Max Semenovich Barash

Max Semenovich Barash
P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology · Department of Geology

Professor of Marine Geology, D

About

153
Publications
21,123
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352
Citations
Citations since 2017
11 Research Items
83 Citations
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Introduction
Max Semenovich Barash currently works at the Department of Geology, P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology. Max does research in Oceanography and Geoscience. Their current project is 'Influence of abiotic factors on the evolution of marine biota during the Phanerozoic'. For a long time he had previously worked on the problems of the Neogene mainly Quaternary paleoceanology on the basis of the study of foraminifera and other microfossils
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
January 2012 - present
Education
August 1952 - August 1957
Lomonosov Moscow State University
Field of study
  • Geology, Micropaleontology, Stratigraphy, Paleoceanography

Publications

Publications (153)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Consideration of the spatio-temporal relationships of the main factors determining the state and evolution of biota allows us to identify the root causes (“triggers”) of sudden changes and subsequent events, which ultimately created unfavorable or destructive environmental conditions of oxygen deficiency. Such root causes include powerful eruptions...
Article
Full-text available
Russian foraminiferal research began in the late 19 th century and has continued to the present. Micropaleontology was prominent at two main branches of Soviet research institutions , that in St. Petersburg, known as the Petersbur-gian (Leningrad) and in Moscow as the Russian foraminiferal school. These two collaborated in well-coordinated cooperat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mass extinctions were caused by powerful volcanism, asteroid impacts and, probably, changes in the frequency of geomagnetic inversions. These factors acted within close time intervals. This gives reason to believe that they are coherent, interconnected, by a common root cause of a higher order, located outside the solar system.
Article
Full-text available
Maria Vasilyevna Klenova: Science and Life Professor M.V.Klenova (1898–1976) was the founder of Russian marine geology, the first professional marine geologist. Her fundamental monograph “Geology of the Sea” (1948) is still relevant. Starting from work in the Barents Sea on the legendary ship Perseus (1925) and to work in 1972 on the ship Vityaz,...
Article
Full-text available
Ideas about the geomagnetic field's influence on evolution and biodiversity are controversial. The quantitative distribution of datum levels of oceanic microplankton during the last 2.0 Ma shows a correlation with geomagnetic reversals. A decrease in field intensity increases cosmic irradiation of the Earth's surface, which can activate mutagenesis...
Article
Full-text available
The micropaleontological study (radiolarians and foraminifera) of the sediment core AMK-340, Reykjanes Ridge, North Atlantic, combined with the radiocarbon dating and oxygen and carbon isotopic record, provided data for the reconstruction of the summer paleotemperature across the upper 100 meters water depth range, and paleoenvironments during the...
Article
Full-text available
Earthly life arose and developed in the environment of the geomagnetic field, which shields the Earth from the "solar wind" and preserves the atmosphere. The geomagnetic field is continuously changing. Its tension fluctuates, the poles move, sometimes up to a complete reversal of polarity (inversions). With the weakening of the field tension, it is...
Preprint
Full-text available
The micropaleontological study (radiolarians and foraminifera) of the sediment core AMK-340, Reykjanes Ridge, North Atlantic, combined with the radiocarbon dating and Oxygen/Carbon isotopic record, provided data for the reconstruction of the summer paleotemperature on the water depth of 100 m, and paleoenvironments during the Termination I in the a...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of changes in the geomagnetic field on the evolution of organisms is multifaceted. Lowering of the field strength increases cosmic irradiation of the Earth's surface, which can activate mutagenesis leading to speciation. Since the correlation of the geomagnetic field intensity with the composition of the atmosphere, temperature, clima...
Article
Full-text available
During the Late Devonian extinction, 70–82% of all marine species disappeared. The main causes of this mass extinction include tectonic activity, climate and sea-level fluctuations, volcanism, and the collision of the Earth with cosmic bodies (impact events). The major causes are considered to be volcanism accompanying formation of the Viluy traps...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Changes in the geomagnetic field are elements of a complex system of all environmental changes (volcanism, climate, consequences of Impact events, etc.), which lead to extinctions and stimulate evolution. The cause of geomagnetic changes is probably the excitation of mantle activity. Mantle plumes through a long time appear on the surface of the Ea...
