Mehmet Firat

Mehmet Firat
Anadolu University · Department of Distance Education

Doctor of Education
Associate Professor Doctor

About

119
Publications
69,964
Reads
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678
Citations
Introduction
Associate Professor at Department of Distance Education, Faculty of Open Education, Anadolu University. Academic interest areas are learning analytics, social network analysis, educational hypermedia and multimedia, educational Web interfaces, open and distance education futures, e-learning, cyber behaviours and use of internet in education.
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - present
Anadolu University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Open and Distance Learning Analytics-Doctoral Course
April 2015 - May 2015
Università Telematica Internazionale UNINETTUNO
Position
  • Video Course Professor
January 2015 - June 2015
Anadolu University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Computer Operation Systems
Education
June 2007 - July 2012
Anadolu University, Institute of Educational Sciences
Field of study
  • Educational Technology
September 2003 - June 2007
Anadolu University
Field of study
  • Departmen of Computer Education and Instractional Technology

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Full-text available
Methodological paradigms and scientific research motivations of ICT oriented young education researchers was examined in this study. "Scientific Research Motivations and Methodological Paradigms Survey" was used as the data collection tool. 101 young scholars from 8 university completed the survey in 2014-2015 academic year. For the analysis of the...
Article
Full-text available
In the past, distance education was used as a method to meet the educational needs of citizens with limited options to attend an institution of higher education. Nowadays, it has become irreplaceable in higher education thanks to developments in instructional technology. But the question of why students choose distance education is still important....
Article
Full-text available
The relevant literature is rich enough about the differences between distance and face to face education. However, the number of studies examining these differences from the viewpoint of dual-mode alumni, those graduated from both distance and face to face education programmes is limited. In this study, opinions of 33 dual-mode alumni from Turkey w...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to reveal Open Education related social media usage in Turkey through social network analyses. To this end, the most widely used social media network in Turkey, Facebook, was chosen. All the pages and groups created on Facebook related to Open Education were found. A total of 207 groups and 521 pages were accessed and enter...
Article
According to researches, motivation that initiates and sustains behaviour is one of the most significant components of learning in any environment. Accordingly, level of intrinsic motivation triggers and sustains the interest of the open and distance education students when it comes to learning on their own in e-learning environments. Despite a com...
Book
Full-text available
Açık ve uzaktan öğrenme 21. yüzyıl eğitim gündemini en fazla meşgul eden alanlardan biri olarak durmaktadır. Disiplinlerarası bir bilim alanı olarak açık ve uzaktan öğrenme diğer birçok alandan farklı olarak kuramdan uygulamaya değil uygulamadan kurama doğru bir gelişim süreci sergilemiştir. 1800'lü yılların başında mektupla öğretimden 21. yüzyılın...
Article
Full-text available
The rise in youth unemployment rates across the world is considered as an important problem. Higher education institutions tasked with raising the human profile needed for various business sectors are undergoing a digital transformation, supported by digital technology. The focus of this digital transformation is open and distance learning. Open an...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose-This study aims to investigate the preferences of 96 educational researchers on the use of digital technologies in scientific research. Design/methodology/approach-The study was designed as a quantitative-dominant sequential explanatory mixed-method research. Findings-Despite the spreading use of advanced technologies of big data and data...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Covid-19 Pandemisi, uzaktan eğitimi gerçekleştirmek için dijital araçlara geçiş ve dijital dönüşüme neden olmuştur. Bu ihtiyaç, sosyo-ekonomik açıdan az gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerde dijital uçurumu daha belirgin kılmıştır. İnternet ve bilgisayar kullanımı, Covid-19 vakası ile birlikte tüm dünyada artmasına rağmen, teknolojiye erişim konusu...
Conference Paper
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Öğrenci destek servisleri eğitim-öğretim süreçlerinin sürdürülebilirliği açışından hayati öneme sahiptir. Yapay zekâ ve dilbilimin ürünü olarak hızla gelişen Doğal Dil İşleme-NLP teknolojilerinin bu servislerin güçlendirilmesi amacıyla kullanılabileceği görülmektedir. NLP İngilizce, Türkçe ve Almanca gibi doğal dillerin işlenmesi ve kullanılması am...
