Maxime Geoffroy

Maxime Geoffroy
Memorial University of Newfoundland · Centre for Fisheries Ecosystems Research (CFER)

PhD in oceanography

About

49
Publications
65,500
Reads
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800
Citations
Citations since 2016
34 Research Items
661 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Additional affiliations
June 2017 - present
Memorial University of Newfoundland
Position
  • Researcher
January 2016 - May 2017
 UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, campus Narvik
Position
  • PhD Student
January 2014 - April 2014
Université Laval
Position
  • Teaching Assistant - Biostatistics
Education
September 2012 - December 2015
Université Laval
Field of study
  • Oceanography
September 2008 - March 2011
Université Laval
Field of study
  • Marine biology
September 2001 - April 2006
University of Ottawa
Field of study
  • Mechanical Engineering

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Full-text available
The offshore marine ecosystem of the Canadian Beaufort Sea faces the double pressure of climate change and industrialization. Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is a pivotal forage species in this ecosystem, accounting for 95 % of the pelagic fish assemblage. Its vertical distribution over the annual cycle remains poorly documented. Hydroacoustic records...
Article
Full-text available
An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying 614 kHz RDI acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCPs) was deployed at four locations over the West Spitsbergen outer shelf in July 2010. The backscatter signal recorded by the ADCPs was extracted and analysed to investigate the vertical distribution and patchiness of pelagic organisms during midnight...
Article
Full-text available
Zooplankton vertical migration enhances the efficiency of the ocean biological pump by translocating carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) below the mixed layer through respiration and excretion at depth. We measured C and N active transport due to diel vertical migration (DVM) in a Svalbard fjord at 79°N. Multifrequency analysis of backscatter data from an...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic Ocean faces rapid climate change, which impacts both physical and biological components of the marine ecosystem. Due to complicated and costly logistics inherent to sampling ice-covered areas, most studies conducted in the Arctic are based on relatively short-term sampling (weeks to months) centered around the minimum ice season. Given t...
Article
Full-text available
Active acoustics as a tool to detect and avoid Arctic marine mammals was assessed in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. The target strengths and shape of the echoes of whales and seals were characterized using a bi-frequency (38 and 120 kHz) split-beam scientific echosounder in winter 2003/2004 and a scientific scanning sonar (20–30 kHz) in summer 2011. Th...
Article
Full-text available
We defined mesozooplankton biogeography in the North American Arctic to elucidate drivers of biodiversity, community structure, and biomass of this key component of the Arctic marine ecosystem. A multivariate analysis identified four mesozooplankton assemblages: Arctic-oceanic, Arctic-shelf, Coastal-Hudson, and Labrador Sea. Bathymetry was a major...
Article
Full-text available
Across temperate and equatorial oceans, a diverse community of fish and zooplankton occupies the mesopelagic zone, where they are detectable as sound-scattering layers. At high latitudes, extreme day-night light cycles may limit the range of some species, while at lower latitudes communities are structured by dynamic ocean processes, such as temper...
Article
Full-text available
Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus; hereafter herring) is a forage fish that transfers energy from lower to higher trophic levels and sustains high-volume fisheries in the North Atlantic. This study aims to improve our understanding of the ecology of Newfoundland herring and its vulnerability to climate change by identifying key prey items and descr...
Article
Throughout all oceans, aggregations of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton appear as horizontal sound scattering layers (SSLs) when detected with active acoustic techniques. Quantifying the composition and density of these layers is prone to sampling biases. We conducted a net and trawl survey of the epipelagic fauna in northern Norway (70˚N) in June 2...
Article
Full-text available
Measures of biological diversity (biodiversity) are important for monitoring the state of ecosystems. Several indices and methods are used to describe biodiversity from field observations. Marine faunal biodiversity is often quantified based on analysis of samples collected using a trawl during research surveys. To monitor spatial and temporal chan...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) strongly dominates the ichthyoplankton assemblages of High Arctic seas, hence competition with other native species seldom has been studied. Yet, interspecific competition could negatively impact the survival of early life stages of fishes in Arctic areas where higher diversity prevails. We surveyed the ichthyoplankton...
Article
Full-text available
The diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton is one of the largest species migrations to occur globally and is a key driver of regional ecosystems and the marine carbon pump. The dramatic changes in the Arctic environment in recent years, mainly associated with sea-ice decline, may have wide significance for the Arctic shelf ecosystems includin...
Article
Full-text available
