Max Van Kleek

Max Van Kleek
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Computer Science

About

182
Publications
23,355
Reads
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3,353
Citations
Citations since 2016
86 Research Items
2509 Citations
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Publications

Publications (182)
Article
Datafication, which is the process in which children's actions online are pervasively recorded, tracked, aggregated, analysed, and exploited by online services in multiple ways that include behavioural engineering, and monetisation, is becoming increasing common in the online world today. However, we know little about how children feel about such p...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we conduct data mining and statistical analysis on the most effective countries, universities, and companies, based on their output (e.g., produced or collaborated) on COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic. Hence, the focus of this article is on the first wave of the pandemic. While in later stages of the pandemic, US and...
Preprint
Critical examinations of AI systems often apply principles such as fairness, justice, accountability, and safety, which is reflected in AI regulations such as the EU AI Act. Are such principles sufficient to promote the design of systems that support human flourishing? Even if a system is in some sense fair, just, or 'safe', it can nonetheless be e...
Article
Much effort has been invested in designing digital systems that keep people ‘hooked’. By contrast, comparatively little is known about how designers can support people in re-gaining control. Online, however, hundreds of apps and browser extensions promise to help people self-regulate use of digital devices. Reviews and popularity metrics for these...
Preprint
Tracking is a highly privacy-invasive data collection practice that has been ubiquitous in mobile apps for many years due to its role in supporting advertising-based revenue models. In defence of user privacy, Apple introduced two significant changes with iOS 14: App Tracking Transparency (ATT), a mandatory opt-in system for enabling tracking on iO...
Article
Full-text available
While many studies have looked at privacy properties of the Android and Google Play app ecosystem, comparatively much less is known about iOS and the Apple App Store, the most widely used ecosystem in the US. At the same time, there is increasing competition around privacy between these smartphone operating system providers. In this paper, we prese...
Preprint
Full-text available
Third-party tracking, the collection and sharing of behavioural data about individuals, is a significant and ubiquitous privacy threat in mobile apps. The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) was introduced in 2018 to protect personal data better, but there exists, thus far, limited empirical evidence about its efficacy. This paper studies...
Preprint
Full-text available
The industry for children's apps is thriving at the cost of children's privacy: these apps routinely disclose children's data to multiple data trackers and ad networks. As children spend increasing time online, such exposure accumulates to long-term privacy risks. In this paper, we used a mixed-methods approach to investigate why this is happening...
Article
Modern conversational agents such as Alexa and Google Assistant represent significant progress in speech recognition, natural language processing, and speech synthesis. But as these agents have grown more realistic, concerns have been raised over how their social nature might unconsciously shape our interactions with them. Through a survey of 500 v...
Article
Full-text available
Parental control apps, which are mobile apps that allow parents to monitor and restrict their children's activities online, are becoming increasingly adopted by parents as a means of safeguarding their children's online safety. However, it is not clear whether these apps are always beneficial or effective in what they aim to do; for instance, the o...
Preprint
While many studies have looked at privacy properties of the Android and Google Play app ecosystem, comparatively much less is known about iOS and the Apple App Store, the most widely used ecosystem in the US. At the same time, there is increasing competition around privacy between these smartphone operating system providers. In this paper, we prese...
Preprint
Full-text available
Parental control apps, which are mobile apps that allow parents to monitor and restrict their children's activities online, are becoming increasingly adopted by parents as a means of safeguarding their children's online safety. However, it is not clear whether these apps are always beneficial or effective in what they aim to do; for instance, the o...
Article
Full-text available
This article conducts a literature review of current and future challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in cyber physical systems. The literature review is focused on identifying a conceptual framework for increasing resilience with AI through automation supporting both, a technical and human level. The methodology applied resembled a...
Preprint
Modern conversational agents such as Alexa and Google Assistant represent significant progress in speech recognition, natural language processing, and speech synthesis. But as these agents have grown more realistic, concerns have been raised over how their social nature might unconsciously shape our interactions with them. Through a survey of 500 v...
Preprint
Third-party tracking allows companies to collect users' behavioural data and track their activity across digital devices. This can put deep insights into users' private lives into the hands of strangers, and often happens without users' awareness or explicit consent. EU and UK data protection law, however, requires consent, both 1) to access and st...
