Max Mulder

Max Mulder
Delft University of Technology | TU · Department of Control and Operations (C&O)

prof.dr.ir.

About

529
Publications
130,972
Reads
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6,439
Citations
Citations since 2017
144 Research Items
2884 Citations
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Introduction
Max Mulder works on manual control cybernetics and cognitive systems engineering, to support humans in controlling complex dynamic systems, such as vehicles. Applications focus on aviation, but occasionally also include automotive and maritime projects.
Additional affiliations
September 2011 - November 2011
Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Position
  • Sabbatical
February 2009 - present
Delft University of Technology
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • BSc: Instrumentation and Signals MSc: Stochastic Aerospace Systems MSc: Aerospace Human-Machine Systems
March 2006 - January 2009
Delft University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (529)
Article
Full-text available
Air traffic controller workload is considered to be a limiting factor to air traffic growth. Previous research introduced the static solution space approach to assess the difficulty of aircraft merging tasks. In this paper the dynamic, tangent-based solution space will be introduced that includes the future trajectory intent of all aircraft. Metric...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate process control through automation is the key to achieving efficient and stable operation of a blast furnace. In this study, we developed an automatic control system of hot metal temperature (HMT). To cope with the slow and complex process dynamics of the blast furnace, we constructed a control algorithm that predicts eight-hour-ahead HMT...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The introduction of more advanced automation in air traffic control seems inevitable. Air traffic controllers will then take the role of automation supervisors, a role which is generally unsuitable for humans. Gamification, the use of game elements in non-gaming contexts, shows promising results in mitigating the effects of boredom in highly automa...
Article
Full-text available
Air traffic controller workload is a limiting factor in the current air traffic management system. Adaptive support systems have the potential to balance controller workload and gain acceptance as they provide support during times of need. Challenges in the design of adaptive support systems are to decide when and how to trigger support. The goal o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the quest for more efficient air traffic management, a common approach is to allocate an increasing amount of functionality to higher levels of automation, with a supervisory role for humans. This potentially leads to forthcoming issues such as skill degradation and out-of-the-loop phenomenon. If the traffic in an airspace is instead shared betw...
Conference Paper
Mathematical human controller (HC) models are widely used in tuning manual control systems and for understanding human performance. Typically, quasi-linear HC models are used, which can accurately capture the linear portion of HCs’ behavior, averaged over a long measurement window. This paper presents a deep learning HC skill-level evaluation metho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To meet increasing safety and performance demands in air traffic control (ATC), more advanced automated systems will be introduced to assist human air traffic controllers. Some even foresee complete automation, with the human as a supervisor only to step-in when automation fails. Literature and empirical evidence suggest that supervising highly-aut...
Conference Paper
Better understanding of manual control requires more research on human anticipatory feedforward behaviour. Recent advances include a human control model for preview tracking, and a subsystem identification (SSID) technique that uses a candidate pool approach to identify the human feedforward and feedback responses. This paper discusses the performa...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the results of an experiment that was performed to verify the ‘supervisory control algorithm’, a well-known model of human operator adaptation to changes in controlled element dynamics. This model proposes that human adaptive behavior is triggered once the magnitudes of the tracking error or error rate exceed certain decision re...
Conference Paper
Without intervention the widespread adoption of autonomous vehicles could be compromised by an increased incidence of motion sickness compared to conventional cars. To investigate whether passengers’ motion sickness can be reduced by manipulating an autonomous vehicle's accelerations on a fixed route without altering the travel time, a human-out-of...
Conference Paper
Cyberneticists develop mathematical human control models which are used to tune manual control systems and understand human performance limits. Neuroscientists explore the physiology and circuitry of the central nervous system to understand how the brain works. Both research human visuomotor control tasks, such as the pursuit tracking task. In this...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For many logistics applications, such as drone delivery missions, finding an optimized network of routes yields a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). Such optimizations are mostly conducted offline prior to actual operations for reasons of computational complexity. In case disturbances arise during operations, for example a sudden loss of a vehicle, the...
Conference Paper
Mathematical human control models are widely used in tuning manual control systems and understanding human performance. Human behavior is commonly described using linear time-invariant models, averaging-out all non-linear and time-varying effects, which are gathered into the remnant. These models are limited in their capability to capture particula...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
BMW's new driving simulation center operates multiple motion-base simulators-each with a different kinematic configuration-to serve various experiment use-cases and requirements of simulator users. The selection of a simulator for each experiment should ideally be based on their relative strengths and weaknesses. To support this decision-making pro...
Article
Full-text available
To achieve the automation of blast furnace operation, an automatic control system for hot metal temperature (HMT) was developed. Nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) which predicts up to ten-hour-ahead HMT and calculates appropriate control actions of pulverized coal rate (PCR) was constructed. Simulation validation showed that the NMPC algori...
Article
Full-text available
The use of driving simulators for training and for development of new vehicles is widely spread in the automotive industry. In the last decade, a few motorcycle riding simulators have been developed for similar purposes, with focus on maneuvering at high speed. This article presents the subjective and objective evaluation of a motorcycle riding sim...
