Mauro Rubino

Mauro Rubino
Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli · Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica

PhD

About

75
Publications
17,035
Reads
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2,294
Citations
Citations since 2017
15 Research Items
1307 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - present
Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli
Position
  • Researcher
March 2012 - May 2013
CSIRO, Aspendale, Australia
Position
  • Researcher
October 2008 - March 2012
University of Copenhagen
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (75)
Conference Paper
The future response of the Antarctic ice sheet to rising temperatures remains highly uncertain. A useful period for assessing the sensitivity of Antarctica to warming is the Last Interglacial (LIG) (129 to 116 ky), which experienced warmer polar temperatures and higher global mean sea level (GMSL) (+6 to 11 m) relative to present day. LIG sea level...
Article
Full-text available
The Southern Ocean occupies 14% of the Earth’s surface and plays a fundamental role in the global carbon cycle and climate. It provides a direct connection to the deep ocean carbon reservoir through biogeochemical processes that include surface primary productivity, remineralization at depth and the upwelling of carbon-rich water masses. However, t...
Poster
Full-text available
The formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) within the Weddell Sea Embayment (WSE) plays a major role in the Southern Ocean circulation and its interaction with the global climate system. Increasing importance is attributed to AABW in moderating the Earth's heat and carbon flux. However, historic trends in AABW formation are not well understood...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Southern Ocean plays a fundamental role in regulating global atmospheric CO2 levels, yet the underlying processes and feedbacks that control the carbon cycle during climate transitions remain unclear. Following the Last Glacial Termination (LGT), the rapid rise in atmospheric CO2 was interrupted by an enigmatic 1,900-year plateau during a perio...
Poster
The Southern Ocean plays a fundamental role in regulating global atmospheric CO2 levels, yet the underlying processes and feedbacks that control carbon cycle during climate transitions remain unclear. Following the last glacial, the rapid and punctuated rise in atmospheric CO2 was interrupted by an enigmatic 1,900-year plateau during a period of pr...
Poster
The Weddell Sea Embayment (WSE) drains some 20% of the ice-mass of continental Antarctica, including sectors of the East and West Antarctic ice sheets and the Antarctic Peninsula, and plays a major role in the global ocean-climate system. Unfortunately, the WSE suffers from a relative dearth of records, limiting our understanding of multi-decadal t...
Presentation
The Last Interglacial (130 to 116 thousand years ago) is widely considered to have been warmer than today, but the timing and contribution of Antarctica to global sea level rise during this period remains uncertain. Here we report a new highly-resolved blue ice record close to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding line that implies high-latitude o...
Presentation
Reconstructing the dynamic response of the Antarctic ice sheets to warming during the Last Glacial Termination (LGT; 18,000–11,650 yrs ago) allows us to disentangle ice-climate feedbacks that are key to improving future projections. Whilst the sequence of events during this period is reasonably well known, relatively poor chronological control has...
Article
This study describes the tests carried out to measure the isotopic composition of Boron (B) in water samples by use of the magnetic spectrometer and accelerator of the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) of Italy. B was extracted from water samples to obtain Boric acid (B(OH)3), which was then analyzed. We qu...
Article
Full-text available
RATIONALE Past climate has always influenced human adaptation to the environment. In order to reconstruct palaeoclimate fluctuations and their role in the evolution of Near Eastern societies during the mid‐Holocene, high‐resolution Δ¹³C records from fossil wood remains at the archaeological site of Arslantepe (eastern Turkey) have been developed....
Article
Atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations are at unprecedented, record-high levels compared to the last 800 000 years. Those elevated GHG concentrations warm the planet and - partially offset by net cooling effects by aerosols - are largely responsible for the observed warming over the past 150 years. An accurate representation of GHG concent...
Article
Full-text available
Reconstructing the dynamic response of the Antarctic ice sheets to warming during the Last Glacial Termination (LGT; 18,000–11,650 yrs ago) allows us to disentangle ice-climate feedbacks that are key to improving future projections. Whilst the sequence of events during this period is reasonably well-known, relatively poor chronological control has...
Article
Full-text available
The knowledge of the mechanisms regulating the concentration of nutrients in rivers is of fundamental importance in maintaining the ecological functioning of streams. In particular, in the riverbed sediments, where the biogeochemical activity is enhanced, the study of retention mechanisms becomes crucial in order to determine the restoring capacity...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are at unprecedented, record-high levels compared to pre-industrial reconstructions over the last 800,000 years. Those elevated greenhouse gas concentrations warm the planet and together with net cooling effects by aerosols, they are the reason of observed climate change over the past 150 years. An accurate...
