Maximo Torero

Maximo Torero
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | FAO · Economics and Social Development Departement

PhD

About

196
Publications
100,486
Reads
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4,394
Citations
Introduction
Maximo Torero is the Assistant Director General for Economic and Social Development at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, he was the former Executive Director for Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Perú and Uruguay for The World Bank. His research work lies mostly in analyzing poverty, inequality, importance of geography and assets in explaining poverty, and in policies oriented towards poverty alleviation based on the role played by infrastructure, institutions, and on how technological breakthroughs can improve the welfare of households.His experience encompasses Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia. Web: https://maximotorero.com/
Additional affiliations
November 2016 - November 2019
World Bank
Position
  • Managing Director
December 2004 - present
International Food Policy Research Institute
Position
  • Division Director
Description
  • Division Director of the Markets, Trade and Insitutions Division and Director for Latin America
September 1998 - November 2004
Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo
Position
  • Principal Investigator

Publications

Publications (196)
Article
Full-text available
We propose nonparametric estimators for conditional value-at-risk (VaR) and expected shortfall (ES) associated with conditional distributions of a series of returns on a financial asset. The return series and the conditioning covariates, which may include lagged returns and other exogenous variables, are as-sumed to be strong mixing and follow a fu...
Article
Full-text available
We review the state of ICT and its impact on agricultural development in developing countries, documenting the rapid changes that have taken place over the last decade. Although there is still a wide gap in access between rural and urban areas, the spread of mobile phones in rural areas has led to important changes in the agricultural sector. We fi...
Book
Full-text available
This book provides fresh insights into concepts, methods and new research findings on the causes of excessive food price volatility. It also discusses the implications for food security and policy responses to mitigate excessive volatility. The approaches applied by the contributors range from on-the-ground surveys, to panel econometrics and innova...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides the first experimental evidence that household electrification leads to substantial reductions in indoor air pollution. Two years after electricity rollout, we measured overnight fine particulate matter ( ) concentration, which was on average 66% lower among households that were randomly encouraged to connect to the electrical g...
Article
Countries must join forces to avert a global food crisis from COVID-19. Countries must join forces to avert a global food crisis from COVID-19.
Article
Full-text available
We present results from the FAOSTAT emissions shares database, covering emissions from agri-food systems and their shares to total anthropogenic emissions for 196 countries and 40 territories for the period 1990–2019. We find that in 2019, global agri-food system emissions were 16.5 (95 %; CI range: 11–22) billion metric tonnes (Gt CO2 eq. yr−1), c...
Article
Full-text available
The role of agricultural transport costs in core-periphery structures has habitually been ignored in New Economic Geography (NEG) models. This is due to the convention of treating the agricultural good as the numéraire, thus implying that agricultural transportation costs are assumed to be zero in these models. For more than three decades, this has...
Preprint
Full-text available
The role of agricultural transport costs in core-periphery structures has habitually been ignored in New Economic Geography (NEG) models. This is due to the convention of treating the agricultural good as the numéraire, thus implying that agricultural transportation costs are assumed to be zero in these models. For more than three decades, this has...
Book
Full-text available
Sustainable Development. Momentum for change led to the first ever United Nations Food Systems Summit in September 2021, which agreed on innovative solutions and strategies to transform agrifood systems and leverage those changes to deliver progress across all the SDGs. The Summit ’s call to action focused on five objectives, one of which is buildi...
Article
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This is earth analysis at global, regional and country level based on the new FAOSTAT Emissions shares database. Data cover all IPCC sectors and in particular quantify emissions from agri-food systems within the famr gate, due to land use change and along supply chains, domestic use and waste.
Article
For fruitful deliberations and concerted action at the science–politics interface, the concepts of food systems and drivers of change need to be clearly understood and employed by all.
Article
Full-text available
This study developed a marginal abatement cost curve to identify a mix of least-cost investment options with the highest potential for hunger reduction, hunger here defined by the undernourishment concept of the Food and Agriculture Organization. Twenty-two different interventions are considered for reducing undernourishment relying on information...