Article
Full-text available
The second of the five great mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic occurred in the Late Devonian. The number of species decreased by 70–82%. Major crises occurred at the Frasnian–Famennian and Devonian–Carboniferous boundary. The lithological and geochemical compositions of sediments, volcanic deposits, impactites, carbon and oxygen isotope ratios, e...
Research
Full-text available
Paleotemp[erature maps for the Last Interglacial of the Northern Hemisphere
Article
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In the interval of the Triassic–Jurassic boundary, 80% of the marine species became extinct. Four main hypotheses about the causes of this mass extinction are considered: volcanism, climatic oscillations, sea level variations accompanied by anoxia, and asteroid impact events. The extinction was triggered by an extensive flooding of basalts in the C...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geological evidences of changes in environmental conditions in the Late Devonian are considered which led to a catastrophic loss of biodiversity of marine organisms. They are similar to the changes that caused other great mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic. Two main successions of events have developed: terrestrial, resulting in powerful volcanism...
Book
Full-text available
The basic empirical data on global biotic catastrophes during the Phanerozoic were considered. Hypotheses about the abiotic causes of "great mass extinctions," when marine biodiversity was reduced by more than 75%, were critically analyzed. There are five great extinctions: Ordovician (542 Ma), Devonian (two phases, 372 and 359 Ma), Permian (251 Ma...
Article
Full-text available
In the interval of the Triassic–Jurassic boundary up to 80% of marine species became extinct. The main hypotheses on the causes of this mass extinction are reviewed. The extinction was triggered by a power� ful eruption of basalts in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. In addition, several impact craters have been found. Extraterrestrial factor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Общим условием для великих массовых вымираний была комбинация импакт- событий и обширного вулканизма. Сочетание этих воздействий было наиболее катастро- фическим. Вулканизм и импакт-события вызывают сходные последствия. В обоих случаях в атмосферу выбрасываются вредные химические элементы и аэрозоли. Возникают парни- ковый эффект, потепление, затем...
Article
Full-text available
In the interval of the Triassic–Jurassic boundary up to 80% of marine species became extinct. Themain hypotheses on the causes of this mass extinction are reviewed. The extinction was triggered by a power�ful eruption of basalts in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province. In addition, several impact craters havebeen found. Extraterrestrial factors r...
Article
Full-text available
The terminal Ordovician was marked by one of five great mass extinction events of the Phanero� zoic (445.6–443.0 Ma ago), when up to 86% of the marine species became extinct. The rapid onset of the continental glaciation on Gondwana determined by its position in the South Pole area; the cooling; the hydrodynamic changes through the entire water col...
Article
Full-text available
The conditions of mass extinction at the boundary of the Ordovician and the Silurian are different from those of the other four great mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic. Although all of the major factors leading to other cases of mass extinctions also took place: the sea level fluctuations and climate variations, volcanism and impact events that c...
Chapter
Full-text available
Considering the development of biota in relation to changing abiotic factors shows that long intervals without sharp environmental changes, under transgression, active hydrodynamics, and a diversity of ecological niches, favor increases in the biodiversity of organisms. The reduction of biota is caused by quick changes in conditions, especially by...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract—The terminal Ordovician was marked by one of five great mass extinction events of the Phanero� zoic (445.6–443.0 Ma ago), when up to 86% of the marine species became extinct. The rapid onset of the continental glaciation on Gondwana determined by its position in the South Pole area; the cooling; the hydrodynamic changes through the entire...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract—The terminal Ordovician was marked by one of five great mass extinction events of the Phanero� zoic (445.6–443.0 Ma ago), when up to 86% of the marine species became extinct. The rapid onset of the continental glaciation on Gondwana determined by its position in the South Pole area; the cooling; the hydrodynamic changes through the entire...