Article
Full-text available
Palaeoatmospheric records of carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) obtained from polar ice cores provide important constraints on the natural variability of the carbon cycle. However, the measurements are both analytically challenging and time-consuming; thus only data exist from a limited number of sampling sites and time...
Article
Low atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration during the Little Ice Age has been used to derive the global carbon cycle sensitivity to temperature. Recent evidence confirms earlier indications that the low CO 2 was caused by increased terrestrial carbon storage. It remains unknown whether the terrestrial biosphere responded to temperature var...
Conference Paper
Deliverables 2015-16: Trace gas measurements through Holocene to last glacial; Sensitivity of terrestrial carbon to climate (pre-industrial); Sensitivity of ocean carbon uptake to dust deposition; Carbon monoxide record for ACCESS chemistry (past century); Perfluorocarbons and halons over the past century.
Poster
Full-text available
Here we report preliminary analysis of biomarkers (including dissolved organic matter (DOM) and DNA) from the Patriot Hills blue ice area (BIA), from the Ellsworth Mountains in the Weddell Sea Embayment. Preliminary isotopic and multiple gas analysis (CO2 , CH4, N2O and CO) demonstrate that the Holocene comprises more than 50% of this unique 800m l...
Poster
Full-text available
Radiocarbon (14C) plays a crucial role in global carbon cycle investigations, with published measurements from modern day observations and pre-industrial measurements from tree rings. The 14C-CO2 pulse produced in the atmosphere by nuclear weapons testing in the 1960’s is also incorporated in air in open pores of firn before close-off in bubbles in...
Poster
Full-text available
Most of the Antarctic Ice Sheet has a snow/firn cover of approximately 100m that overlies the ice. Blue ice areas however provide an opportunity to access ice which has been dynamically tilted, stripped of snow and ablated at the surface via prevailing katabatic airflows. They also provide the opportunity to collect large samples of ice, which in t...
Conference Paper
During the last deglaciation (21,000 to 7,000years ago) global sea level rise was punctuated by several abrupt meltwater spikes triggered by the retreat of ice sheets and glaciers worldwide. However, the debate regarding the relative timing, geographical source and the physical mechanisms driving these rapid increases in sea level has catalyzed deb...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traditional ice coring often provides insufficient material to explore new approaches and develop new palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironmental proxies. Here we report the results from preliminary analysis of biomarkers (including dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the Patriot Hills blue ice area (BIA), from the Ellsworth Mountains in the Weddell Sea...
Article
Full-text available
Paleo–atmospheric records of carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) obtained from polar ice cores provide important constraints on the natural variability of the carbon cycle. However, the measurements are both analytically challenging and time-consuming thus data exist only from a limited number of sampling sites and time...
Article
Full-text available
We review the approaches for estimating biomass burning from ice-cores and consider the challenges and assumptions in their application. In particular, we consider the potential of biomarker proxies for biomass burning, hitherto not widely applied to glacial ice archives. We also review the available records of biomass burning in ice-cores and cons...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Shallow aquifers worldwide are often contaminated by NO3- leached from soils exploited by intensive agriculture or from leaks of the sewage system in densely populated areas, becoming a risk for both drinking water and surface water bodies health. The development of remediation plans for polluted areas and effective policies to protect water quali...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Il presente rapporto sintetizza i risultati delle attività effettuate nell’ambito della convenzione tra il Ministero delle Politiche Agricole Alimentari e Forestali - Rete Rurale Nazionale 2007 - 2013 ed ISPRA, finalizzata a dare una risposta a quanto richiesto nell’accordo Stato –Regioni del 5 maggio 2011 e siglata nella primavera del 2012. L’in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION This poster presents the preliminary results of the Italian project in the framework of the CRP project " Environmental isotopes and age dating methods to assess nitrogen pollution and other quality issues in rivers " at the end of the first year of activities. The motivation of the proposed research was to find a reliable methodology...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During the last deglaciation (21,000 to 7,000 years ago) global sea level rise was punctuated by several abruptmeltwater spikes triggered by the retreat of ice sheets and glaciers world-wide. However, questions regarding therelative timing, geographical source and the physical mechanisms driving these rapid increases in sea level havecatalysed sign...
Conference Paper
Carbon monoxide (CO) has significant roles in tropospheric chemistry, including being a major sink for the hydroxyl radical which in turn controls the lifetimes of reactive greenhouse gases and ozone depleting gases. The main sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and the oxidation of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons. Signifi...
