Max Wisshak

Max Wisshak
Senckenberg am Meer Wilhelmshaven · Marine Research Department

PhD

About

143
Publications
46,337
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Introduction
Max Wisshak is a senior scientist at the Department of Marine Research at SENCKENBERG in Wilhelmshaven, Germany. His main focus is on the process of marine bioerosion, its contribution to the recycling of biogenic carbonates in modern and ancient seas, and the ichnological record of bioerosion traces. Other research interests include invertebrate palaeobiology, biodiversity assessments, microstructure analyses, stable isotope geochemistry, and various aspects of speleology.

Publications

Publications (143)
Article
Full-text available
In the recent discussion how biotic systems may react to ocean acidification caused by the rapid rise in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO(2)) in the marine realm, substantial research is devoted to calcifiers such as stony corals. The antagonistic process - biologically induced carbonate dissolution via bioerosion - has largely been neglected....
Article
Bioerosion of calcium carbonate is the natural counterpart of biogenic calcification. Both are affected by ocean acidification (OA). We summarize definitions and concepts in bioerosion research and knowledge in the context of OA, providing case examples and meta-analyses. Chemically mediated bioerosion relies on energy demanding, biologically contr...
Article
A remarkable diversity of bioerosion trace fossils is reflected by the plethora of ichnotaxa that has been proposed for these structures during the past two centuries. Bioerosion traces include microborings, macroborings, grazing traces, attachment etchings, and predation traces. They occur in calcareous, siliceous, osteic, and xylic substrates, an...
Book
New Zealand Karst is a high-quality coffee-table book by geoscientist and photographer Max Wisshak and his wife Stefanie Wisshak. The book is aimed equally at a readership interested in natural science and at friends of skilful nature photography. Accompanied by a foreword contributed by renowned karst researcher Paul W. Williams, the lavishly desi...
Article
Full-text available
Rhodolith beds and bioherms formed by ecosystem engineering crustose coralline algae support the northernmost centres of carbonate production, referred to as polar cold-water carbonate factories. Yet, little is known about biodiversity and recruitment of these hard-bottom communities or the bioeroders degrading them, and there is a demand for carbo...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of marine microbioerosion in polar environments are scarce. They include our recent investigations of bioerosion traces preserved in sessile balanid skeletons from the Arctic Svalbard archipelago and the Antarctic Ross Sea. Here, we present results from a third study site, Frobisher Bay, in the eastern Canadian Arctic, together with a synth...
Article
Full-text available
Hyrrokkin sarcophaga is a parasitic foraminifera that is commonly found in cold-water coral reefs where it infests the file clam Acesta excavata and the scleractinian coral Desmophyllum pertusum (formerly known as Lophelia pertusa). Here, we present measurements of the trace element and isotopic composition of these parasitic foraminifera, analyzed...
Article
Full-text available
There is an increasing number of studies reporting microplastic (MP) contamination in the Arctic environment. We analysed MP abundance in samples from a marine Arctic ecosystem that has not been investigated in this context and that features a high biodiversity: hollow rhodoliths gouged by the bivalve Hiatella arctica. This bivalve is a filter feed...
Article
Full-text available
Microscopic organisms that penetrate calcareous structures by actively dissolving the carbonate matrix, namely microendoliths, have an important influence on the breakdown of marine carbonates. The study of these microorganisms and the bioerosion traces they produce is crucial for understanding the impact of their bioeroding activity on the carbona...
Article
Full-text available
Coralline algae that form rhodoliths are widespread globally and their skeletal growth patterns have been used as (paleo-) environmental proxies in a variety of studies. However, growth interruptions (hiati) within their calcareous skeletons are regarded as problematic in this context. Here we investigated how hiati in the growth of Arctic rhodolit...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic cryosphere is changing rapidly due to global warming. Northern Svalbard is a warming hotspot with a temperature rise of ~ 6 °C over the last three decades. Concurrently, modelled data suggest a marked increase in glacier runoff during recent decades in northern Svalbard, and runoff is projected to increase. However, observational data fr...
Article
Acesta excavata (Fabricius, 1779) is a slow growing bivalve from the Limidae family and is often found associated with cold-water coral reefs along the European continental margin. Here we present the compositional variability of frequently used proxy elemental ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Na/Ca) measured by laser-ablation mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) an...
Article
Full-text available
Breakdown of skeletal and lithic hard substrates by organisms, a process referred to as bioerosion, is part of the global carbon cycle and receives increased attention, but little is known about bioerosion in polar environments. Here, we study bioerosion traces (addressed by their respective ichnotaxa) recorded in the barnacle Bathylasma corollifor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hyrrokkin sarcophaga is a parasitic foraminifer that is commonly found in cold-water coral reefs where it infests the file clam Acesta excavata and the scleractinian coral Lophelia pertusa. Here, we present measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of this parasitic foraminifer for the first time, analyzed by inductively coupled optica...
Article
Full-text available
