Maxine R. Kleindienst

Maxine R. Kleindienst
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Anthropology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

113
Publications
17,236
Reads
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1,888
Citations
Citations since 2016
20 Research Items
725 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Additional affiliations
July 1977 - August 2013
University of Toronto
Position
  • Professor (Full) Emerita
July 1960 - July 1980
Field Museum of Natural History
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • Mainly outside USA.

Publications

Publications (113)
Chapter
Full-text available
Understanding of human behavioral changes during the later Middle to earlier Late Pleistocene, encoded in the rudimentary record of stone artifacts, is impeded by problems of communication among archaeologists. For example: continued use of broad-scale developmental stage terms, such as “Earlier” vs. “Middle Stone Age” impedes understanding because...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews data on technological change in the manufacture of stone tools from the Earlier Stone Age (ESA) to Middle Stone Age (MSA including Sangoan) deposits at Site A, Kalambo Falls, Zambia. Data on flake and tool morphology, dimensions, and raw material are discussed It is concluded that there is little change, at this site, in the basi...
Article
Full-text available
Impact cratering is a ubiquitous geological process on the terrestrial planets. Meteorite impact craters are the most visible product of impact events, but there is a growing recognition that large aerial bursts or airbursts should occur relatively frequently throughout geological time. In this contribution, we report on an unusual impact glass---t...
Article
Full-text available
Elinor Wight Gardner (1892–1981) was the first female geologist who worked and published as a geoarcheologist. During her career, she worked in arid lands of North Africa, Mediterranean and the Near East, and was regarded as a pioneering geoscientist who made important contributions in multiple fields, including archeology, geomorphology, paleontol...
Chapter
Although many have considered that the Western Desert of Egypt, the entire area west of the Nile Valley, was uninhabitable and uninhabited during MIS 4 through MIS 2—the 'Empty Desert Hypothesis'--evidence for the availability of water and, therefore, habitability does exist. Lithic aggregates found during surveys in Dakhleh Oasis (Sheikh Mabruk Un...
Book
The Pleistocene evidence from Dakhleh and Kharga oases, Western Desert, Egypt. Papers by members of Dakhleh Oasis Project and the Kharga Oasis Prehistory Project, on some results from surveys, 1978 to 2011. Meteorite impact, palaeolakes, geoarchaeology.
Chapter
Preliminary reports on the survey of Dakhleh Oasis region for Pleistocene archaeological remains found from 1978-1988 were published in 1999. After that, DOP geoarchaeological work and archaeozoological finds established the existence of a large Pleistocene palaeolake, and/or lakes and wetlands, across the entire Dakhleh Lowland region. We also est...
Chapter
Caton-Thompson and Gardner recognized two new Middle Stone Age cultural stratigraphic units at Kharga Oasis in 1932, later named the “Levalloiso-Khargan” and “Khargan” industries. Subsequent finds after 1963 along the Sinn el-Kiddab by several prehistory surveys confirmed the existence of Khargan units. Dakhleh Oasis Project/Kharga Oasis Prehistory...
Chapter
Freshwater lacustrine deposits, spring-laid tufas and biota in the Dakhleh Oasis attest the presence of extensive palaeolakes, increased rainfall, and productive surrounding palaeoenvironments in the Middle Pleistocene of the Central Western Desert of Egypt. Preserved lake bottom marls are found along the southern and eastern margins of the Western...
Chapter
Members of the Kharga Oasis Prehistory Project (KOPP) have uncovered some anomalies in the Pleistocene record along the eastern Sinn al-Kiddab Escarpment above the Kharga Oasis depression. Electron spin resonance dating (ESR) demonstrates the presence of high elevation palaeolakes and ponds at many different time periods. The area of the Naqb al-Bu...
Chapter
We hypothesize that between circa 100,000 and 200,000 years ago, a meteorite impact and/or airburst event affected the area north of al-Akoulah Pan in the south-eastern Dakhleh palaeo-oasis. The event ejected sediment masses for 1 to 2 km southward and westward, and glass melt (Dakhleh Glass) is found up to 4 km southward on late Middle Pleistocene...
Chapter
Beginning in 1996, Dakhleh Oasis Project (DOP) members, and after 2001, the Kharga Oasis Prehistory Project (KOPP) (Hawkins et al. 2002; Kleindienst et al. 2009), conducted surveys in the Wadi el-Midauwara area on the escarpment face of the Libyan Plateau (Sinn el-Kiddab) above southern Kharga Oasis (Fig. 1). A deeply eroded basin was discovered in...