In situ observations of pelagic fish and zooplankton with optical instruments usually rely on external light sources. However, artificial light may attract or repulse marine organisms, which results in biased measurements. It is often assumed that most pelagic organisms do not perceive the red part of the visible spectrum and that red light can be...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in vertical and spatial distributions of zooplankton and small pelagic fish impact the biological carbon pump and the distribution of larger piscivorous fish and marine mammal species. However, their distribution and abundance remain poorly documented at high latitudes because of the difficulties inherent to sampling relatively fast-moving...
Preprint
Full-text available
The oceans sequester 31% of atmospheric carbon annually 1, but the magnitude of biologically enhanced sequestration is not evenly distributed across the globe 2. Measuring surface primary productivity offers a reasonable proxy for estimating carbon flux into the ocean 3 but entirely misses the processes that affect carbon export to sequestration de...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work found that an earlier ice breakup favors the recruitment of juvenile polar cod (Boreogadus saida) by enabling early hatchers to survive and reach a large size by late summer thanks to a long growth season. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition to a long growth season, an earlier ice breakup provides superior feeding conditions fo...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter summarizes the winter ecology of the ten most abundant fish species captured in bottom and midwater trawls during Polar Night surveys conducted in January 2016, 2017, and 2018 in the Svalbard region. It reviews the distribution and feeding habits of these species during the Polar Night as well as their spawning ecology. Most species fe...
Article
Full-text available
For organisms that remain active in one of the last undisturbed and pristine dark environments on the planet—the Arctic Polar Night—the moon, stars and aurora borealis may provide important cues to guide distribution and behaviours, including predator-prey interactions. With a changing climate and increased human activities in the Arctic, such natu...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Overview and synthesis of the present state of the Arctic Seas of Canada
Technical Report
Full-text available
Specific case studies in support of the main technical report 3344
Article
Full-text available
Mesopelagic fish and zooplankton are consistently found in the high Arctic, but their assemblage and trophic relationships change between summer and winter.
Chapter
Full-text available
Fisheries are an important industry in the Eastern Canadian Arctic, primarily targeting Greenland halibut and Northern and Striped shrimp resources in offshore areas of the Baffin Bay-Davis Strait and Hudson Strait regions. An inshore sec-tor, which consists of both subsistence and smaller-scale commercial fisheries, includes an Arctic Char fishery...
Article
Full-text available
Climate warming and sea ice decline are expected to increase fish population movements in the circumpolar Arctic, including across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). Knowledge gaps on present distribution, habitat uses, barriers to dispersal, and population connectivity along the Northwest Passage (NWP) limit science-based management of fish in...
Article
Full-text available
The jellyfish Periphylla periphylla, which can have strong ecological impacts on its environment, is ubiquitous in the Norwegian Sea and its range was predicted to extend northwards. The occurrence of P. periphylla in the northern Barents Sea increased since 2014 and, for the first time, several individuals were collected within a high Arctic fjord...
Article
Full-text available
Light is a major cue for nearly all life on Earth. However, most of our knowledge concerning the importance of light is based on organisms’ response to light during daytime, including the dusk and dawn phase. When it is dark, light is most often considered as pollution, with increasing appreciation of its negative ecological effects. Using an Auton...
Poster
Full-text available
Fish composition and distribution are thought to change in the Arctic Ocean following climate change and sea ice melting. Boreal species are extending their northern range, and sea ice reduction could modify the life cycle and distribution of the key forage fish Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). The potential migrations and occurrence of Arctic cod un...
Article
Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is the dominant forage fish in Arctic seas and the main prey of the ringed seal (Pusa hispida), the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and several seabird species. Changes in the abundance of polar cod will have cascading effects on arctic marine ecosystems. We tested the hypothesis that an earlier sea ice breakup and warme...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Beaufort Sea Marine Fishes Project (BSMFP) was developed as a multistakeholder initiative aimed to address information gaps for deep-water fish communities relevant to the regulatory review, assessment, and management of offshore oil and gas exploration and development in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. The BSMFP provides important basic knowledge a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The BSMF project was developed as a multi-stakeholder initiative aimed to address information gaps for deep-water fish communities relevant to the regulatory review, assessment, and management of offshore oil and gas exploration and development in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. The BSMF project provides important basic knowledge as to what species are...
Article
Fisheries sonar was used to determine the applicability of active acoustic monitoring (AAM) for marine mammal detection in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. During 170 h of simultaneous observation by marine mammal observers and active acoustic observation, 119 Balaena mysticetus (bowheads) and 4 Delphinapterus leucas (belugas) were visually sighted, whil...
Article
Full-text available
