Maurizio Salvadori

Maurizio Salvadori
Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi · Department of Nephrology and Transplantation

Professor of Nephrology University of Florence

About

853
Publications
91,001
Reads
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10,471
Citations
Citations since 2017
88 Research Items
3106 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500
Additional affiliations
February 1971 - July 2015
Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi
Position
  • chief of nephrology
February 1971 - July 2015
University of Florence
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (853)
Presentation
Full-text available
Biomarkers in the diagnosis of acute frejection in kidney transplantation
Article
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I should highlight that this manuscript is not a formal review on the topic, but a report from an ESOT meeting held on 22 June 2022. The assumption of immunosuppressants exposes kidney transplant recipients to the risk of infections, including COVID-19 infection. A transplant patient having COVID-19 infection raises several questions, including whe...
Preprint
Kidney transplant recipients, because of a weak immune response due to the assumption of immunosuppressant are exposed to the risk of COVID-19 infection. This fact realize the problem on how to treat the severe infection without carrying the risk of acute rejection due to the reduction of the immunosuppressive drugs. The best are the prophylactic m...
Article
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When the physiopathology of membranous nephropathy was first described, almost 30% of cases were recognized to be secondary to well-known diseases such as autoimmune diseases, tumors or infections. The remaining 70% cases were called primary membranous nephropathy as the exact mechanism or pathogenic factor involved was unknown. The discovery of th...
Article
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Multiple case series of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 have shown increased mortality compared to nontransplant patients. To date, we do not have high-level evidence to inform immunosuppression minimization strategies in infected transplant recipients. Most centers, however, have adopted an early antimetabolite withdrawal in addition to...
Article
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Previously, membranous nephropathies were divided into primary and secondary categories when the exact mechanism or pathogenetic factor were unknown. Approximately 70% accounted for primary membranous nephropathies. The remaining 30% were called secondary because they developed due to well-known diseases such as autoimmune diseases, tumours, infect...
Article
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The International IgA Nephropathy (IgAN) Prediction Tool is the preferred method in the 2021 KDIGO guidelines to predict, at the time of kidney biopsy, the risk of a 50% drop in estimated glomerular filtration rate or kidney failure. However, it is not known if the Prediction Tool can be accurately applied after a period of observation post-biopsy....
Article
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Due to the optimal results obtained in kidney transplantation and to the lack of interest of the industries, new innovative drugs in kidney transplantation are difficult to be encountered. The best strategy to find the new drugs recently developed or under development is to search in the sections of kidney transplantation still not completely cover...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the optimal results obtained in kidney transplantation and to the lack of interest of the industries, new innovative drugs in kidney transplantation are difficult to be encountered. The best strategy to find the new drugs recently developed or under development is to search in the sections of kidney transplantation still not completely cover...
Preprint
Full-text available
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a progressive form of kidney disease defined by glomerular deposition of IgA. We performed a genome-wide association study involving 10,146 kidney biopsy-diagnosed IgAN cases and 28,751 matched controls across 17 international cohorts. We defined 30 independent genome-wide significant risk loci jointly explaining 11% of di...
Article
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The gut microbial community may be associated with complications after kidney transplantation. The indigenous microbiota has a significant and protective function that influences the transplant recipient response. Genetic or environmental factors may modify the indigenous microbiota and pathobionts appear. In this condition, several disturbances o...
Article
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The morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 are particularly high among patients with underlying health disease conditions and chronic disease, among which are kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) [...]
Article
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Podocytes are the direct target of immunologic injury in many immune-mediated glomerular diseases, leading to proteinuria and subsequent kidney failure. Immunosuppressive agents such as steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and rituximab are the commonly used treatment strategies in this context for their immunotherapeutic or anti-inflammatory properti...
Article
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Sexual life and fertility are compromised in end stage kidney disease both in men and in women. Successful renal transplantation may rapidly recover fertility in the vast majority of patients. Pregnancy modifies anatomical and functional aspects in the kidney and represents a risk of sensitization that may cause acute rejection. Independently from...
Article
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Kidney transplant is the best therapy to manage end-stage kidney failure. The main barriers limiting this therapy are scarcity of cadaveric donors and the comorbidities of the patients with end-stage kidney failure, which prevent the transplant. Living kidney donor transplant makes it possible to obviate the problem of scarcity of cadaveric donor o...