Article
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Bilişim teknolojileri destekli uzaktan eğitimin yaygınlaşması başta eğitimde fırsat eşitliği, dezavantajlı bireylerin eğitime erişiminin kolaylaşması, zaman ve mekân sınırlılıklarının ortadan kalkması gibi önemli fırsatlar doğurabilir. Ancak toplumdaki sosyo-ekonomik farklılıklardan kaynaklı olarak öğrenenlerin teknolojiye erişim düzeyleri arasında...
Article
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The purpose of this phenomenological research was to evaluate the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in mixed method research (MMR) in education from a educational researchers' methodological perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 educational researchers. The data were analyzed by thematic content analy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Kitlesel öğretim yapan açık öğretim kurumlarında her yıl yüzbinlerce öğrenci mezun edilmektedir. Sadece Anadolu Üniversitesi Açıköğretim Sisteminde 2019-2020 güz dönemi itibariyle 3.1 milyon öğrenci mezun edilmiştir. Bu durum, açık öğretim kurumlarında mezunlara yönelik çalışmaların ve uygun mezun bilgi sistemlerinin (MBS) büyük önem taşıdığını gös...
Article
Full-text available
Related literature review evidence that self-control and attention have strong relationship. Despite a rich body of literature on self-control and attention, few studies have analyzed the relationship between self-control and CPA as a new phenomenon emerging with the intensive use of technology. Relationship between CPA and self-controls has been a...
Article
Full-text available
Modern toplumda akademik disiplinlerin yapay örgütlenmesi ile oluşan üniversiteler dijital dünyanın yeni normallerinde ağır bir ontolojik sancı çekmektedir. Dünyanın bir tasarıma dönüştüğü modern endüstri çağında düşünürün kaybolduğu, yerine araştırma projelerine gömülmüş araştırmacı tipinin oluştuğuna şahit olduk. Hiper hızda işleyen dijital dünya...
Article
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Eskişehir is an Anatolian city that stands out with its historical values and cultural richness. Taking over the title of Turkish World Capital of Culture in Astana in 2012, Eskişehir became the capital of the Turkish world in 2013. Although various promotional works and documentaries about Eskişehir have been prepared so far, Eskişehir does not ha...
Article
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Online learning practices have gained momentum as a result of the developments in network technologies and an increase in the capacity of current technological devices that are used to deliver learning. While up-to-date studies have examined the online learning readiness of traditional higher education learners, there remains a need to examine it i...
Book
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Kökleri antik medeniyetlere dayansa da bilimde açıklık anlayışı ve Açık Bilim hareketi, geçtiğimiz yüz yıldan başlayarak güçlenmiş ve daha da görünür olmuştur. Açık Bilim, bilimi yapay örgütlenmelerden ve tekellerden kurtarma, bilimi özgürleştirme hareketidir. Bilimin özgürleşmesi ve topluma yayılması ise insan medeniyetini yeni bir döneme taşımaya...
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışmada ikinci üniversite kapsamında öğrenim gören yaşam boyu öğrenenlerin ikinci üniversite tercih nedenlerinin çeşitli demografik özellikler bağlamında incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, Anadolu Üniversitesi Açıköğretim Fakültesi bünyesinde sunulan ikinci üniversite imkânından faydalanan öğrenenlere ikinci üniversite tercih ne...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the futuristic visions of PhD students at Distance Education department of Anadolu University on the use of learning analytics (LA) and mobile technologies together. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative research study, designed in the single cross-section model, aimed to reveal futuristic visions of P...
Chapter
Full-text available
As a phenomenon of the digital age, the digital divide has begun to show its influence more clearly in societies. Especially in these Corona Days, this division is expected to continue to increase with the proliferation of digital technologies. ODL as an open community movement in education has an invisible effect to bridge the digital divide in so...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between lifelong learners' preferences for learning materials and methods according to age, gender and working status variables. Since lifelong learners' preferences for learning materials are examined according to certain variables, the relational survey model, which is used in descriptive resea...