Article
Full-text available
The consideration of the conditions during the mass extinctions has shown that a series of factors, including mutually independent tectonic movements, variations in the sea level and climate, volcanism, asteroid impacts, changes in the composition of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the dimming of the atmosphere by aerosols at volcanism and impact e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Two main successions of events that caused the great mass extinctions of marine organisms in the Phanerozoic have developed on the Earth, likely under the influence of changes in the orbital motion of the Solar System around the center of the Milky Way: terrestrial, resulting in powerful volcanism, and extraterrestrial, connected with falls of larg...
Chapter
Full-text available
At the end of the Permian, at the boundary of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic (251,0 ± 0,4 million years ago) was the largest mass death of organisms in Earth's history. Up to 96% of species of marine invertebrates and about 70% of terrestrial vertebrates died out. For an explanation of mass death there are suggested and joining justified many factors:...
Article
Full-text available
The consideration of the conditions during the mass extinctions has shown that a series of factors, including mutually independent tectonic movements, variations in the sea level and climate, volcanism, asteroid impacts, changes in the composition of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the dimming of the atmo� sphere by aerosols at volcanism and impact...
Article
Full-text available
238 At the end of the Permian, at the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic (~251 Ma), the largest mass mortality of organisms in the Earth's history occurred. Up to 96% of the marine invertebrates became extinct. The biodiversity decreased from ~250 thousand species to less than 10 thousand. In addition, ~70% of the species of terrestrial ve...
Article
Full-text available
Two main successions of events have devel� oped on the Earth, likely under the influence of changes in the orbital motion of the Solar System around the center of the Milky Way:both volcanism and impact events lead to similar consequences. In both cases, toxic chemical elements and aerosols are ejected into the atmosphere to produce the green� hous...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
At the end of the Permian, at the Paleozoic–Mesozoic boundary (251.0 ± 0.4 Ma ago) there was the largest in the Earth history mass extinction of organisms. About 96% of oceanic species became extinct. As the reasons of biota extinction many factors are proposed. Volcanism and bolide impact events are the main ones. The synchronous variation in many...
Thesis
Full-text available
Paleozoic apocalypse: what causes? Barash M.S. P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Nakhimovskii, 36, Moscow, 117997, Russia barashms@yandex.ru On the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary, 251.0±0.4 Ma, there was the largest in history of the Earth mass extinction of organisms. The end-Permian mass extinction eliminated...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The analysis of the materials available leads to one of the most important inferences that all the terrestrial processes, the biospheric included, develop in close and continuous relation with the extraterrestrial processes that occur beyond the solar system in the space to which our planet belongs (crossing by the Sun of spiral galactic sleeves, i...
Presentation
Full-text available
Abiotic events (volcanism, climatic changes, sea level fluctuations, asteroid impacts, etc.) are discussed as causes of the mass extinction. The presence in intervals of sharp changes in biota’s development of several abiotic events, the cause-effect relation between which is unknown or expressly absent, gives us grounds to believe that large-scale...
Article
Full-text available
The mass death of organisms at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KT boundary) resulted in the extinction of approximately half of marine genera. Some taxa had degraded by the end of the Cretaceous to become eventually extinct either before or precisely at the KT boundary. Most of them became extinct immediately at this boundary. The terminal Cretac...
Article
Full-text available
At the end of the Permian, at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary (251.0 ± 0.4 Ma ago), 96% of oceanic organisms became extinct. The extinction lasted three million years, but the most intense and abrupt event was 251.4 Ma ago. A series of more or less substantiated hypotheses was suggested to explain this catastrophe: anoxia, higher CO2 and H2S conten...
Article
Full-text available
Among the abiotic factors that determined via the paleoceanographic processes development and evolution of the oceanic biota in the Neogene, noteworthy are the tectonic, volcanic, climatic and extraterrestrial events. The most important tectonic events of such kind include the subsidence of the Faroe-Iceland Threshold 14–13 Ma ago, the closure of t...
Chapter
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В настоящей работе представлены наиболее существенные результаты по биостратиграфии четвертичных отложений и палеоокеанологическим реконструкциям, полученные авторами в течение 2006-2008 гг. Все микропалеонтологические исследования, включая отбор проб для изотопно­ кислородного и изотопно-углеродного анализов, выполнены авторами данной работы. Биос...
