebodies occur in the contact zone between Carboniferous limestone and Baoshan granitic pluton. The pluton consists mostly of coarse-grained, porphyritic, and fine-grained biotite granites, which have zircon U-Pb ages of 172.4±0.3 Ma, 1...
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Scheelite is the main ore mineral in skarn-type tungsten deposits, and a common accessory mineral in a variety of rock-types. The Baoshan deposit in South China is one of the most important polymetallic scheelite skarn deposits in China, hosting 40,000t of WO3 with economic concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Ag. It is hosted by a calcic skarn that is zo...
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Meso- to Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions along the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block in South China have been investigated for their depositional ages, provenance and tectonic setting. The 1524 Ma, 834 Ma and 763 Ma U-Pb ages of detrital zircons for here investigated Tianli Schists, Liuyuan and Wengjialing sandstone constrain the maxi...
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The Malani igneous suite (MIS) in NW India represents one of the best preserved silicic large igneous provinces. Voluminous silicic lavas of the MIS erupted between ~780–750 Ma. Zircon grains from rhyolite and dacite lavas have oxygen isotopic compositions that include depleted (δ¹⁸O = 4.12 to −1.11‰) and enriched (δ¹⁸O = 8.23–5.12‰) signatures. Th...
Article
Regolith-hosted rare earth element (REE) deposits, also called ion-adsorption or weathered crust elution-deposited REE deposits are distributed over Jiangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Hunan, Guangxi and Yunnan provinces in South China. In general, these deposits can be categorized into the HREE-dominated, for example the famous Zudong deposit in southern...
Article
The Sin Quyen deposit in northwestern Vietnam is composed of Fe-Cu-LREE-Au ore bodies hosted in Proterozoic metapelite. There are massive and banded replacement ores with variable amounts of monazite-(Ce) and chevkinite-(Ce) crystals, which have undergone fluid-induced alteration. Monazite-(Ce) and chevkinite-(Ce) were deposited from high-temperatu...
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To better understand the influence of subduction on geochemical heterogeneity of the mantle, Mg isotope ratios were measured in a suite of continental basalts from East Asia. In contrast to global oceanic basalts (δ²⁶Mg = − 0.25 ± 0.07‰), these continental basalts display considerable Mg isotope variation that can be roughly related to the time and...
Article
The Mianhuadi mafic complex in the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone, SW China, consists of granulite and mylonite, formed by granulite-facies peak metamorphism and retrograde amphibolite-facies metamorphism, with later local mylonitic deformation. Textures and mineral relics indicate that the protolith, represented by the mineral assemblage (...
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The large Dahongshan Fe-Cu-(Au-Ag) deposit in the Kangdian iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) metallogenic province, southwest China, contains approximately 458.3 Mt of ore at 41.0% Fe, 1.35 Mt Cu (metal) at 0.78% Cu, and significant amounts of Au (16 t), Ag (141 t), Co (18,156 t), and Pd + Pt (2.1 t). The deposit consists mainly of two types of ores: (...
Article
The Kop ophiolite in NE Turkey is a fragment of Neo-Tethyan forearc. It can be mainly divided into a paleo-Moho transition zone (MTZ) in the North and a harzburgitic mantle sequence in the South. Dunites are predominant in the MTZ of the Kop ophiolite, and they are locally interlayered with chromitites and enclose minor bodies of harzburgites near...
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The configuration of the supercontinent Rodinia has long been a matter of debate; the key controversy is the position of South China in Rodinia. We report an incomplete Neoproterozoic ophiolite sequence, including gabbros and serpentinized peridotites intruded by mafic dikes, near Shimian (Sichuan Province), along the western margin of the Yangtze...
Article
Scattered TDM2 (3.8 – 3.2 Ga) for 3.28 – 2.99 Ga zircons from the Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup in northwestern India provide evidence for generation of juvenile crust and reworking of older crust. Depleted mantle-like εHf(t) values (+7.2 to +5.6) for 2.86 – 2.71 Ga zircons indicate that generation of juvenile crust occurred during this period and c...
Article
The North Kostobe gold deposit in the Kalba gold province, eastern Kazakhstan, is tectonically located in the Chara shear zone of the western Altaids. The Chara shear zone separates the Kazakhstan microcontinent and Siberia craton which collided in the late Carboniferous. In the North Kostobe deposit, Au mineralization is distributed along an E-W s...
Article
Zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemical data are applied to investigate the age, provenance and tectonic setting of the late Neoproterozoic and overlying sequences from the Cathaysia Block of South China, in order to understand the tectonothermal evolution of this block and its linkage to supercontinents. New zircon U-Pb ages, in combina...
Article
Cenozoic basalts in SE China may be derived from a mixture of depleted MORB mantle (DMM) and enriched mantle 2 (EM2) sources, but whether these basalts share a common mantle source or magmatic history remains unknown. To investigate these unresolved issues, this study sampled basalts from Niutoushan and Mingxi (Fujian province), Xilong (Zhejiang pr...
Article
Several Neoproterozoic granitic intrusions, including the Phin Ngan intrusion and some smaller ones from the Sin Quyen Cu mine, have been identified in the Phan Si Pan belt, Northwest Vietnam. Whole-rock geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic data and zircon U-Pb age and Hf-O isotopes have been determined for these intrusions in order to constrain their ag...
Article
To constrain the Mg isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle, investigate Mg isotope fractionation of abyssal peridotites during seafloor alteration, and assess Mg budget in the oceans, a suite of 32 abyssal peridotite samples from the Gakkel Ridge and Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) was, for the first time, selected for high-precision Mg isotope a...