The rhodolith-forming coralline red algal species Lithothamnion glaciale is the key ecosystem engineer of rhodolith beds on the coast of Svalbard. Because it significantly increases local biodiversity in this high-Arctic environment, we investigate the potential impact of changing environmental parameters on its calcite skeleton. Using energy-dispe...
Article
Full-text available
This first comprehensive investigation of microbioerosion traces in polar barnacles addresses two bathymetrical transects from the intertidal down to subtidal water depths in two different carbonate factories in the Svalbard Archipelago: the bay Mosselbukta and the ocean bank Bjørnøy-Banken. Scanning electron microscopy of epoxy resin casts of...
Article
Full-text available
The Cambrian explosion (CE) and the great Ordovician biodiversification event (GOBE) are the two most important radiations in Paleozoic oceans. We quantify the role of bioturbation and bioerosion in ecospace utilization and ecosystem engineering using information from 1367 stratigraphic units. An increase in all diversity metrics is demonstrated fo...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of bottom-dwelling marine fauna to repair injured body parts is critical to the survival of individuals from disturbances that inflict wounds. The phylum Echinodermata, in particular, exposes a pronounced ability to regenerate skeletal damages. Regeneration of lost body parts of stellate echinoderms (crinoids, asteroids and ophiuroids)...
Chapter
Full-text available
In European waters, the adeonid genus Reptadeonella Busk (Bryozoa, Cheilostomatida) is represented by two species: R. insidiosa (Jullien) from the Bay of Biscay and the western Channel, and the oft-cited R. violacea (Johnston), ranging from the southern British Isles to the Mediterranean Sea. Inspection of colonies previously reported as R. violace...
Article
Full-text available
Barite (BaSO4) speleothems have been reported from caves around the globe and interpreted to have chiefly formed in phreatic, hypogene, hydrothermal settings. Here we report two contrasting types of barite speleothems (bluish tabular crystals in a shallow pool and actively dripping greenish stalactites), which today form at lower temperatures in th...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic Svalbard Archipelago hosts the world's northernmost cold-water 'carbonate factories' thriving here despite of presumably unfavourable environmental conditions and extreme seasonality. Two contrasting sites of intense biogenic carbonate production, the rhodolith beds in Mosselbukta in the north of the archipelago and the barnacle-mollusc...
Article
Full-text available
A single specimen of an enigmatic new attachment etching, together with an unknown calcareous encruster partly preserved in situ, has been identified on a belemnite rostrum from the Marnes de Dives Formation (Callovian, Middle Jurassic) of the Falaises des Vaches Noires in Normandy, France. The trace fossil, here established as the new ichnotaxon C...
Article
Amber samples with bivalve borings from six localities around the world, ranging in age from Hauterivian to Miocene, have been studied. The possible assignment to Teredolites or Gastrochaenolites is discussed considering the type of substrate as an ichnotaxobase. It is proposed to regard amber or similar resins as a variant of xylic substrates and...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reef resilience depends on the balance between carbonate precipitation, leading to reef growth, and carbonate degradation, for example, through bioerosion. Changes in environmental conditions are likely to affect the two processes differently, thereby shifting the balance between reef growth and degradation. In cold-water corals estimates of...
Article
Full-text available
The fast decline of Arctic sea ice is a leading indicator of ongoing global climate change and is receiving substantial public and scientific attention. Projections suggest that Arctic summer sea ice may virtually disappear within the course of the next 50 or even 30 yr with rapid Arctic warming. However, limited observational records and lack of a...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial-sponge reef mounds of the Carnian, Late Triassic, Maantang Formation crop out along the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin in South China. Samples from three mounds have been investigated and their ostracod assemblages are here described for the first time. Thirty-three species are present, distributed into 19 genera, including five...
Article
Bioeroding sponges are important macroborers that chemically cut out substrate particles (chips) and mechanically remove them, thereby contributing to reef-associated sediment. These chemical and mechanical proportions vary with elevated levels of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). To assess related impacts, the morphometric parameters “chi...
Article
Coral cores taken from Great Barrier Reef massive Porites sp. were assessed for bioerosion by the brown demosponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900, but also yielded evidence for microbial bioerosion that was partly simultaneously active with the sponge bioerosion. The most common microborer traces throughout wereIchnoreticulina elegans (Radtke, 1991...
Article
Full-text available
We here fix the types of Schizoporella lepralioides Calvet in Jullien and Calvet, type species of the genus Metroperiella Canu & Bassler, and redescribe the species based on scanning electron microscope examination. Metroperiella populations from the Mediterranean Sea, which have hitherto been regarded as conspecific with Metroperiella lepralioides...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reefs persist in an accretion-erosion balance, which is critical for understanding the natural variability of sediment production, reef accretion, and their effects on the carbonate budget. Bioerosion (i.e. biodegradation of substrate) and encrustation (i.e. calcified overgrowth on substrate) influence the carbonate budget and the ecological...
