Mauro Manassi

Mauro Manassi
University of Aberdeen | ABDN · School of Psychology

PhD

About

56
Publications
4,876
Reads
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900
Citations
Citations since 2017
33 Research Items
742 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
August 2019 - present
University of Aberdeen
Position
  • Lecturer
March 2015 - July 2019
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • PostDoc Position
June 2014 - March 2015
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (56)
Article
Full-text available
In crowding, target perception deteriorates in the presence of flanking elements. Crowding is classically explained by low-level mechanisms such as pooling or feature substitution. However, we have previously shown that perceptual grouping between the target and flankers, rather than low-level mechanisms, determines crowding. There are many groupin...
Article
Full-text available
In crowding, the perception of a target strongly deteriorates when neighboring elements are presented. Crowding is usually assumed to have the following characteristics. (a) Crowding is determined only by nearby elements within a restricted region around the target (Bouma's law). (b) Increasing the number of flankers can only deteriorate performanc...
Article
Full-text available
In object recognition, features are thought to be processed in a hierarchical fashion from low-level analysis (edges and lines) to complex figural processing (shapes and objects). Here, we show that figural processing determines low-level processing. Vernier offset discrimination strongly deteriorated when we embedded a vernier in a square. This is...
Article
Full-text available
In crowding, perception of a target is strongly deteriorated by nearby elements. Crowding is often explained by pooling models predicting that adding flankers increases crowding. In contrast, the centroid hypothesis proposes that adding flankers decreases crowding-"bigger is better." In foveal vision, we have recently shown that adding flankers can...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Radiologists routinely make life-altering decisions. Optimizing these decisions has been an important goal for many years and has prompted a great deal of research on the basic perceptual mechanisms that underlie radiologists’ decisions. Previous studies have found that there are substantial individual differences in radiologists’ diag...
Article
The visual clutter we constantly encounter in the world limits object recognition, a phenomenon known as visual crowding. A new study shows that ensemble perception counters this by condensing redundant information into summary statistical representations, which thus releases visual crowding’s effect on individual objects.
Article
Full-text available
Since it was first launched in 2001, the Scottish Vision Group (SVG) has been a key meeting for vision scientists in Scotland, and has attracted vision scientists from the United Kingdom, Europe and beyond. This small conference is held annually at different places in Scotland. Its friendly atmosphere and stunning Scottish sceneries provide a great...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying the neural correlates of visual serial dependence has lagged behind the behavioral understanding. A new study in PLOS Biology provides a model of interpreting the complex relationship between physiology and behavior in studies of serial dependence.
Article
Full-text available
Despite a noisy and ever-changing visual world, our perceptual experience seems remarkably stable over time. How does our visual system achieve this apparent stability? Here, we introduce a previously unknown visual illusion that shows direct evidence for an online mechanism continuously smoothing our percepts over time. As a result, a continuously...
Article
Full-text available
In radiological screening, clinicians scan myriads of radiographs with the intent of recognizing and differentiating lesions. Even though they are trained experts, radiologists’ human search engines are not perfect: average daily error rates are estimated around 3–5%. A main underlying assumption in radiological screening is that visual search on a...
Article
Full-text available
In visual crowding, the perception of a target deteriorates in the presence of nearby flankers. Traditionally, target-flanker interactions have been considered as local, mostly deleterious, low-level, and feature specific, occurring when information is pooled along the visual processing hierarchy. Recently, a vast literature of high-level effects i...
Article
Full-text available
Orientation perception is a fundamental property of the visual system and an important basic processing stage for visual scene perception. Neurophysiological studies have found broader tuning curves and increased noise in orientation-selective neurons of senescent monkeys and cats, results that suggest an age-related decline in orientation percepti...
Article
Full-text available
Classically, visual processing is described as a cascade of local feedforward computations. Feedforward Convolutional Neural Networks (ffCNNs) have shown how powerful such models can be. However, using visual crowding as a well-controlled challenge, we previously showed that no classic model of vision, including ffCNNs, can explain human global sha...
Article
Full-text available
Visual crowding-the deleterious influence of nearby objects on object recognition-is considered to be a major bottleneck for object recognition in cluttered environments. Although crowding has been studied for decades with static and artificial stimuli, it is still unclear how crowding operates when viewing natural dynamic scenes in real-life situa...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Full-text available
In everyday life, we continuously search for and classify objects in the environment around us. This kind of visual search is extremely important when performed by radiologists in cancer image interpretation and officers in airport security screening. During these tasks, observers often examine large numbers of uncorrelated images (tumor x-rays, ch...
Preprint
Full-text available
Classically, visual processing is described as a cascade of local feedforward computations. Feedforward Convolutional Neural Networks (ffCNNs) have shown how powerful such models can be. However, using visual crowding as a well-controlled challenge, we previously showed that no classic model of vision, including ffCNNs, can explain human global sha...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals can quickly and effortlessly recognize facial expressions, which is critical for social perception and emotion regulation. This sensitivity to even slight facial changes could result in unstable percepts of an individual’s expression over time. The visual system must therefore balance accuracy with maintaining perceptual stability. Howe...