Article
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Aim of this frontier review has been to highlight the role of microbiota in healthy subjects and in patients affected by renal diseases with particular reference to renal transplantation. The microbiota has a relevant role in conditioning the healthy status and the diseases. In particular gut microbiota is essential in the metabolism of food and ha...
Article
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World Journal of Transplantation (WJT) was launched in December 2011. While we are celebrating WJT's 10-year anniversary, we are very proud to share with you that since its first issue, WJT has published 312 articles, which have been cited 2786 times (average cites per article of 9.0). Together with an excellent team effort by our authors, Editoria...
Article
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Although IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common cause of glomerulonephritis in children, the absence of a method to predict disease progression limits personalized risk-based treatment decisions. The adult International IgAN Prediction Tool comprises two validated Cox survival models that predict a 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (e...
Article
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We have developed an artificial neural network prediction model for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in patients with primary immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) using a retrospective cohort of 948 patients with IgAN. Our tool is based on a two-step procedure of a classifier model that predicts ESKD, and a regression model that predicts development...
Article
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Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), principally because of hypotension and decreased kidney perfusion secondary to haemodynamic or haemostatic factors, drug-induced nephrotoxicity, and cytokine storm syndrome related to sepsis. Additionally, several factors support the exis...
Article
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The extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include reactive arthritis, vasculitis (panarteritisnodosa), and primary glomer-ulonephritis (membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and, less frequently, IgA nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and minimal change disease). No specific h...
Article
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Introduction. Over the past two decades, our thinking has changed from considering rejection as primarily a T-cell mediated process to the realization that insufficient control of the humoral arm of a recipient’s immune system is the factor primarily responsible for the allograft dysfunction and loss. Acute Antibody Mediated Rejection (ABMR) in kid...
Article
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Renal transplantation in patients affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been a serious problem becauseof the use of immunosuppres-sants. HCV virus may be more aggressive in both the liver and the kidney. Several posttransplantation pathologies are known to be ascribed to the HCV virus. Virus eradication has been historically attempted w...
Article
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Renal transplantation in patients affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been a serious problem becauseof the use of immunosuppres-sants. HCV virus may be more aggressive in both the liver and the kidney. Several posttransplantation pathologies are known to be ascribed to the HCV virus. Virus eradication has been historically attempted w...
Article
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One of the principal obstacles in transplantation from living donors is that approximately 30% are immunologically incompatible because of the presence in the recipient of antibodies directed against the human leukocyte antigen system of the donor or because of the incompatibility of the ABO system. The aim of this review is to describe the more re...
Article
Full-text available
One of the principal obstacles in transplantation from living donors is that approximately 30% are immunologically incompatible because of the presence in the recipient of antibodies directed against the human leukocyte antigen system of the donor or because of the incompatibility of the ABO system. The aim of this review is to describe the more re...
Article
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Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the major cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults, accounting for 20% of cases with an annual incidence of 1 per 100,000 population. In the past 10 years, the role of podocytes has been identified. Environmental triggers in genetically predisposed patients can activate podocytes to exhibit antigenic epitopes, including...
Article
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SARS-CoV-2 associated nephropathy: what we know so far. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attributable to i) hypotension and decreased kidney perfusion secondary to hemodynamic or hemostatic factors, ii) drug-induced nephrotoxicity, iii) cytokine storm syndrome rela...
Article
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The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 is a recent disease that originated in China by the end of 2019. The origins of the disease can be traced to bats, but it has been transmitted to humans, and the inter-human transmission is particularly rampant which has led to a pan-demic of unseen proportions. The organ principally involved is t...
Article
Full-text available
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 is a recent disease that originated in China by the end of 2019. The origins of the dis-ease can be traced to bats, but it has been transmitted to humans, and the inter-human transmission is particularly rampant which has led to a pandemic of unseen proportions. The organ principally involved is t...
Article
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In recent years, pharmacogenetics has emerged as an important tool for choosing the right immunosuppressant drug and its appropriate dose. Indeed, pharmacogenetics may exert its action on immunosuppressant drugs at three levels. Pharmacogenetics identifies and studies the genes involved in encoding the proteins involved in drug pharmacokinetics and...
Article
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Therapeutic apheresis is an extracorporeal treatment that selectively separates abnormal cells or substances from the blood that are linked with or cause certain disease states. It is widely used in transplantation medicine as an adjunctive therapeutic option. In kidney transplantation (KT), recurrent and de novo glomerular diseases represent the t...