Article
Full-text available
Climate fluctuations with the optimum in the Early Eocene and subsequent cooling were the main abiotic factor that controlled the development of the oceanic biota in the Paleogene. The Paleogene represented the transitional stage from the greenhouse climate of the Mesozoic to the partly glacial Neogene and was characterized by changes in the distri...
Article
Full-text available
An analysis of the biota evolution during the Mesozoic in response to abiotic factors shows that the most important among them are the climate, sea-level position, dynamics and structure of the water column, its chemistry, volcanism, tectonics (horizontal and vertical movements of lithospheric blocks), and collision of the earth with astronomical b...
Chapter
Full-text available
Consideration of the ocean biota development in connection with changes of abiotic factors shows that longer intervals without sharp changes in the environment, in terms of transgression, the active hydrodynamics and variety of ecological niches help to increase of biodiversity and the number of organisms. The biota reduction is caused by rapid cha...
Article
Full-text available
Benthic foraminifera are investigated in sediment core LV28-34-2 (53°51.971′N, 146°47.499′E, sea depth 1431 m, core length 965 cm). The distribution of foraminifera is studied in coarse-grained (>0.125 mm) sediment fractions of 191 samples taken with a step of 5 cm. The core covers the interval from oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 6 up to the Holocene....
Chapter
Full-text available
Рассмотрение развития биоты в связи с изменениями абиотических факторов показывает, что дпитель­ ные интервалы без резких изменений среды, в условиях трансгрессии, активной гидродинамики и разнообра­зия экологических ниш способствуют увеличению биоразнообразия и количества организмов. Сокращение биоты вызывается быстрым изменением условий, особенно...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution of diatoms, radiolarians, planktonic and benthic foraminifers, and sediment components in the fraction >0.125 mm was analyzed in the core obtained from the central Sea of Okhotsk within the frameworks of the Russian-German KOMEX project. The core section characterizes the period 190–350 ka, which corresponds to marine-isotopic stag...
Article
Full-text available
An analysis of the biota development in response to the changing abiotic factors shows that long relatively stable periods of transgression, high-energy hydrodynamics, and diverse ecological niches are favorable for a growth of biodiversity and the abundance of organisms. Biota reduction is determined by sharp environmental changes, particularly by...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution of diatoms, radiolarians, planktonic and benthic foraminifera, and large-grain components in the sediment fraction of >0.125 mm was analyzed in the sediment core obtained from the central Sea of Okhotsk within the framework of the Russian-German project KOMEX. We studied in detail the time interval of 190-350 ka or marine oxygen is...
Data
Distribution of diatoms, radiolarians, planktonic and benthic foraminifers, and sediment components in fraction >0.125 mm was analyzed in a core obtained from the central Sea of Okhotsk within frameworks of the Russian-German KOMEX Project. The core section characterizes the period 190-350 ka, which corresponds to marine-isotopic stages (MIS) 7 to...
Article
Full-text available
Benthic foraminifera were studied in 117 sediment samples from a 1112-cm-long core obtained from the Kamchatka continental slope (52°02.514′ N, 153°05.949′ E) at a sea depth of 684 m. The section covers the last 180 ky, from marine isotopic stage (MIS) 6 to the present time. The substantial quantitative and taxonomic changes in the assemblages of b...
Article
Full-text available
In a 1116-cm-long sediment core from the Kamchatka continental slope (sea depth 684 m), the distribution of planktonic foraminifera and the proportions of the main components (terrigenous grains, volcanic ashes, siliceous microfossils (diatoms and radiolarians), planktonic and benthic foraminifera) in the grain-size fraction greater than 0.125 mm w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
About multivariate paleoceanographic reconstructions by the micropaleontological data Opportunities and restrictions of reconstructions by the micropaleontological data, problems of chronological accuracy, synchronism both metachroneity of paleoceanographic and paleobiogeographical events and processes, ambiguity of interpretation are considered....