Article
The power required to hover a helicopter is fundamental to any new or modified performance flight-testing effort. The conventional method of relating two nondimensional variables (coefficients of power and weight) is overly simplified and neglects compressibility effects in the power required to hover under a wide range of gross weights and atmosph...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the effects of different automation design philosophies for a helicopter navigation task. A baseline navigation display is compared with two more advanced systems: an advisory display, which provides a discrete trajectory suggestion; and a constraint-based display, which provides information about the set of possible traject...
Preprint
Full-text available
When coupled with additional degrees of freedom, centrifuge-based motion platforms can combine the agility of hexapod-based platforms with the ability to sustain higher G-levels and an extended motion space, required for simulating extreme maneuvers. However, the false and often nauseating sensations of rotation, by Coriolis effects induced by the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
View Video Presentation: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-2448.vid Improved understanding of human adaptation can be used to design better (semi-)automated systems that can support the human controller when task characteristics suddenly change. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a model-based adaptive control technique, Model Reference Adaptiv...
Conference Paper
Sectorless air traffic management (or flight-centric ATC as it is known in the SESAR context) is a novel concept that restructures the airspace to make better use of the human controller as a resource. Currently investigations on the introduction of a team concept for sectorless air traffic management is being conducted. As part of this team concep...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When designing driving simulation experiments with motion cueing, it is often necessary to make choices between Motion Cueing Algorithms (MCAs) without being fully able to know how well an MCA will perform during the experiment. Choices between MCAs can therefore be greatly supported by previous measurements or predictions of motion cueing quality....
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the effects of the helicopter dynamics on pilots’ learning process and transfer of learned skills during autorotation training. A quasi-transfer-of-training experiment was performed with 14 experienced helicopter pilots in a moving-base flight simulator. Two types of helicopter dynamics, characterized by a different autorotative...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Training has the potential to inject a "safety vaccination" into the rotorcraft community by reducing the number of accidents. The term training should not be intended only in a strict sense, i.e., as pilot technical skills training, but more broadly as risk avoidance and safety culture training. As in the case of vaccination , where immunity is cr...
Article
Full-text available
Current aircraft flight deck interfaces do not provide information on how a performance-altering failure constrains an aircraft’s flight envelope. As a result, it is difficult for flight crews to plan maneuvers in order to reach navigation targets. This study presents the results of the conceptual development of constraint-based interface symbology...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the interaction effects of motion filter order and break frequency on pilots’ manual control behavior and control performance using two simulators. Eighteen pilots performed the experiment in the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center and 20 pilots in the SIMONA Research Simulator at Delft University of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Allocation is a challenge for higher levels of automation in air traffic control, where flights can be dynamically assigned to either a human or an automated agent. Through an exploratory experiment with six professional air traffic controllers, insight was gained into the possibilities and challenges of human-automation teamwork in an en-route env...
Article
Full-text available
Eigenmode distortion is a novel quantitative methodology developed to objectively evaluate motion cueing fidelity in flight simulation. It relies on an explicit coupling of linearized vehicle and Motion Cueing Algorithm dynamics. Modal analysis subsequently performed on this coupled system reveals the degree of distortion imposed by the Motion Cuei...
Article
Full-text available
Modern aircraft can be equipped with a flight envelope protection system: automation which modifies pilot control inputs to ensure that the aircraft remains within the allowable limits. Overruling the pilot inputs may lead to mode confusion, even when visual or auditory feedback is provided to alert pilots. We advocate using active control devices...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the effect of employing different display design principles for human–machine interaction in helicopters. Two obstacle avoidance support displays are evaluated during low-altitude forward flight. A baseline head-up display is complemented either by a conventional advisory display or a constraint-based display inspired by eco...
Conference Paper
Linear mixed-effects models provide several benefits over more traditional statistical inference tests and are particularly useful for most human-in-the-loop tracking experiment data. However, surprisingly, mixed models are virtually not used for the analysis of tracking experiment data. This paper uses linear mixed-effects models to analyze combin...
Conference Paper
In-flight non-normal events can be rather taxing for a flight crew. Numerous tasks, often competing for attention, need to be handled adequately after which, the best plan of action for the remainder of the flight needs to be determined. In the light of recent developments towards reduced crew operations, the demand for reducing workload has become...
Conference Paper
Non-normal event resolution in-flight can be challenging on the flight crew with increased time pressure, workload, stress. Other competing tasks impose a risk on flight safety and burdens the decision-making process. Pilots rely on checklists to aid in their effort, which in its state-of-the-art form are presented on the dedicated Electronic Check...