Article
Full-text available
Therapeutic apheresis is an extracorporeal treatment that selectively separates abnormal cells or substances from the blood that are linked with or cause certain disease states. It is widely used in transplantation medicine as an adjunctive therapeutic option. In kidney transplantation (KT), recurrent and de novo glomerular diseases represent the t...
Article
Full-text available
The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major pandemic challenging health care. The infection has been reported in all ages, but older patients and immunosuppressed patients as the transplanted are at major risk. Prevention and treatment, whenever possible, are the commonly used strategies. Three steps may be distingui...
Article
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Diagnosis and treatment of acute cell-mediated rejection in kidney transplantation: The incidence of acute rejection of the kidney allograft in the world has been around 15% during the period between 2001 and 2003. It is clinically defined as an elevation in the level of serum creatinine by more than 0.3 mg/dL and is diagnosed by kidney biopsy. On...
Article
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Antibody-mediated rejection represents a significant barrier to favorable long-term outcomes after kidney transplantation and remains the most common cause of allograft failure. Therapeutic apheresis techniques are commonly used, in combination with other treatments such as immunosuppressive drugs, in the pre-transplant and post-transplant protocol...
Article
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Therapeutic apheresis is a cornerstone of therapy for several conditions in transplantation medicine and is available in different technical variants. In the setting of kidney transplantation, immunological barriers such as ABO blood group incompatibility and preformed donor-specific antibodies can complicate the outcome of deceased- or living- don...
Article
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Immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplantation Immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplantation can be distinguished in induction therapy and maintenance therapy. Induction therapy is an intense immunosuppressive therapy administered at the time of kidney transplantation to reduce the risk of acute allograft rejection. In general, the inducti...
Article
Immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplantation can be distinguished in induction therapy and maintenance therapy. Induction therapy is an intense immunosuppressive therapy administered at the time of kidney transplantation to reduce the risk of acute allograft rejection. In general, the induction immunosuppressive strategies used at kidney tran...
Article
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Organ shortage represents one of the major limitations to the development of kidney transplantation. To increase the donor pool and to answer the ever increasing kidney request, physicians are recurring to marginal kidneys as kidneys from older donors, from hypertensive or diabetic donors and from non-heart beating donors. These kidneys are known t...
Article
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Renal diseases involving glomerular deposits of fibrillary material are an important diagnostic challenge for an ultrastructural pathologist. Several renal diseases are characterised by the presence of fibrillary material in the glomeruli. Two disorders of this type, termed ‘fibrillary glomerulonephritis’ (characterised by fibrils measuring approxi...
Article
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Physiopathology of acute and chronic rejection
Article
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Allograft rejection is defined as tissue injury produced by the effector mechanisms of the alloimmune response, leading to deterioration of graft function. There are two types of rejection: T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Both types of rejection can be early or late, fulminant or indolent, as well as isolated...
Article
Full-text available
Renal diseases involving glomerular deposits of fibrillary material are an important diagnostic challenge for the ultrastructural pathologist. Two primary disorders of this type, termed ``fibrillary glomerulonephritis’’ (characterized by fibrils measuring approximately 20 nm in diameter) and ``immunotactoid glomerulopathy’’ (characterized by larger...
Article
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Abstract Deceased donor kidney transplant: assessment of eligibility for donor and kidney.Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for selected patients with end-stage kidney failure. However, the demand for kidney transplantation exceeds the supply of organs available. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, in an attempt to increase...
Article
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Introduzione Il trapianto di rene rappresenta l'alternativa indiscutibilmente migliorativa per i pazienti con insufficienza renale terminale. Tuttavia, gli ostacoli principali che tale terapia presenta sono la scarsa disponibilità di organi, a fronte di una richiesta sempre crescente, e il problema del rigetto sia acuto che cronico. Il trapianto, e...
Article
To achieve an effective immune response it is important that T cells can recognize a wide variety of non-self antigens; this allows for restrained immune activation and subsequent antigen-specific killing. This task is accomplished through the generation of a repertoire of T cells in a single individual with specificity for an enormous number of po...
Article
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with extrahepatic disorders, among which renal diseases are frequent. This article highlights the most frequent HCV-associated renal disorders, the impact of HCV infection on chronic renal disease and renal transplantation, and the role of current direct-acting antiviral therapies. HCV is a...
Article
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IMPORTANCE Although IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis in the world, there is no validated tool to predict disease progression. This limits patient-specific risk stratification and treatment decisions, clinical trial recruitment, and biomarker validation. OBJECTIVE To derive and externally validate a prediction model for d...