Article
Full-text available
Food systems that support healthy diets in sustainable, resilient, just, and equitable ways can engender progress in eradicating poverty and malnutrition; protecting human rights; and restoring natural resources. Food system activities have contributed to great gains for humanity but have also led to significant challenges, including hunger, poor d...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ensuring sustainable food systems requires vastly reducing its environmental and health costs while making healthy and sustainable food affordable to all. One of the central problems of current food systems is that many of the costs of harmful foods are externalized, i.e. are not reflected in market prices. At the same time, the benefits of healthf...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we try to understand what the main causes of food losses (FLs) are. Our results show that producers' education and experience and the number of years in which a producer has been involved in the production of a specific crop are significantly correlated with reduction in FL. Unfavorable climatic conditions, pests, and diseases, as we...
Chapter
Full-text available
From strawberry-picking robots to satellite remote sensing and GIS techniques that forecast crop yields, the integration of robotics and AI in agriculture will play a key role in sustainably meeting the growing food demand of the future. But it also carries the risk of alienating a certain population, such as smallholder farmers and rural household...
Article
Full-text available
information still exist. This Special Issue provides new evidence on the extent and determinants of food loss and waste. The Overview paper by Cattaneo, Sanchez, Torero & Vos summarizes the main findings and identifies policy-relevant information gaps that tries to fill these gaps and identifies five challenges for researchers, policymakers and pra...
Preprint
Full-text available
The role of agricultural transport costs in core-periphery models has habitually been ignored in New Economic Geography (NEG) models. This is due to the convention of treating the agricultural good as the numéraire, thus implying that agricultural transportation costs are assumed to be zero in these models. This conceptual drawback is however essen...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing pressure on agricultural production systems to achieve global food security and prevent environmental degradation necessitates a transition towards more sustainable practices. The purpose of this scoping review is to understand how the incentives offered to farmers motivate the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices and, ulti...
Article
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Reducing postharvest losses (PHLs) of food crops is a critical component of sustainably increasing agricultural productivity. Many PHL reduction interventions have been tested, but synthesized information to support evidence-based investments and policy is scarce. In this study, PHL reduction interventions for 22 crops across 57 countries in sub-Sa...
Article
Full-text available
Despite broad agreement in policy circles on the need to reduce food loss and waste (FLW), considerable gaps in information still exist. This paper identifies policy-relevant information gaps, summarizes recent research that tries to fill these gaps and identifies five challenges for researchers, policymakers and practitioners in reducing FLW. The...
Article
Full-text available
The essential first steps of addressing the problem of food loss are measuring the loss, identifying where in the food system it occurs, and developing effective policies to mitigate it along the value chain. Food loss has been defined in many ways, and disagreement remains over proper terminology and methodology to measure it. In addition, none of...
Article
Our food systems depend on complex interactions between farmers and food producers, local and federal governments, and consumers. Underlying these interactions are economic, environmental, and societal factors that can impact the types of food available, access to food, affordability, and food safety. The recent SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic has affec...
Article
Full-text available
Given the central role that agriculture plays in the rural economy in developing countries, governments have implemented supply– and demand-side policies and programs to promote sustainable fertilizer use yielding mixed results. Policies typically have not addressed hurdles to fertilizer uptake emanating from highly concentrated fertilizer markets...
Article
Full-text available
Reducing food loss and waste can contribute to food security and sustainability. Measuring food loss and waste (FLW), identifying where in the food system it occurs, and developing effective policies along the value chain are essential first steps toward addressing the problem. The G20 can play a crucial role with three main actions: (1) Mainstream...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the role of teachers in explaining the urban-rural gap in educational outcomes. Using a large panel data set of students and teachers collected from China and explicitly controlling for the endogeneity of prior student academic achievement, we find that the urban-rural difference in teacher effects contributes in large part to the observ...
Article
Development projects are generally subject to a potential tradeoff between sustainability and poverty reduction. Grants are also commonly assigned without a standardized criterion. This paper proposes an innovative scoring tool that combines both a risk and poverty scorecard to prioritize lending and grant allocation. We implement and test the inst...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to take stock of the current state of knowledge about inclusive value-chain development (VCD) in the context of international agricultural research; and second, to draw out the implications for future research and action. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on a review of recent rese...