Conference Paper
The transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene (30 000-5000 years ago) was a period of considerable climate variability, which has been associated with changes in deep water formation and the intensity of the Meridional Overturning Circulation. Although numerous records exist across the North Atlantic region, few Antarctic ice core record...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we evaluated trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives as derivatization reagents for the compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of soil amino acids by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). We used non-proteinogenic amino acids to show that the extraction-derivatization-analysis procedure provide...
Article
The transition from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene (30 000–5000 years ago) was a period of considerable climate variability, which has been associated with changes in deep water formation and the intensity of the Meridional Overturning Circulation. Although numerous records exist across the North Atlantic region, few Antarctic ice core record...
Article
Full-text available
We present new measurements of δ13C of CO2 extracted from a high-resolution ice core from Law Dome (East Antarctica), together with firn measurements performed at Law Dome and South Pole, covering the last 150 years. Our analysis is motivated by the need to better understand the role and feedback of the carbon (C) cycle in climate change, by advanc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
COS is the most abundant sulphur containing trace gas in the atmosphere (Montzka et al., 2010). Its role as a precursor for stratospheric sulphate aerosols, which catalyse the destruction of ozone (O3) (Andreae and Crutzen, 1997), makes it an important gas to quantify contemporarily and characterise historically. The atmospheric COS budget is highl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Millennial changes in atmospheric trace gas composition are best determined from air enclosed in ice sheets. Air extracted from the open pores in firn and the bubbles in ice is measured to derive the past concentrations and isotopic ratios of the long lived trace gases. The significant increases observed in CO2, CH4 and N2O since about 1750 and the...
Article
Full-text available
The short-chain non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are mostly emitted into the atmosphere by anthropogenic processes. Recent studies have pointed out a tight linkage between the atmospheric mole fractions of the NMHC ethane to the atmospheric growth rate of methane. Consequently, atmospheric NMHC are valuable indicators for tracking changes in anthrop...
Article
Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) data can yield valuable insight into anthropogenic and biogenic emissions into the atmosphere. For instance, recent research has pointed out a tight linkage of the atmospheric concentration of the NMHC ethane to the atmospheric growth rate of methane, and this relationship has been used to infer global ch...
Article
Full-text available
Firn air transport models are used to interpret measurements of the composition of air in firn and bubbles trapped in ice in order to reconstruct past atmospheric composition. The diffusivity profile in the firn is usually calibrated by comparing modelled and measured concentrations for tracers with known atmospheric history. However, in most cases...
Article
Full-text available
Efforts to extract a Greenland ice core with a complete record of the Eemian interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) have until now been unsuccessful. The response of the Greenland ice sheet to the warmer-than-present climate of the Eemian has thus remained unclear. Here we present the new North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (‘NEEM’) ice core a...
Article
The 6(th) archaeological excavation campaign performed at the 'Pieve di Pava' (San Giovanni d'Asso, Siena, Italy) unearthed a privileged stone burial of a single individual (US 2378), covered by a monolithic slab and placed in front of an altar. The skeletal remains of a young male (18-20 years old), not in anatomical connection, were found at the...
Article
Full-text available
A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC-12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare favorably to other firn air studies, the isotope r...
Article
Full-text available
Firn air transport models are used to interpret measurements of the composition of air in firn and bubbles trapped in ice in order to reconstruct past atmospheric composition. The diffusivity profile in the firn is usually calibrated by comparing modelled and measured concentrations for tracers with known atmospheric history. However, in some cases...
Article
Full-text available
We report a decadally resolved record of atmospheric CO2 concentration for the last 1000 years, obtained from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide shallow ice core. The most prominent feature of the pre-industrial period is a rapid ˜7 ppm decrease of CO2 in a span of ˜20-50 years at ˜1600 A.D. This observation confirms the timing of an abrupt...
Article
Full-text available
Air was sampled from the porous firn layer at the NEEM site in Northern Greenland. We use an ensemble of ten reference tracers of known atmospheric history to characterise the transport properties of the site. By analysing uncertainties in both data and the reference gas atmospheric histories, we can objectively assign weights to each of the gases...
Article
Analysis of air extracted from bubbles of Greenland ice results in considerably higher CO2 concentrations compared to records from Antarctic sites. This can not be explained by the inter-hemispheric gradient expected for past climatic conditions. Instead, it is attributed to chemical reactions between impurities in the ice, contributing excess CO2...
Conference Paper
Records of atmospheric greenhouse gases derived from ice cores are used in climate model simulations and to reveal the long term natural and anthropogenic influences on their biogeochemical cycles. The role of climate feedbacks on the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and CH4 is one of the largest sources of uncertainty regarding future climate. T...