Conference Paper
The Perceptual Eigenmode Distortion (PEMD), an extension to the Eigenmode Distortion (EMD), is a method for objectively evaluating simulator motion fidelity, developed over the last few years. EMD assesses how the Motion Cueing Algorithm (MCA) distorts the vehicle's perceived eigenmodes. In this paper, EMD is extended by a human perception model, w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ground-based demonstration of spatial disorientation (SD) has been recommended for military as well as commercial pilot training. Although the leans illusion is the most common form of SD, no data exist yet of an effective ground-based leans procedure for a hexapod simulator. In this paper we describe the development of such a procedure and its tun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Modern aircraft use a variety of fly-by-wire control devices and combine these with a flight envelope protection system to limit pilot control inputs when approaching the aircraft limits. The current research project aims to increase pilot awareness of such a protection system through the use of force feedback on the control device, i.e., haptics....
Article
Full-text available
Objective. We tested whether a procedure in a hexapod simulator can cause incorrect assumptions of the bank angle (i.e., the “leans”) in airline pilots as well as incorrect interpretations of the attitude indicator (AI). Background. The effect of the leans on interpretation errors has previously been demonstrated in nonpilots. In-flight, incorrect...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the impact of aircraft speed heterogeneity on air traffic operation is crucial for airspace design and air traffic flow management. Speed heterogeneity (or aircraft mix) is recognized as a causal factor for complexity in air traffic operations, through qualitative or statistical analysis. Quantitative metrics on how it affects current...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Motion cueing algorithm design often involves a trade-off between priorities due to the limited workspace of the simulator. Such a trade-off requires a detailed understanding of human perception, which we do not yet have. For that reason, objective motion cueing quality metrics, based on the difference between vehicle and simulator signals, offer a...
Article
Full-text available
Air traffic controller workload is considered to be a limiting factor for further air traffic growth. To reduce workload, increased automation levels and novel decision-support tools are being investigated. This Paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of a previously developed interface, called the Solution Space Diagram, in a route merging t...
Article
Full-text available
Humans can rapidly change their low-frequency arm dynamics to resist forces or give way to them. Quantifying driver time-varying arm dynamics is important to develop steer-by-wire and haptic support systems. Conventional linear time-invariant (LTI) identification, and even time-varying techniques such as wavelets, fail to capture fast changing dyna...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mnemonic-type startle and surprise procedures were previously proposed to help pilots cope with startle and surprise in-flight, but effects on performance after procedure execution have not yet been investigated. Objective Thus, we tested the effectiveness a new mnemonic-type procedure in a moving-base simulator with a non-linear model...
Article
The process of empirical models evaluation is at the core business of experimental flight-testing data analysis. Accurate and convenient flight-testing of helicopter engine(s) available power is crucial for predicting the total helicopter performance. Common practice in estimation of in-flight helicopter gas turbine engine power consists of a reduc...
Article
Full-text available
Limitations of a haptic device can cause distortions of the force feedback it presents. Just-noticeable difference (JND) in system dynamics is important for creating transparent haptic interaction. Based on the previous work, this paper presents a unified model that extends the existing JND rule. Our approach projects the JNDs in the mechanical pro...
Article
Several modern aircraft use a passive control manipulator: a spring–damper system that generates command signals to the flight control computers in combination with a flight envelope protection system that limits pilot inputs when approaching the aircraft limits. This research project aims to increase pilot awareness of this protection system throu...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies show that pilots sometimes make roll reversal errors (RREs) when responding to the aircraft bank angle shown on the attitude indicator (AI). This is suggestive of a perceptual ambiguity in the AI. In the current study, we investigated whether expectation contributes to such misperception. Twenty nonpilots performed tasks in a fixed...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the design and evaluation of a visual display in supplementing haptic feedback on the side stick as a way to communicate flight envelope boundaries to pilots. The design adds indications for the limits in airspeed, load factor, angle of attack and angle of bank to a standard Airbus primary flight display (PFD). The indications...
Article
Full-text available
The 1960s crossover model is widely applied to quantitatively predict a human controller’s (HC’s) manual control behavior. Unfortunately, the theory captures only compensatory tracking behavior and, as such, a limited range of real-world manual control tasks. This article finalizes recent advances in manual control theory toward more general pursui...
Article
Full-text available
Novel driver support systems potentially enhance road safety by cooperating with the human driver. To optimize the design of emerging steering support systems, a profound understanding of driver steering behavior is required. This article proposes a new theory of driver steering, which unifies visual perception and control models. The theory is der...
Chapter
The purpose of human-machine systems design is to develop interfaces and automation tools which support human operators in performing effective, efficient and safe work. An important prerequisite for the latter is that operators understand the process under control, are aware of what is happening, and have sufficient means to act on the process app...
Article
Full-text available
Drivers rely on a variety of cues from different modalities while steering, but which exact cues are most important and how these different cues are used is still mostly unclear. The goal of our research project is to increase understanding of driver steering behavior; through a measuring and modeling approach we aim to extend the validity of McRue...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Head-down hover displays and instrument panels theoretically provide all necessary flight data information to control low-speed helicopter manoeuvring. However, past experiments have shown that head-down displays can incur high workload, control instability, and even loss of control when used as the sole flight data source. This paper investigates...