Article
Full-text available
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) represents a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterised by necrotising inflammation of the small blood vessels and the presence of ANCA with specificity for proteinase-3 or myeloperoxidase. Genetic susceptibility along with malignancy, drug exposure, and environmental e...
Article
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Kidney transplantation is the best treatment available for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Compared to dialysis, transplantation improves quality of life and reduces the mortality risk for most patients. However, the decision on which modality of renal replacement therapy is the best for an individual should be carefully assessed as s...
Article
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Antibodies that are specific to organ donor HLA have been involved in the majority of cases of antibody-mediated rejection in solid organ transplant recipients. However, recent data show that production of non-HLA auto antibodies can occur before transplant in the form of natural autoantibodies. In contrast to HLAs, which are constitutively express...
Article
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Data from World Health Organization estimates that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence is 3% and approximately 71 million persons are infected worldwide. HCV infection is particularly frequent among patients affected by renal diseases and among those in dialysis treatment. In addition to produce a higher rate of any cause of death, HCV in renal...
Article
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Renal involvement with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is a common manifestation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides characterised by end-stage renal disease and high mortality rates in untreated and late referral patients. Long-term renal survival has improved dramatically since the addition of cyclophospha...
Article
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Il paziente affetto da malattia renale cronica (MRC) ha spesso buone possibilità di vedere rallentata e talora stabi-lizzata la progressione della sua nefropatia. Tuttavia, nei casi in cui questa non è controllabile o, comunque, quando dopo anni di lenta progressione la MRC arriva allo stadio uremico, al paziente si apre uno scenario che prevede la...
Article
Full-text available
Renal involvement with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is a common manifestation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitides, which is characterized by end-stage renal disease and high mortality rates in untreated and/or late referral patients. The long-term renal survival has improved dramatically since the additio...
Chapter
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Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) represents a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by necrotizing inflammation of small blood vessels and the presence of ANCA with specificity for proteinase-3 (PR3) or myeloperoxidase (MPO). Genetic susceptibility along with environmental exposures to agents such...
Article
Full-text available
This review will encompass definition, pathogenesis, renal clinical manifestations and treatment of immunoglobulin G4-related diseases (IgG4-RDs). IgG4-RD is a recently recognized clinical entity that often involves multiple organs and is characterized by high levels of serum immunoglobulins G4, dense infiltration of IgG4+ cells and storiform fibro...
Chapter
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Recurrent glomerulonephritis (GN) is an important cause of kidney allograft failure. Approximately 15% of death-censored graft failures are due to recurrent GN. In this review we will focus specifically on the most common forms of primary GN, including IgA Nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferativ...
Article
Introduction: Despite conflicting literature reports, patients affected by renovascular hypertension with >0.8 renal resistive index (RI) have long been considered non­eligible for revascularization. Purpose: This study evaluates the long­term clinical outcome (blood pressure control, renal function) of renal artery stenosis (RAS) interventional tr...
Article
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Several metabolic monogenic diseases may be cured by liver transplantation alone (LTA) or by combined liver–kidney transplantation (CLKT) when the metabolic disease has caused end-stage renal disease. Liver transplantation may be regarded as a substitute for an injured liver or as supplying a tissue that may replace a mutant protein. Two groups of...
Article
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Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited kidney disease and results from mutations in the polycystin 1 gene (PKD1) or the polycystin 2 gene (PKD2). The disease is characterised by the progressive development of fluid-filled cysts derived from renal tubular epithelial cells that destroy the architecture of the renal...
Article
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Genomics, proteomics and molecular biology lead to tremendous advances in all fields of medical sciences. Among these the finding of biomarkers as non invasive indicators of biologic processes represents a useful tool in the field of transplantation. In addition to define the principal characteristics of the biomarkers, this review will examine the...
Article
Full-text available
Different biomarkers have been recently described bringing interesting results regarding predictive outcomes in the field of kidney transplantation. In this setting, an evaluation for pre-transplant biomarkers especially in the era of expanded criteria donors (ECDs) and non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) could help transplant physicians to make decis...
Article
Full-text available
Different biomarkers have been recently described bringing interesting results regarding predictive outcomes in the field of kidney transplantation. In this setting, an evaluation for pre-transplant biomarkers especially in the era of expanded criteria donors (ECDs) and non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) could help transplant physicians to make decis...