Article
Full-text available
Observers perceive objects in the world as stable over space and time, even though the visual experience of those objects is often discontinuous and distorted due to masking, occlusion, camouflage, or noise. How are we able to easily and quickly achieve stable perception in spite of this constantly changing visual input? It was previously shown tha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Observers perceive objects in the world as stable over space and time, even though the visual experience of those objects is often discontinuous and distorted due to masking, occlusion, camouflage, noise, etc. How are we able to easily and quickly achieve stable perception in spite of this constantly changing visual input? It was previously shown t...
Article
Full-text available
In everyday life, we are constantly surrounded by complex and cluttered scenes. In such cluttered environments, visual perception is primarily limited by crowding, the deleterious influence of nearby objects on object recognition. For the past several decades, visual crowding was assumed to occur at a single stage, only between low-level features o...
Article
Full-text available
We are continuously surrounded by a noisy and ever-changing environment. Instead of analyzing all the elements in a scene, our visual system has the ability to compress an enormous amount of visual information into ensemble representations, such as perceiving a forest instead of every single tree. Still, it is unclear why such complex scenes appear...
Article
Investigations of visual crowding, where a target is difficult to identify because of flanking elements, has largely used a theoretical perspective based on local interactions where flanking elements pool with or substitute for properties of the target. This successful theoretical approach has motivated a wide variety of empirical investigations to...
Article
Previous empirical studies have demonstrated that crowding effects, where a visual target can be difficult to classify when surrounded by flanking elements on either side, are strongly altered by perceptual grouping of the target and flankers. Here, we describe a real-time neural model of perceptual grouping and segmentation that allows non-specifi...
Article
Full-text available
In crowding, perception of a target usually deteriorates when flanking elements are presented next to the target. Surprisingly, adding further flankers can lead to a release from crowding. In previous work we showed that, for example, vernier offset discrimination at 9° of eccentricity deteriorated when a vernier was embedded in a square. Adding fu...
Article
Full-text available
Phonological deficits in dyslexia are well documented. However, there is an ongoing discussion about whether visual deficits limit the reading skills of people with dyslexia. Here, we investigated visual crowding and backward masking. We presented a Vernier (i.e., two vertical bars slightly offset to the left or right) and asked observers to indica...
Article
In crowding, target perception deteriorates when flanking elements are added. Crowding is usually thought to be an inevitable bottleneck of object recognition where (1) more flankers increase crowding strength, (2) only nearby elements interfere with the target (Bouma's window), and (3) target-flanker interactions occur mainly within feature specif...
Article
In crowding, target perception deteriorates in the presence of clutter. Crowding is usually explained by pooling models where higher level neurons pool features from both a target and "informationless" flanking elements. Here, we show that such models fail to explain a large body of findings on pattern recognition, thereby undermining the philosoph...
Article
Full-text available
There is psychophysical evidence that low-level priming, e.g., from oriented gratings, as well as high-level semantic priming, survives crowding. We investigated priming for global translational motion in crowded and noncrowded conditions. The results indicated that reliable motion priming occurs in the noncrowded condition, but motion priming does...
Article
In crowding, target perception is deteriorated by flanking elements. For example, when a vernier is flanked by two lines of the same length, vernier offset discrimination strongly deteriorates. Interestingly, changing the color of the flankers can reduce crowding (uncrowding). Similarly, when the flanking lines are part of a cube, i.e., a good Gest...
Article
Full-text available
THE STRENGTH OF VISUAL BACKWARD MASKING DEPENDS ON THE STIMULUS ONSET ASYNCHRONY SOA BETWEEN TARGET AND MASK RECENTLY, IT WAS SHOWN THAT THE CONJOINT SPATIAL LAYOUT OF TARGET AND MASK IS AS CRUCIAL AS SOA PARTICULARLY, MASKING STRENGTH DEPENDS ON WHETHER TARGET AND MASK GROUP WITH EACH OTHER THE SAME IS TRUE IN CROWDING WHERE THE GLOBAL SPATIAL LAY...
Conference Paper
Background / Purpose: In crowding, the perception of a target strongly deteriorates when flanked by neighboring elements. Crowding is often explained in terms of pooling, i.e., averaging target and flanker signals. The pooling hypothesis predicts stronger crowding when the number of flankers increases, which is in stark contrast to recent finding...
Article
One of the main factors of crowding is the spacing between target and flankers. The closer the flankers are to the target, the stronger is crowding. Recently, it was proposed that crowding strength is determined by the distance between target and flanker centroids (Levi & Carney, 2009). Here, we determined vernier offset discrimination in the perip...
Article
Performance on a target can be modified by contextual elements. For example, thresholds strongly increase when a vernier is flanked by two lines. Increasing the number of flankers reduces contextual interference when the flankers are shorter or longer than the vernier: bigger is better. However, there is no improvement when flankers have the same l...
Article
Full-text available
Fast adaptation biases the perceived motion direction of a subsequently presented ambiguous test pattern (R. Kanai & F. A. Verstraten, 2005). Depending on both the duration of the adapting stimulus (ranging from tens to hundreds of milliseconds) and the duration of the adaptation-test blank interval, the perceived direction of an ambiguous test pat...
Article
Performance deteriorates when a target is flanked by contextual elements. For example, vernier thresholds increase when the vernier is flanked by lines. But when the lines are made part of a “good Gestalt”, like a rectangle, deterioration is reduced. Our explanation is that target and flankers do no fall in the same perceptual group. Here, we prese...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Understand the mechanisms underlying selective age-related changes in orientation perception.