Article
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PARI’s main goal is to contribute to sustainable agricultural growth and food security in Africa and India by supporting the scaling of proven innovations in the agri-food sector in collaboration with all relevant actors. PARI accompanies specified innovations with ex-ante impact research and identifies further innovation opportunities, including t...
Article
West Bengal potato farmers cannot directly access wholesale markets and do not knowwholesale prices. Local middlemen earn large margins; pass-through from wholesale to farmgate prices is negligible. When we informed farmers in randomly chosen villages about wholesale prices, average farmgate sales and prices were unaffected, but pass-through to far...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Measuring food loss, identifying where in the food system it occurs, and developing effective policies along every stage of the value chain are essential first steps in addressing the problem of food loss and waste in developing countries. Food loss has been defined in many ways, and disagreement remains regarding proper terminology and measurement...
Article
In this paper we explore the effects of fiscal policies and growth on measures of household welfare across the distribution of expenditures for two African countries: Rwanda and Tanzania. We explore the effect of government expenditures on expenditure growth in each quintile of the expenditure distribution and the effect of growth for each group. W...
Article
The growing use of ICTs around the world, particularly cellular phone technology, provides a significant development opportunity. Under certain situations, ICTs can improve rural households’ agricultural production, farm profitability, job opportunities, adoption of healthier practices, and risk management. All these effects have the potential to i...
Book
Full-text available
Governments, nongovernmental organizations, donors, and the private sector have increasingly embraced value-chain development (VCD) for stimulating economic growth and combating rural poverty. Innovation for Inclusive Value-Chain Development: Successes and Challenges helps to fill the current gap in systematic knowledge about how well VCD has perfo...
Article
Do nutritional deficiencies contribute to the intergenerational persistence of poverty by reducing the earnings potential of future generations? To address this question, we made available supplemental iron pills at a health center in rural Peru and encouraged adolescents to take them via media messages. School administrative data provide novel evi...
Research
Full-text available
This issue brief reviews the drivers (long term and short term), their impacts, and indicators of food and nutrition security (FNS). The FAO defined food and nutrition security as a situation " when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences fo...
Article
Potential positive impacts of rural electrification on development seem to be accepted by consensus in scientific literature. However, methods to precisely evaluate these impacts are discussed and highlighting the issues faced by impacts estimations appears to be crucial. Evaluations are methodologically challenging but highly needed because they a...
Chapter
Full-text available
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the research on food price volatility and food security. After elaborating on the recent developments on international markets and in international policymaking, the key concepts “food security,” “volatility,” and “extreme events” are explained. A conceptual framework that integrates the existing th...
Chapter
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Agricultural markets and food prices are no longer as stable and predictable as they had been. After decades of gradually falling food prices, the world is experiencing a period of price spikes and rapid swings in food prices and may face more of the same in the coming years. This dramatic shift has serious implications for the people who are alrea...
Chapter
Full-text available
The world faces a new food economy that likely involves both higher and more volatile food prices; evidence of both conditions was clear in 2007/08 and 2011. After the food price crisis of 2007/08, food prices started rising again in June 2010, with international prices of maize and wheat roughly doubling by May 2011. This situation imposed several...
Chapter
Increases in relative prices of food items (or groups) may have severe negative impact for consumer welfare in low income countries, where the share of household expenditure on food items is high. Recently, various time series on prices for major agricultural commodities (rice, maize, soybeans, and wheat) have suggested periods of increased price v...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rigorous impact evaluation that includes appropriately selected control groups must be a part of rural electrification program designs. Budgeting evaluation activities and engaging with evaluators at an early stage improves to likelihood of having a high quality evaluation design; plus, if deviations occur after the design stage, the evaluators are...
Article
Full-text available
We conduct a remittance field experiment among Salvadoran migrants in the metro DC area. Migrants need to decide whether or not to remit funds to a recipient in El Salvador and if so how much. We maintain a (2x2) design in which the remittance budget has a value of $400 or $200, and the remitted funds arrive as cash or grocery vouchers that are non...