Article
Full-text available
Ulusaşırı işbirlikleri, devletlerin dışında çok sayıda ulusal ve uluslararası aktörün aktif olarak; ortak çıkarlar, amaçlar, değerler etrafında buluşmalarına ve sinerji oluşturmalarına ortam ve olanak sunmaktadır. Bu aktörler, ulusaşırı işbirlikleri yanında hükümetler arasındaki işbirliklerine de etki etmektedir. Uzaktan eğitimin uluslararasılaşmas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bilişim teknolojilerinin öğrenme amaçlı kullanılmaya başlanmasından sonra en sık kullanılan materyallerden biri videolardır. Yaygın kullanımlarına rağmen video etkileşimlerine yönelik analitik verilerinin üretilmesi ancak yıllarda ortaya çıkmaya başlamıştır. Video izleme davranışlarının sayısal verilerle kayıt altına alınması ve analiz edilmesi sür...
Article
Previous research has studied the various influences of different educational video types and the contributions of educational videos to learning processes. This study aims to compare the cognitive loads, satisfaction levels, engagement, and academic achievements of open and distance learners depending on long-form, single-piece educational videos...
Article
Full-text available
Algoritmalar, sanayi devriminden sonra endüstri 4.0’a geçişi sağlayan en önemli teknolojilerden biridir. Algoritmalar öğrenenlere yardımcı olabilecek yapılardır. Özellikle kitlesel öğretimin yapıldığı uzaktan eğitim sistemlerinde büyük verilerden yararlanarak öğrenenlere destek olmak için algoritmalar etkili bir şekilde kullanılabilirler. Ancak ala...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between lifelong learners' preferences for learning materials and methods according to age, gender and working status variables. Since lifelong learners' preferences for learning materials are examined according to certain variables, the relational survey model, which is used in descriptive resea...
Book
Full-text available
Açık ve uzaktan öğrenme 21. yüzyıl eğitim gündemini en fazla meşgul eden alanlardan biri olarak durmaktadır. Disiplinlerarası bir bilim alanı olarak açık ve uzaktan öğrenme diğer birçok alandan farklı olarak kuramdan uygulamaya değil uygulamadan kurama doğru bir gelişim süreci sergilemiştir. 1800'lü yılların başında mektupla öğretimden 21. yüzyılın...
Data
The MS Powerpoint presentation of "Advanced student support tools for open and distance education students: example of Anadolu University hashtag-based frequently asked question system"
Article
Full-text available
The literature is considerably rich about engagement and academic achievement in the context of open and distance learning. However, there is limited research that investigates these variables with large scale participants. In this regard, the aim of this research was to investigate causal correlations between e-learning engagement time and academi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bir toplumsal hareket olarak açık ve uzaktan öğrenmeye dünya genelinde ivme kazandıran çeşitli faktörler bulunmaktadır. Bunları; bilgisayar ve internet teknolojilerinin yaygınlaşması, artan yaşamboyu öğrenme ihtiyaçları, ortaya çıkan yeni meslekler ve iş kolları, alanlarda uzmanlaşma ve süreklilik ihtiyacının artması, hizmetiçi eğitim ihtiyaçlarını...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Yükseköğretimde önceki öğrenmelerin tanınması ve transfer edilebilirlik noktalarında önemli problemler yaşanmaya devam etmektedir. Bunlar da yaşamboyu öğrenme kapsamında sürekli eğitim ve mesleki gelişimde süreklilik açısından önemli bir engel olarak durmaktadır. Avrupa düzeyinde bu problemler ile başa çıkmak amacıyla, 2018 yılında EADTU (Avrupa Ün...