Article
Full-text available
Results of a complex micropaleontological research of the samples obtained from a test area on the North Yamato Rise are presented. Radiolarians, diatoms, and palynocomplexes were examined. Neogene deposits from the beginning of the Middle Miocene to the end of the Late Miocene were identified. Coastal, shelf, and slope deposits were recognized wit...
Article
Full-text available
Climatic stratigraphy in a sediment core (58°44.4' N, 27° 17.3' W, water depth 2155 m, core length 460 cm) on the basis of radiocarbon, oxygen isotope, and lithological data is established for an interval of about 145 ky. The method of factor analysis and spline interpolation applied to the data on the distribution of plank¬tonic foraminiferal spec...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we apply the mechanism of a near-bottom tsunami in the open ocean to explain the paradoxical location of massive ferromanganese nodules at the surface of sediments of different ages. These tsunamis are generated by the strongest (M > 7.5) earthquakes in the Central American seismic zone and propagate in the near-bottom water layer (30...
Article
Full-text available
During the expeditionary studies of the sedimentary cover at two test sites within the Clarion-Clipperton Province, an erosional cut of the Tertiary sediments was observed and paradoxical bedding of massive ancient manganese nodules over the sediment surface of different ages right up to the recent ones was recognized. The explanations available fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Micropaleontological investigations in two survey areas show that Tertiary outcrops of different ages are distributed on the bottom surface or under a thin layer of Quaternary sediments. The continuous sediment sequence from the Late Eocene to the Early Miocene (40-17 million years) and the regional hiatus between 17 and 1 million years were reveal...
Article
Full-text available
Paleoceanography of the Central Part of the Sea of Okhotsk over the Past 200 ky (on the Basis of Micropaleontological Data) M. S. Barash, N. V. Bubenshchikova, G. Kh. Kazarina, and T. A. Khusid Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia_ ■ Received November 20, 2000 Abstract—The distribution of diatoms and plankto...
Chapter
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Гидрологические условия центральной части Охотского моря, обусловленные наличием дихотермадьной структуры верхней части водной толщи в течение теплых интервалов оптимума межледниковья и голоцена, подавляют развитие "мелководных" и "среднеrлубинных " видов. Они не моrут развиваться в условиях резкой сезонной изменчивости температуры и других парамет...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Planktonic foraminifers and diatoms were studied in the core obtained on the southeast slope of the Institute of Oceanology Rise. The studied core represents about 190 Kyr of sedimentation. Foraminifera and diatom data made it possible to evaluate paleoceanographic conditions of the upper water layer from the Penultimate continental Glaciation to t...
Article
Full-text available
The area studied is characterized by a regional stratigraphic gap from the early Miocene up to the Quaternary. Deposits from the late Eocene to the early Miocene were revealed at the bottom surface or under a thin sedimentary cover. Ferromanganese nodules, mostly of the Oligocene age, are deposited over the surface layers of the Tertiary or Quatern...
Article
Full-text available
The area is characterized by regional stratigraphic hiatus from the Early Miocene up to the Quaternary. Numerous manganese nodules mostly of the Oligocene age are located on a bottom surface on Tertiary or Quaternary deposits. Detailed micropaleontological research of a block of ancient dense clay covered by the manganese crust is carried out. Radi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The radiolarian complexes were investigated in sediments, in manganese nodules located on the bottom surface mainly on a thin layer of the Quaternary sediments, and in sediment covered by manganese crust. A continuous sequence of radiolarian biostratigraphic zones from the Late Eocene to the Early Miocene (40-17 million years) and a regional hiatus...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of the approaches and methods for reconstruction of paleoenvironmental conditions from microfossils contained in bottom sediments is assessed. The authors elaborated a new actualistic basis for such reconstructions, consisting of a database on the content of the tests of planktonic foraminifers in the surface layer of the Atlantic Oce...
Article
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Reconstruction of paleohydrological parameters (temperatures, salinity, and density) of the North Atlantic upper water layer down to some hundred thousands years was made. Possibilities of two methods is demonstrated.
Article
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Foraminiferal assemblages and radiocarbon dates from three cores collected in the western Woodlark Basin and one from the Manus Basin have provided information on late Quaternary sedimentation rates and characteristics of water masses. In the western Woodlark Basin, where turbidites and slumps are present, sedimentation rates vary from a few tens o...