Preprint
Dark patterns in mobile apps take advantage of cognitive biases of end-users and can have detrimental effects on people's lives. Despite growing research in identifying remedies for dark patterns and established solutions for desktop browsers, there exists no established methodology to reduce dark patterns in mobile apps. Our work introduces Grease...
Preprint
Full-text available
Homomorphic encryption, secure multi-party computation, and differential privacy are part of an emerging class of Privacy Enhancing Technologies which share a common promise: to preserve privacy whilst also obtaining the benefits of computational analysis. Due to their relative novelty, complexity, and opacity, these technologies provoke a variety...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet of Things (IoT) triggers new types of cyber risks. Therefore, the integration of new IoT devices and services requires a self-assessment of IoT cyber security posture. By security posture this article refers to the cybersecurity strength of an organisation to predict, prevent and respond to cyberthreats. At present, there is a gap in t...
Article
Full-text available
We explore the potential and practical challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in cyber risk analytics, for improving organisational resilience and understanding cyber risk. The research is focused on identifying the role of AI in connected devices such as Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Through literature review, we identify wide r...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple governmental agencies and private organisations have made commitments for the colonisation of Mars. Such colonisation requires complex systems and infrastructure that could be very costly to repair or replace in cases of cyber-attacks. This paper surveys deep learning algorithms, IoT cyber security and risk models, and established mathemat...
Preprint
Full-text available
This review paper investigates the integration of predictive, preventive and personalised interoperable digital healthcare systems. The second point of interest is the use of new mass surveillance technologies to feed personal data from health professionals to governments, without any comprehensive studies that determine if such new technologies an...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article conducts a literature review of current and future challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in cyber physical systems. The literature review is focused on identifying a conceptual framework for increasing resilience with AI through automation supporting both, a technical and human level. The methodology applied resembled a...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article conducts a literature review of current and future challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in cyber physical systems. The literature review is focused on identifying a conceptual framework for increasing resilience with AI through automation supporting both, a technical and human level. The methodology applied resembled a...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Review, compare and critically assess digital technology responses to the COVID-19 pandemic around the world. The specific point of interest in this research is on predictive, preventive and personalized interoperable digital healthcare solutions. This point is supported by failures from the past, where the separate design of digital hea...
Preprint
Full-text available
What makes cyber risks arising from connected systems challenging during the management of a pandemic? Assuming that a variety of cyber-physical systems are already operational-collecting, analyzing, and acting on data autonomously-what risks might arise in their application to pandemic management? We already have these systems operational, collect...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this article, we conduct data mining to discover the countries, universities and companies, produced or collaborated the most research on Covid-19 since the pandemic started. We present some interesting findings, but despite analysing all available records on COVID-19 from the Web of Science Core Collection, we failed to reach any significant co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multiple governmental agencies and private organisations have made commitments for the colonisation of Mars. Such colonisation requires complex systems and infrastructure that could be very costly to repair or replace in cases of cyber-attacks. This paper surveys deep learning algorithms, IoT cyber security and risk models, and established mathemat...
Preprint
The increasingly widespread use of 'smart' devices has raised multifarious ethical concerns regarding their use in domestic spaces. Previous work examining such ethical dimensions has typically either involved empirical studies of concerns raised by specific devices and use contexts, or alternatively expounded on abstract concepts like autonomy, pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multiple governmental agencies and private organisations have made commitments for the colonisation of Mars. Such colonisation requires complex systems and infrastructure that could be very costly to repair or replace in cases of cyber-attacks. This paper surveys deep learning algorithms, IoT cyber security and risk models, and established mathemat...
Preprint
It's the year 2020, and every space and place on- and off-line has been augmented with digital things that observe, record, transmit, and compute, for the purposes of recording endless data traces of what is happening in the world. Individually, these things (and the invisible services the power them) have reached considerable sophistication in the...
Preprint
It can be difficult to critically reflect on technology that has become part of everyday rituals and routines. To combat this, speculative and fictional approaches have previously been used by HCI to decontextualise the familiar and imagine alternatives. In this work we turn to Japanese Shinto narratives as a way to defamiliarise voice assistants,...
Preprint
Connected devices in the home represent a potentially grave new privacy threat due to their unfettered access to the most personal spaces in people's lives. Prior work has shown that despite concerns about such devices, people often lack sufficient awareness, understanding, or means of taking effective action. To explore the potential for new tools...