Article
Full-text available
MOOClar açık ve uzaktan öğrenme alanında yoğun ilgi gören platformlar arasında yer almaktadır. Dünyanın önde gelen üniversiteleri MOOCların geliştirilmesi ve yaygınlaştırılması için önemli destekler sağlayarak herkese açık platformlar oluşturmaktadırlar. Ülkemizde de bu yönde çeşitli çabalar bulunsa da MOOCların pedagojik ve teknolojik gereksinimle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Alanyazında incelenen çalışmalar öğrenen özerkliğinin akademik başarıda önemli bir faktör olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Ancak çok az çalışma e-öğrenme ortamlarında öğrenenlerin zerkliklerini ve bunun akademik abaşarıyla ilişkisini incelemiştir. Bu araştırmanın amacı kendi öğrenmelerinden sorumlu olan açık ve uzaktan öğrenenlerin e-öğrenme ortamların...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Increasing transnational cooperation in open and distance education provides opportunities for non-state actors to meet around common interests, objectives, values and create a synergy. Besides transnational cooperation, these members of global civil society also motivate intergovernmental cooperation processes. International organizations and prof...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
European universities face great challenges dealing with XXI century world changes. Deep transformations are required to the extent that a wide range of lifelong learning scenarios is progressively replacing the traditional scope of university studies, also giving access to a larger number of students all over the world in more flexible ways. There...
Article
Full-text available
Eğitim düzeylerindeki gelişimin bireysel ve toplumsal gelişime tartışmasız katkıları bulunmaktadır. Ancak literatürde eğitim düzeylerindeki değişimi büyük veri analizleriyle inceleyen yeterli çalışma bulunmamaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, OECD ve Gapminder verileriyle birlikte 2 numaralı İstatistiki Bölge Birimleri Sınıflandırması’na göre 2010-201...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bu araştırmanın amacı, öğrencilerin Açıköğretimi tercih etme nedenlerini ve bu nedenlerin ekonomik durumlarına göre nasıl farklılaştığını belirlemektir. Rekabete dayalı küresel bilgi ekonomisinin baskın olduğu günümüzde istenen insan profili ve yetişmiş insan gücünün sahip olunması gereken beceriler ve yeterlikler kapsamlı bir değişime uğramıştır....
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to determine the opinions of academicians who teach scientific research methods courses in the field of social sciences on collecting data through online surveys, on the “voluntary basis” of academic research, and on their comparisons of voluntary participation in face-to-face and online-survey data collection methods. For this purp...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to reveal Open Education related social media usage in Turkey through social network analyses. To this end, the most widely used social media network in Turkey, Facebook, was chosen. All the pages and groups created on Facebook related to Open Education were found. A total of 207 groups and 521 pages were accessed and enter...
Article
Full-text available
Teknoloji odaklı ortamlar, Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu (OSB) tanısı konulmuş ve öğrenme güçlüğü çeken çocukların sosyal etkileşim, il etişim becerileri ve davranış ihtiyaçlarını kişileştirmelerini desteklemektedir. Bilgisayar oyunları, OSB tanısı konulan çocukların ilgisini çekmekte ve bu bağlamda kimi becerilerin kazandırılmasını olanaklı hale getir...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of technology is an educational goal of science education. A primary way of increasing technology literacy in a society is to develop students’ conception of technology starting from their elementary school years. However, there is a lack of research on student recognition of and reasoning about technology and technological artifacts. In...
Article
Full-text available
Teachers play a crucial role in helping individuals gain adequate Internet competency, which requires teachers themselves to be Internet-literate. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Internet use of the distance and on-campus pre-service teachers of language and other disciplines by multiple parameters. A total of 789 teacher candidates...
Article
Full-text available
This is an explanatory mixed-method study that analyzes the relationship between the variables of students’ self-control and Facebook usage. TIME’s online Facebook calculator and the Brief Self-Control Scale are used for data collection. The research participants are 60 students in a department of computer education and instructional technology dur...
Research
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In the present report, the 3rd and 29th universities in the list of the HE institutions by enrollment, according to the Wikipedia, that is ANADOLU University, Turkey, and UNED, Spain, (both of them members of EADTU), introduce some main innovative solutions mediated by technologies, whose aim is to improve student support and the services to large...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine the use of e-learning tools and ICTs by open and distance education students. From 40 different programs, 86,842 students in the school year 2013-2014 at Anadolu University participated to the study. A survey form were developed and used as data collecting tool. According to the results of the research, op...