Chapter
Starting in 1987, Dakhleh Oasis Project (DOP) members--subsequently with the Kharga Oasis Prehistory Project (KOPP)--conducted reconnaissance, and then geological and geoarchaeological surveys in Kharga Oasis. After 2000, the KOPP concession included >10 km of the bounding Limestone Plateau (Sinn el Kiddab) surface, the Escarpment face and the Plei...
Conference Paper
RL0506 Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental and lithic variability at Kharga Oasis, Egypt Maxine KLEINDIENST Starting in 1987, Dakhleh Oasis Project (DOP) members -subsequently with the Kharga Oasis Prehistory Project (KOPP)- conducted reconnaissance, and then geological and geoarchaeological surveys in Kharga Oasis. After 2000, the KOPP concession i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Pleistocene geoarchaeological surveys, Kharga Oasis Prehistory Project, 2001-2011, Western Desert of Egypt Maxine R. Kleindienst Starting in 1987, Dakhleh Oasis Project (DOP) members--subsequently with the Kharga Oasis Prehistory Project (KOPP)--conducted reconnaissance, and then geological and geoarchaeological surveys in Kharga Oasis. After 200...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although many have considered that the Western Desert of Egypt, the entire area west of the Nile Valley, was uninhabitable and uninhabited during MIS 4 through MIS 2—the 'Empty Desert Hypothesis'--evidence for the availability of water and, therefore, habitability does exist. Lithic aggregates found during surveys in Dakhleh Oasis (Sheikh Mabruk Un...
Article
G. Caton-Thompson and E. W. Gardner designated new Pleistocene cultural units at Kharga Oasis in the 1930's: both were originally termed 'pre-Sebilian', but were later locally named the 'Levalloiso-Khargan' and 'Khargan' industries. High on the Bulaq scarp face, a puzzling cluster of stone 'alignments' was discovered in 1931-32, with a reported, bu...
Article
In the northeastern Sahara, electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of when animals lived documents their habitability in Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. A Middle Pleistocene paleolake(s) covered >1700 km2. At eastern Locality Dak348, 10 m thick, remnant lacustrine marls yielded Pleistocene fauna, rare artefacts, and plant casts. No obvious unconformity exists...
Conference Paper
Preliminary reports on the survey of Dakhleh Oasis region for Pleistocene archaeological remains found from 1978-1988 were published in 1999. After that, geoarchaeological work and archaeozoological finds established the existence of a large Pleistocene palaeolake, and/or lakes and wetlands, across the entire Dakhleh region. We also established tha...
Conference Paper
At Dakhleh Oasis, a Middle Pleistocene paleolake(s) covered >1700 km2. At eastern Locality Dak348, 10m thick, remnant lacustrine marls yielded Pleistocene fauna, rare artefacts, and plant macrofossils and casts. No obvious erosional boundary exists within these deposits. From upper horizons, a hartebeest tooth dated at 195 ± 11 ka, correlates with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
No. 8, In Egypt’s currently hyperarid Western Desert, artesian spring deposits, buried soils, and lacustrine sediment, such as the calcareous silty sediment (CSS), all demonstrate that Dakhleh Oasis had surface water during at least three Quaternary pluvial periods. Paleolithic artefacts, fossil ungulate teeth, and snails occur within the Pleistoce...
Chapter
Kharga Oasis, in Egypt’s hyperarid Western Desert, today lacks naturally occurring surface water. Near Kharga, large tufa deposits ranging from a few hectares to more than 10 km2 in area dot the edge of the Libyan Plateau. These, and lacustrine sediment, record intervals during the Pleistocene when wetlands, ponds, and small freshwater lakes provid...
Conference Paper
At Kharga Oasis in Egypt's hyperarid Western Desert, carbonate spring deposits and lacustrine sediment record several humid intervals during the Pleistocene, when wetlands, ponds, and small freshwater lakes provided water, thus permitting herbivore and human habitation. Finds include artifacts from Early Stone Age, Middle Stone Age, and later cultu...
Conference Paper
In Egypt’s hyperarid Western Desert, people can only inhabit Dakhleh thanks to modern pumping technology. Yet Quaternary artesian spring deposits, buried soils, and lake sediment, such as the calcareous silty sediment (CSS), all demonstrate that surface water existedat Dakhleh Oasis during three or more Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS). Artifacts rangin...
Article
Full-text available
In Egypt’s hyperarid Western Desert, artesian spring deposits, buried soils, and lake sediment, such as the calcareous silty sediment (CSS), all show that Dakhleh Oasis had surface water during Quaternary pluvial periods. Paleolithic artefacts, including from ESA, MSA, LSA, and later industries, fossil ungulate teeth and snails occur within the Ple...