Article
Full-text available
Compacted snow (firn) preserves a continuous record of atmospheric composition up to a century back in time. Firn air transport modeling is essential for interpretation of firn gas records. Each site needs to be characterised individually through a tuning procedure, in which the effective diffusivity at each depth is adjusted to optimise the agreem...
Article
The compacted snow (firn) found in the accumulation zone of major ice sheets acts as a unique archive of old air. Contrary to ice cores, large sample volumes can be pumped from the firn, making this archive especially suited for studying changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric trace gases. At the NEEM deep drilling site in northern Green...
Article
Full-text available
We show the potentiality of coupling together different compound-specific isotopic analyses in a laboratory experiment, where 13C-depleted leaf litter was incubated on a 13C-enriched soil. The aim of our study was to identify the soil compounds where the C derived from three different litter species is retained. Three 13C-depleted leaf litter (Liqu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The age of a fragment of the Epicurus “De Natura” papyrus has been measured, for the first time, by means of the 14C AMS technique, a non- or micro-destructive analytical technique. A radiocarbon age of 2275±80 yr BP was obtained. This result is coherent with palaeographic studies which had given a date between the end of the 3rd and the beginning...
Article
Full-text available
During microbial breakdown of leaf litter a fraction of the C lost by the litter is not released to the atmosphere as CO(2) but remains in the soil as microbial byproducts. The amount of this fraction and the factors influencing its size are not yet clearly known. We performed a laboratory experiment to quantify the flow of C from decaying litter i...
Article
Full-text available
A system with several lines for the preparation of graphite targets for radiocarbon analysis has been built at the new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility in Caserta, Italy. Special attention has been paid in the design to the reduc-tion of background contamination during sample preparation. Here, we describe the main characteristics of th...
Article
A new AMS system has been installed at Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage (CIRCE) in Caserta/Italy. It was built by National Electrostatics Corp. Middleton, WI/USA, and arrived at CIRCE in the middle of January 2005; the installation and the acceptance tests were completed at the end of February 2005. At first, the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper will be presented the results of the collaboration between the Department of Archaeology and History of Arts of the University of Siena and the CIRCE (Centre of Isotopic Research for the Environmental and Cultural Heritage) laboratory. Object of this study is the application of radiocarbon dating with accelerator mass spectrometry to...
Conference Paper
Methods involving stable isotopes have been successfully applied since decades in various research fields. Tracing 13C natural abundance in ecosystem compartments greatly enhanced the understanding of the C fluxes in the plant-soil-atmosphere C exchanges when compartments present different C isotopic signatures (i.e. atmospheric CO2 vs photosynthet...
Article
Soils represent the largest stock of C in most terrestrial ecosystems: a large research effort worldwide is devoted to quantify these stocks and their mean residence time, and to model changes in response to future scenarios of climate and land use. As a consequence, a fairly good understanding of the processes controlling C flows from the plant ro...
Article
Full-text available
Human bones recovered from the archaeological site of Pontecagnano (Salerno, Italy) have been studied to reconstruct the diet of an Etrurian population. Two different areas were investigated, named Library and Sant' Antonio, with a total of 44 tombs containing human skeletal remains, ranging in age from the 8th to the 3rd century B.C. This time spa...
Article
The quickly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2)-levels, justify the need to explore all carbon (C) sequestration possibilities that might mitigate the current CO2 increase. Here, we report the likely impact of future increases in atmospheric CO2 on woody biomass production of three poplar species (Populus alba L. clone 2AS-11, Populus nigra L....
Article
Full-text available
A new system for soil respiration measurement [P. Rochette, L.B. Flanagan, E.G. Gregorich. Separating soil respiration into plant and soil components using analyses of the natural abundance of carbon-13. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 63, 1207-1213 (1999).] was modified in order to collect soil-derived CO2 for stable isotope analysis. The aim of this study...
Article
A systematic analysis of efficiency, reproducibility and accuracy of cryogenic purification of CO(2) from air samples for isotopic analyses is presented. The technical characteristics of the cryogenic line are given in detail. To study the cryogenic process, three different operating parameters are considered: flow rate of the gas entering the line...
Article
Full-text available
Total CO2 exposure levels in a naturally enriched site (Lajatico, Italy) were reconstructed using radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry combined with dendrochronological analysis on wood cores extracted from trees grown in the fossil CO2 source proximity. Over 3 decades (1964-1998), the data show a mean CO2 concentration in the atmo...