Article
Full-text available
Radiolaria were studied in 19 manganese nodules raised from the bottom. The nodules occurred mainly on the surface of thin Quaternary sediments covering the Tertiary deposits of various ages (Middle Eocene to Early Miocene). Radiolaria in nodule cores and in inner and surface layers were studied. We found 85 radiolaria species and groups of species...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Tertiary sediments were found in two areas on the bottom surface or under a thin layer of the Quaternary sediments. Combined investigations into radiolaria, diatoms and planktonic foraminifera have shown a continuous sequence of biostratigraphic zones from the Late Eocene to the Early Miocene and the regional hiatus between 17 and 1 m.y. The Ea...
Chapter
Full-text available
The modem understanding of the Quaternary oceanic sediments stratigraphy is discussed in terms of climatostratigraphic methods (the rations between the relatively cold-water and warm-water species, micropaleontologic paleotemperature analysis based on the structure of the planktonic foraminifera thanatocoenoses, oxygen isotope method) and biostrati...
Data
Radiolaria were studied in 19 manganese nodules raised from the bottom. The nodules occurred mainly on the surface of thin Quaternary sediments covering Tertiary deposits of various ages (Middle Eocene to Early Miocene). Radiolaria in nodule cores and in inner and surface layers were studied. We found 85 radiolaria species and groups of species. Us...
Article
Full-text available
. Investigations of radiolaria, diatoms, and planktic foraminifera showed that Tertiary outcrops are distributed on the bottom or under a thin layer of Quaternary sediments. The continuous sequence of radiolarian biostratigraphic zones from the Late Eocene to the Early Miocene (40-17 million years) and the regional hiatus between 17 and 1 million y...
Chapter
Full-text available
По соотношению видов планктонных фораминифер выявлены коле¬бания среднегодовой температуры поверхностной воды за последние 30 тыс. лет. Амплитуда колебаний температуры в Западном Вудларке составляет около 3°С, а в котловине Манус около 4,5*С. Эти амплитуды выше, чем по данным предыдущих исследований в соседних акваториях, и приближаются к температу...
Article
Full-text available
Developed is the complex procedure for reconstructing marine biota productivity in the geological past. The reconstruction of the Atlantic Ocean water productivity have been carried out for 18—20 kA and 125—130 kA ago. It is shown that the water productivity of the Atlantic Ocean naturally changed with changing mean global temperature: so, during t...
Article
Full-text available
Developed is the complex procedure for reconstructing marine biota productivity in the geological past. The reconstruction of the Atlantic Ocean water productivity have been carried out for 18—20 kA and 125—130 kA ago. It is shown that the water productivity of the Atlantic Ocean naturally changed with changing mean global temperature: so, during t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Рассмотрено распределение видов планктонных фораминифер в поверхностном слое осадков Мирового океана, связь распределения с температурой воды. Выделены танатоценозы - субполярные, умеренные, субтропические, тропические и экваториально-тропический. Показан метод реконструкции палеотемператур по танатоценозам планктнных фораминифер.
Chapter
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На основании распределения микрофоссилий (фораминифер, кокколитофорид, радиолярий, диатомей) в современных, четвертичных и неогеновых отложениях океанов, а также с учетом обширной другой информации (тектонической, геофизической, геохимической и пр.) рассмотрена глобальная палеоокеанологическая эволюция.
Chapter
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The paper discusses possibilities and limitations of basic recent stratigraphic methods applied for Quaternary oceanic sediments: paleomagnetic, climatostratigraphic (oxygen-isotope, micropaleontological - "paleoclimatic" and paleotemperature methods) and biostratigraphic ones. Precision of stratigraphic estimations depends on sediments age: from h...
Chapter
Full-text available
We describe the main features of the Atlantic Quaternary paleooceanology. Paleoecology of planktonic foraminifera Is considered. The environmental conditions during the last interglacial intervals, the last glaciation, deglaciation and the Holocene are reconstructed. Diachronism of the biostratigraphic and climatostratigraphic levels described. Pa...

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