Article
Receiving <0.1 mm/y of precipitation, Egypt's hyperarid Western Desert, today lacks naturally occurring surface water. Artesian spring deposits, tufa deposited by springs and carbonate-rich silty lacustrine sediment attest that oases in the Western Desert had surface water during the Pleistocene. Paleolithic artefacts, fossil ungulate teeth, and sn...
Article
Dakhleh Glass comprises a suite of chemically distinctive and heterogeneous glassy rocks that occur over an area of ca. 400 km2 in and around the Dakhleh Oasis in central western Egypt. Previous studies establish a meteorite impact origin for the Dakhleh Glass. No impact crater has yet been found, suggesting an airburst origin. The Dakhleh Glass-fo...
Article
While it is expected that prehistoric populations experienced the effects of impacts by extraterrestrial objects, there is little record of such events in occupied regions. We discuss the ramifications of an impact between 100 and 200 ka into Dakhleh Oasis, at that time experiencing humid phase conditions and inhabited by Middle Stone Age people. B...
Article
Evidence for a meteorite impact has recently been confirmed near the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt. No source crater has been found to date. Here, we discuss the merits of a cratering event versus a large aerial burst for the formation of these impact glasses.
Article
In this study, we present evidence, in the form of unusual silicate glasses, for a meteorite impact event ∼200–100 ka in the Dakhleh Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. These glasses, known locally as Dakhleh Glass, were derived from the shock melting of a series of unconsolidated sediments underlain by interbedded carbonates, sandstones and phosphate-ri...
Article
Full-text available
A tooth plate of the large lungfish referred to Ceratodus tuberculatus Tabaste, 1963 from Kharga Oasis, Egypt, allows reconsideration of its generic status. Comparisons with fossil Ceratodus and living Neoceratodus demonstrate the generic distinction of this taxon and Retodus n. gen. is proposed for this large dipnoan. Tooth plates of R. tuberculat...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade members of the Dakhleh Oasis Project have studied enigmatic signatures in the Pleistocene geologic record of portions of the Dakhleh oasis and palaeo-oasis in Egypt's Western Desert [1,2]. In particular, Si-Ca-Al rich glass melt (Dakhleh Glass, Fig. 1) points to a catastrophic event between c.100,000-200,000 years ago [3] in th...
Article
Full-text available
American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #37, #17.03 Over the past decade members of the Dakhleh Oasis Project have studied enigmatic signatures in the Pleistocene geologic record of portions of the Dakhleh oasis and palaeo-oasis. In particular, Ca-Al rich glass (Dakhleh Glass) points to a catastrophic event between c. 100,000 - 200,000 years ago...
Technical Report
The 2003–2004 field season of the Dakhleh Oasis Project took place between 10th November, 2003 and 25th March, 2004. A total of 42 expedition members joined the field work at various times during the season. The expedition was based, for the second season, at our new headquarters at ‘Ain el-Gindi, Sheikh Wali. It was our good fortune to have the Go...
Article
We carried out a geologic survey and a preliminary archaeological survey of four fossil-spring tufa localities in Kharga Oasis, Egypt, to constrain the timing of pluvial episodes in the Western Desert, and to document prehistoric occupation contemporaneous with times of increased rainfall. Uranium-series dating of the tufas confirms that at least f...
Article
Dakhleh Oasis, the largest of the Egyptian Western Desert, presents an opportunity for diachronic study of lithic raw material preferences during the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of the Eastern Sahara. Archaeological aggregates and raw material sources are exposed and easily mapped. Diverse and abundant lithic raw materials derive from sandstone, shale,...
Article
The Dakhleh Oasis Project (DOP) is a long-term regional study of the interaction between environmental changes and human activity in the closed area of the Dakhleh Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt, but including the larger area of the Palaeoasis. The study includes all the time since the first incursion of man in the Middle Pleistocene, perhaps 400,0...
Chapter
Full-text available
ABSOLUTE TIME PERIOD: >70,000–8000 B.P. This is only an estimate. There are about 50 Chronometric dates for materials associated with the Aterian, which come predominantly from the Maghreb. Many of these are radiocarbon dates for shell, bone, or carbonates. There are major discrepancies between uranium-thorium dates and radiocarbon dates, and many...
Article
Full-text available
Cet article constitue une reponse aux travaux de Van Peer (CA 39, S115-40) sur l'oasis de Dakhlet. L'auteur precise que meme technologie ne signifie pas necessairement meme peuple. Il presente ensuite des resultats de datation suggerant que le paleolithique moyen a pu durer plus longtemps en Egypte. Enfin, il suggere qu'au pleistocene, la vallee du...