Article
Previous studies have provided evidence that multimedia support is an important factor in test performance. However, few studies have compared the effects of real visual and model visual on test performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the model visual and real visual supported test items on elementary students’ test p...
Article
Full-text available
Although there are various studies regarding the use of video in distance education, very limited amount synthesizing research on the subject is available. In this study, 253 studies published between 1990 and 2015 are analyzed and a research trend is identified regarding educational video use in distance education. Findings from the review indicat...
Chapter
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The complexity of the Internet has increased the requirement of learner's self-cognition, self-control and self-responsibility when using Internet to learn. Thus, responsibility of e-learner to decide on the validity, reliability and meaningfulness of the information steadily increased. This situation has caused internet related issues such as prob...
Article
Full-text available
Facebook, Twitter, forums, blogs, and Wikis are the leading social web applications. Social Web is one of the most active electronic learning systems. Therefore, learners are able to interact with other learners and influenced by these interaction. InMap, Wolfram Alpha and Facebook Insight are the examples of analytics supported Social Web applicat...
Article
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Growing impacts of Internet and computer technologies on learning process of nowadays’ students led to a rediscussion of teachers' skills. Cognitive overload, disorientation, hyper-connectivity, internet addiction and cyberbullying are some examples of learners’ cyber behaviors. Teachers have important difficulties in understanding these new behavi...
Article
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One of the most important features which e-learning tools and environments must possess within the scope of lifelong learning is self-directed learning, which can be considered as a form of self-learning. The aim of this study was to determine, based on the views and recommendations of experts, interface design principles for the development of edu...
Data
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Article
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Information and communication technologies have been one of a driving force which enables higher education expansion and gives a dynamic structure to the science in the twenty-first century. One of the most effective users of this driving force in higher education is distance education. Previously, distance education was considered to be as a metho...
Article
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Hlavnim cilem studie bylo zjistit využiti e-learningových nastrojů a ICT studenty v ramci studia realizovaneho formou otevřeneho a distancniho vzdělavani. Do studie bylo zahrnuto vice než osmdesat tisic studentů ze 40 různých programů realizovaných v roce 2013–14 na Anadolu University. Výsledky výzkumu vypovidaji o tom, že zkoumani studenti vlastni...
Article
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Previous studies have provided evidence that learner autonomy is an important factor in academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated the autonomy of distance education students in e-learning environments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the e-learning autonomy of distance education students who are responsible for their own...
Article
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Güneş, A. ve Fırat, M. (2016). Açık ve uzaktan öğrenmede metafor analizi araştırmaları. AUAd, 2(3), 115-129. Özet Metaforlar tam olarak ifade edilemeyen bir benzerliği, yakınlığı ve ilişkiyi ifade etmek için kullanılan gelişmiş dilsel yapılardır. 1980'lere kadar retorik veya dil dışı kullanım alanı bulunmayan metaforlar, George Lakoff ve Mark Johns...
Chapter
Full-text available
Technology is one of the key concepts in distance education. In the past 30 years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices of open and distance education. In this process, the needs of the open and distance education student has changed as well. Now they need continuously accessible, faster, smart systems to integrate hyper, connectiv...
Article
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The e-learning environment and its instruments have diversified with computer and internet technologies and provided new opportunities for open and distance educational researchers. As a result of the widespread use of the electronic environment in education, learner interactions were also transferred into the electronic environment. One of the imp...
Article
Two of the most important outcomes of learning analytics are predicting students’ learning and providing effective feedback. Learning Management Systems (LMS), which are widely used to support online and face-to-face learning, provide extensive research opportunities with detailed records of background data regarding users’ behaviors. The purpose o...
Chapter
Full-text available
The complexity of the Internet has increased the requirement of learner's self-cognition, self-control and self-responsibility when using Internet to learn. Thus, responsibility of e-learner to decide on the validity, reliability and meaningfulness of the information steadily increased. This situation has caused internet related issues such as prob...
Chapter
Full-text available
It is quite important to effectively benefit from e-learning tools and environments which have dynamic structures in order to meet the learning needs of distance learners. E-Learning provides independence of time and space, student-centered, learner-controlled, flexible learning environments and equal educational opportunities. However, this flexib...