A commercially available fisheries sonar was mounted on an icebreaker and evaluated during an environmental baseline study in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, to determine the applicability of active acoustic monitoring (AAM) for marine mammal detection by comparing marine mammal observer (MMO) visual sightings and active acoustic detections. During 170...
Data
The data set is composed of raw files recorded with the Kongsberg Maritime SX90 long-range, low frequency (20-30 kHz) fisheries sonar during the CCGS Amundsen 2011 summer expedition in the Beaufort Sea. The sonar was operated during 4 dedicated surveys (109 hours) and during 258 hours of opportunistic survey, from 27 August to 3 October. The sonar...
Data
The data set is composed of raw files recorded with the Kongsberg Maritime SX90 long-range, low frequency (20-30 kHz) fisheries sonar during the CCGS Amundsen 2014 summer expedition in the Beaufort Sea. The sonar transducer was lowered 2.5 feet below the hull through a gate-valve. The cylindrical 256-elements transducer allows both a horizontal and...
Data
The data set is composed of raw files recorded with a SIMRAD EK60 three-frequency (38, 120, 200 kHz) split-beam echosounder that was operated continuously during the 2012, 2013, and 2014 BREA cruise aboard the F/V Frosti. This entry also includes EK60 data collected during the ArcticNet cruise aboard the CCGS Amundsen in 2014. All three 7° transduc...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the Canadian contribution to the International Polar Year (IPY), several major international research programs have focused on offshore arctic marine ecosystems. The general goal of these projects was to improve our understanding of how the response of arctic marine ecosystems to climate warming will alter food web structure and ecosyste...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As part of a large environmental research effort in the Canadian Arctic, a fisheries sonar (Simrad SX90) and a multi-frequency echosounder (Simrad EK60) mounted on the Canadian research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen were used to conduct a study on pelagic fish and marine mammal detection. The echosounder was continuously operated while adaptive and oppo...
Article
Full-text available
Making science animations: new possibilities for making science accessible to the public Lubchenco (1998: 495) challenges scientists to: ''(1) address the most urgent needs of society, in proportion to their importance; (2) communicate their knowledge and understanding widely in order to inform decisions of individuals and institutions; and (3) exe...
Article
Full-text available
During the Circumpolar Flaw Lead System Study (CFL, 2007–2008), large aggregations of polar cod were detected in winter in the Amundsen Gulf (Western Canadian Arctic) using the EK60 echosounder of the CCGS Amundsen research icebreaker. Biomass estimated over 10months reached a maximum of 0.732kgm−2 in February. Aggregations were encountered only in...
Article
Full-text available
The winter/spring vertical distributions of polar cod, copepods, and ringed seal were monitored at a 230-m station in ice-covered Franklin Bay. In daytime, polar cod of all sizes (7–95g) formed a dense aggregation in the deep inverse thermocline (160–230m, −1.0 to 0°C). From December (polar night) to April (18-h daylight), small polar cod <25g migr...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
The Arctic Ocean (AO) is a key component of Earth’s climate, acting as a coolant by contributing ~10% to the global oceanic carbon pump. Its capacity to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere comes from its cold waters that favour CO2 dissolution and its highly productive continental shelves that help sequester this carbon. Yet, the AO is warming at an unprecedented rate and the local and global consequences of its rapid evolution remain uncertain. The Last Ice Area (LIA), north of Canada and Greenland, is the last sanctuary of multiyear sea ice in the AO. The LIA includes the Lincoln Sea, which hosts unique endemic sea ice-dependent ecosystems. However, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the Lincoln Sea remain nearly undocumented. RED-AO aims at improving understanding of how global change influences ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical cycling in northern Baffin Bay and the Lincoln Sea – an emblematic refuge of climate change. This project proposes a pioneer oceanographic expedition during which, 4 for the first time, sea ice, hydrography, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and contaminants, and marine ecosystems will be observed simultaneously. It will provide a comprehensive baseline for conservation efforts and allow us to study key processes related to past, present, and future climate-induced changes. This project will strengthen both the conservation and sustainable resource harvesting of this fragile region by helping to i) create and manage permanent marine protected areas supported by indigenous governments, and ii) support ecosystem-based management of commercial fisheries led by indigenous groups in the eastern Canadian Arctic.
Project
This project aims to understand how the operation of the Muskrat Falls dam will affect fish ecology in the Lake Melville estuary in Labrador, canada. By answering this question, this research will help to understand the impacts of this large-scale hydroelectric project on coastal communities in the region and better predict the effects of future dam developments on fish in northern Canada. It will also provide baseline information for science-based management of fisheries in Lake Melville.
Project
The overarching and novel question we address is: How are ongoing changes in the Arctic pelagic ecosystem impacting fisheries productivity? Answering this question is critical to develop a predictive understanding of the capacity of the Canadian Arctic ecosystem to sustain long-term development of commercial fisheries.