Data
Post-hoc Tukey HSD, Ordered differences report. (DOCX)
Data
Photographs of typical benthic seafloor cover and sediment at the Matapalo Reef site. Crustose coralline red algae (CCA) encrusting the coral rubble substrate forming rhodoliths, and growth of the green macro-alga genus Caulerpa. Water depth ~5 m bsl. (JPG)
Data
Data comparison of measured and calculated seawater parameters from bottle samples (VINDTA) and Manta multiprobe. (DOCX)
Data
Experimental setup deployed in the reef (schematic drawing and photograph). (JPG)
Data
SEM images from microbioerosion traces on the surface of the coral substrates. a) control, and after b) one month, c) two months, d) three months, and e) four month of exposure. Note the increase in borings and the loss of skeletal structure (e.g. coral fibers) over time. Scale bar 50 μm. (TIFF)
Data
μCT scan video of coral substrate exposed for one month at Matapalo Reef. (MKV)
Data
μCT scan video of coral substrate exposed for three months at Matapalo Reef. (MKV)
Data
μCT scan video of control coral substrate (pre-experiment). (MKV)
Data
μCT scan video of coral substrate exposed for two months at Matapalo Reef. (MKV)
Data
μCT scan video of coral substrate exposed for four months at Matapalo Reef. (MKV)
Data
Photographs of retrieved coral substrates from the Matapalo Reef site, before bleaching (30% H2O2). After a, b) one month; c, d) two months; e, f) three months; g, h) four months of exposure. (JPG)
Data
SEM images of the internal and external valve from one lithophagine bivalve, juvenile stage, identified as Lithophaga (Leiosolenus) cf. aristata (Dillwyn, 1817). Scale bar 500 μm. (TIFF)
Data
Graphs showing the correlation between measurement period means of a) pH and temperature, b) Ωarag and temperature, and c) Ωarag and AT/DIC at Marina Papagayo (black dots; 2009, 2012, and 2013; data from [37,39]) compared to the study site at Matapalo Reef (black squares; 2013/2014; data from [23], this study). Regression lines exclude data from Ma...
Article
Lower Campanian siliceous sponges from epicontinental deposits of the Subhercynian Cretaceous Basin in Germany contain amygdaloidal depressions which are distinguished as a new ichnospecies of the ichnogenus Cuenulites. These bioerosion traces are interpreted as borings of semi-endolithic bivalves, produced without significant rotation movement, pr...
Article
Euendolithic marine fungi are ubiquitous bioeroders of calcareous skeletal substrates, even under the extreme environmental conditions of the polar regions. The new bioerosion trace fossil Saccomorpha guttulata isp. nov. is presumably produced by a marine fungus that is interpreted to be well adapted to low temperatures, based on the provenance of...
Article
Full-text available
The rosette-shaped microboring trace fossil Neodendrina carnelia igen. et isp. n. – a large representative of the ichnofamily Dendrinidae – is identified on the inner side of the giant clam Tridacna maxima from Pleistocene to Holocene coral reef deposits of the El Quseir district at the Egyptian Red Sea coast. The new dendritic bioerosion trace fos...
Article
Full-text available
The rosette-shaped microboring trace fossil Neodendrina carnelia igen. et isp. n. – a large representative of the ichnofamily Dendrinidae – is identified on the inner side of the giant clam Tridacna maxima from Pleistocene to Holocene coral reef deposits of the El Quseir district at the Egyptian Red Sea coast. The new dendritic bioerosion trace fos...
Article
Full-text available
Dendritic and/or rosetted microborings in calcareous and osteic skeletal substrates have a diverse trace fossil record, spanning most of the Phanerozoic, whereas the ichnodiversity of comparable bioerosion traces produced in modern seas is rather limited. The most prominent occurrences are known from Devonian brachiopods and from Upper Cretaceous b...
Article
Full-text available
A recent literature review by Scho ̈nberg et al. (2017) on bioerosion under ocean acidification and global change led to a detailed com- ment by Silbiger and DeCarlo (2017). We use the opportunity to reply to this comment, to correct misinterpreted data and to fur- ther stimulate the discussion in bioerosion science. We still believe that our paper...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bioerosion, i.e., chemical and mechanical degradation of largely carbonate skeletal material, was studied in detail in shells of Nautilus for the first time. Nautilus typically lives along slopes of coral reefs in water depths between 300-400 m, with a range of 100-700 m and occurs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean exclusively. After death of the animal it...
Article
Full-text available
The ongoing technical revolution in non-destructive 3-D visualisation via micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) finds a valuable application in the studies of bioerosion trace fossils, since their three-dimensional architecture is hidden within hard substrates. This technique, in concert with advanced segmentation algorithms, allows a detailed visua...
Article
Full-text available
We describe and name Loxolenichnus stellatocinctus Breton and Wisshak igen. et isp. nov., a bioerosion trace fossil on an Upper Cenomanian oyster from Le Mans (France). This trace is attributed here to a parasitic gastropod. The characteristics of this ichnospecies are a combination of one or several, vertical or oblique, complete penetrations, and...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract. Friedrich von Hagenow is renowned for his seminal inventory of the diverse invertebrate fauna from the lower Maastrichtian chalk (Upper Cretaceous) of the Isle of Rügen, Germany. Tragically, his immense collection at Stettin (today Szczecin, Poland) was almost completely destroyed during World War II, including the type material of hundre...
Data
Extensive supplementary data to the review on bioerosion and global change published in the ICES Journal of Marine Science (available at https://academic.oup.com/icesjms/article/3064242/Bioerosion:)