Article
Full-text available
Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri bilimsel araştırmaların olanaklarını ve çalışma alanını genişletmekle kalmamış aynı zamanda yeni araştırma alanlarının da ortaya çıkmasını sağlamıştır. Öğrenme analitikleri bu yeni araştırma alanlarından biridir. Öğrenme analitikleri, öğrenene destekleyici bireysel öğrenme ortamları sağlamak ve eğitim sistemlerinin g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
MOOC concept of open education agenda led to an exciting, discussed extensively area of great expectations. Video lessons, assignments, tests and the social web applications are widely used as teaching materials. Videos are very important materials for Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) platforms. But related literature review showed that studies on...
Conference Paper
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Bu çalışmada İnternette istenilen bilgiye ulaşmaya çalışırken bireyin karşılaştıkları bilgi kirliliğini belirlemeye yönelik bir veri toplama aracının geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla geliştirilecek ölçek formunun geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları öncesinde; beş alan uzmanlarıyla birlikte alanyazından yararlanılarak 32 maddeden oluşan bir ma...
Article
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zet— Doğrusal olmayan, hareketli ve esnek yapısıyla Hiperortamlar e-öğrenmenin temelini oluşturmaktadır. Öğrenen için geniş bir hareket esnekliği sağlayan Hiperortamlar birbirinden farklı çok sayıda eğitsel çoklu ortam materyaline ulaşma olanağı sağlamıştır. Ancak Hiperortamların öğrenen kontrolü için sağladığı bu esneklik ve enformasyon bolluğu, ö...
Article
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This study has two main purposes. The first purpose of this study was to develop a scale for teacher candidates on the Internet information pollution. Second purpose of the study was to examine Internet information pollution scale scores of teacher candidates according to their genders, programs, daily internet usage and technology competency. In l...
Conference Paper
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Social Web technologies is one of the most active Web technologies used for teaching and learning nowadays. Social Web applications are providing the necessary services for mobile phones, smart phones and tablet computers also. Thus, to collect the services offered by different social web applications in one center has become possible. The opportun...
Article
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Küreselleşme, her alanda olduğu gibi, akademisyenlik alanında da dönüşümler meydana getirmektedir. Bu bağlamda, akademisyenliğin yeniden tanımlanması veya kavramlaştırılması büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu çalışmada, öncelikle yükseköğretimde gerçekleşen tarihsel dönüşümlerle akademisyenliğin değişen rolü ele alınmıştır. Akademisyenlik kavramı ile akad...
Article
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Karma yöntem araştırmaları, araştırma yöntemlerinin sınıflandırılmasında ayrı bir kategori olarak ele alınan ve yükselen bir araştırma paradigması özelliğindedir. Bununla birlikte, alanyazındaki araştırmalardan karma yöntem araştırmalarının anlaşılmasında ve uygulanmasında çeşitli sorunlar olduğu vurgulanmaktadır. Eğitim teknolojileri disiplinlerar...
Article
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The present study aimed at developing a scale to evaluate navigational performance as a whole, which is one of the factors influencing learning in hyper media. In line with this purpose, depending on the related literature, an item pool of 15 factors was prepared, and these variables were decreased to 5 based on the views of 38 field experts. In th...
Conference Paper
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Hypermedia environments constitute the basis of e-learning environments. These environments have non-linear, dynamic and flexible structure. These features of Hypermedia provide a wide range of flexible navigation opportunities. Hypermedia also provides the ability to reaching the many different educational multi-media materials. However, this flex...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to analyze 3D virtual worlds in terms of Connective Learning approaches with the direction of educational technology experts' opinions. Questionnaire with two sections and 6 items was used as data collection instrument. Within the context of the purpose of the study 30 participants who have 3D virtual world experience...
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Despite multiple window interfaces have eliminated some user-interface problems by showing information in independent windows, disorientation, cognitive overload and split attention keeping up to date as an important problems of e-learning interfaces. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of parallel interface designs on the e-learning...