Article
The Impact of Rural Electrification: Challenges and Ways Forward Potential positive impacts of rural electrification on development seem to be accepted by consensus in scientific literature. However, methods to precisely evaluate these impacts are discussed and highlighting the issues faced by impacts estimations appears to be crucial. Evaluations...
Article
Rigorous impact evaluation that includes appropriately selected control groups must be a part of rural electrification program designs. Budgeting evaluation activities and engaging with evaluators at an early stage improves to likelihood of having a high quality evaluation design; plus, if deviations occur after the design stage, the evaluators are...
Article
In the Indian state of West Bengal, potato farmers sell to local middlemen because they lack direct access to wholesale markets. High-frequency marketing surveys reveal large middleman margins and negligible pass-through from wholesale to farmgate prices. Farmers are uninformed about downstream wholesale and retail prices.To test alternative models...
Article
Is demand for safe food in developing countries low because of limited ability to pay, or because of lack of consumer awareness and absence of credible certification? To answer this question we conducted a controlled market experiment in Mumbai, India, selling grapes with credible certification labels alongside unlabeled grapes while providing rand...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We analyze the impact of the Strengthening Women Entrepreneurship in Peru (SWEP) program. SWEP trained female micro-entrepreneurs on business management practices (e.g. accounting, marketing, etc.). The training was provided in 4-5 hour sessions using soap operas and practical exercises specifically designed for the program. We conducted a field ex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A key question in development economics is whether nutritional deficiencies generate in-tergenerational poverty traps by reducing the earnings potential of children born into poverty. To assess the causal influence on human capital of one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies, supplemental iron pills were made available at a local healt...
Article
Full-text available
El presente documento es un abreviario estadístico que abarca información proveniente de 11 países de América Latina e incluye indicadores de desarrollo económico y social, útiles para evaluar la situación, el progreso y el impacto de las actividades científicas y tecnológicas de cada país de la región.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In an experiment where potato farmers in randomly chosen villages in two Indian districts were provided information about prices at which middlemen resold their output, we find no significant average treatment effects on traded quantities or revenues, but both became more responsive to market price variations. The results confirm predictions of a m...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter, we explore the role of commodity price volatility for African countries. A special attention is given to the agricultural products and consequences regarding the best coping strategies to ensure food security are discussed. The role of international and regional trade, as well as trade policies, are of particular interest in this c...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of credit access to improve economic opportunities in developing markets is well established in the literature. However, there exists a strong need to mitigate adverse selection problems in microlending. A risk scoring model that more accurately predicts the likelihood of repayment of potential borrowers can help address this market...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we explore the effects of fiscal policies and growth on measures of the household welfare across the distribution of expenditure for two countries in Africa: Rwanda and Tanzania. We explore issues of inefficiency in government expenditures and dilution of growth benefits among the better off sectors of the population in these two coun...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introduction: the challenge of hunger and undernutrition Current estimates suggest that there are approximately 925million hungry people in the world Just under 180million pre-school children are stunted– that is they are the victims of chronic undernutrition This deprivation is not because of insufficient food production Approximately 2100kcal/per...
Article
Full-text available
Asymmetry of information is a fundamental problem in economics. Agricultural production contracts remain incomplete if quality attributes measured by the buying company are unobservable for selling farmers. Opportunistic buyers would report lower than actual quality, negatively affecting farmers’ compensation given it is directly linked to specific...
Article
Full-text available
El presente estudio pretende medir el acceso de las mujeres al micro crédito en el Perú. Asimismo, busca examinar el vínculo entre la distribución por género de los derechos de propiedad y las limitaciones en el acceso de las mujeres al crédito en el Perú. La evidencia mundial muestra que existe un sesgo en el acceso a los servicios financieros cua...
Chapter
Full-text available
Roughly three-fourths of the world’s poor live in rural areas. What role can information and communication technologies play in empowering them? This chapter explores the potential for these technologies, especially mobile phones, to stimulate agricultural and rural development through the provision of information and capacity-building opportunitie...
Article
Stealing, shirking, and opportunistic behavior in general can create barriers to the development of markets. The costs associated with such behavior are shared by both firms and individuals and can be large enough to even prevent the initiation of trade. Measurement of these costs is difficult because information is not available for transactions tha...