Preprint
Full-text available
Beyond being the world's largest social network, Facebook is for many also one of its greatest sources of digital distraction. For students, problematic use has been associated with negative effects on academic achievement and general wellbeing. To understand what strategies could help users regain control, we investigated how simple interventions...
Article
Full-text available
What makes cyber risks arising from connected systems challenging during the management of a pandemic? Assuming that a variety of cyber-physical systems are already operational-collecting, analyzing, and acting on data autonomously-what risks might arise in their application to pandemic management? We already have these systems operational, collect...
Article
Full-text available
This article conducts a literature review of current and future challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in cyber physical systems. The literature review is focused on identifying a conceptual framework for increasing resilience with AI through automation supporting both, a technical and human level. The methodology applied resembled a...
Conference Paper
The concept of Social Machines has become an established lens to describe the sociotechnical systems of Web Science, and has been applied to some archetypical cyberphysical systems. In this paper we apply this lens to a larger system, the location based online augmented reality game Pokémon Go!. The contributions are an illustrative application of...
Preprint
Recent changes to data protection regulation, particularly in Europe, are changing the design landscape for smart devices, requiring new design techniques to ensure that devices are able to adequately protect users' data. A particularly interesting space in which to explore and address these challenges is the smart home, which presents a multitude...
Conference Paper
Children under 11 are often regarded as too young to comprehend the implications of online privacy. Perhaps as a result, little research has focused on younger kids' risk recognition and coping. Such knowledge is, however, critical for designing efficient safeguarding mechanisms for this age group. Through 12 focus group studies with 29 children ag...
Preprint
Many people struggle to control their use of digital devices. However, our understanding of the design mechanisms that support user self-control remains limited. In this paper, we make two contributions to HCI research in this space: first, we analyse 367 apps and browser extensions from the Google Play, Chrome Web, and Apple App stores to identify...
Preprint
Many people struggle to control their use of digital devices. However, our understanding of the design mechanisms that support user self-control remains limited. In this paper, we make two contributions to HCI research in this space: first, we analyse 367 apps and browser extensions from the Google Play, Chrome Web, and Apple App stores to identify...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper proposes that two significant and emerging problems facing our connected, data-driven society may be more effectively solved by being framed as sensemaking challenges. The first is in empowering individuals to take control of their privacy, in device-rich information environments where personal information is fed transparently to complex...
Conference Paper
Most smartphone apps collect and share information with various first and third parties; yet, such data collection practices remain largely unbeknownst to, and outside the control of, end-users. In this paper, we seek to understand the potential for tools to help people refine their exposure to third parties, resulting from their app usage. We desi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Patient-generated data, such as data from wearable fitness trackers and smartphone apps, are viewed as a valuable information source towards personalised healthcare. However, studies in specific clinical settings have revealed diverse barriers to their effective use. In this paper, we address the following question: are there barriers prevalent acr...
Conference Paper
Calls for heightened consideration of fairness and accountability in algorithmically-informed public decisions—like taxation, justice, and child protection—are now commonplace. How might designers support such human values? We interviewed 27 public sector machine learning practitioners across 5 OECD countries regarding challenges understanding and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data-driven decision-making consequential to individuals raises important questions of accountability and justice. Indeed, European law provides individuals limited rights to ‘meaningful information about the logic’ behind significant, autonomous decisions such as loan approvals, insurance quotes, and CV filtering. We undertake three studies examin...
Conference Paper
Equating users' true needs and desires with behavioural measures of 'engagement' is problematic. However, good metrics of 'true preferences' are difficult to define, as cognitive biases make people's preferences change with context and exhibit inconsistencies over time. Yet, HCI research often glosses over the philosophical and theoretical depth of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Third party tracking allows companies to identify users and track their behaviour across multiple digital services. This paper presents an empirical study of the prevalence of third-party trackers on 959,000 apps from the US and UK Google Play stores. We find that most apps contain third party tracking, and the distribution of trackers is long-tail...
Article
Full-text available
Third party tracking allows companies to identify users and track their behaviour across multiple digital services. This paper presents an empirical study of the prevalence of third-party trackers on 959,000 apps from the US and UK Google Play stores. We find that most apps contain third party tracking, and the distribution of trackers is long-tail...