Maurice Raymond Yeadon

Maurice Raymond Yeadon
Loughborough University | Lough · School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

About

167
Publications
48,146
Reads
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4,512
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1990 - present
Loughborough University
Position
  • Professor of Computer Simulation in Sport
January 1990 - September 2016
Loughborough University
Position
  • Emeritus Professor of Computer Simulation in Sport

Publications

Publications (167)
Article
Forward and reverse springboard somersaulting dives use similar approaches with a hurdle step prior to the final board contact phase during which forward rotation is produced in forward takeoffs and backward rotation in reverse takeoffs. This study compared forward and reverse takeoffs for joint strength, activation complexity, technique kinematics...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this case study was to identify the effect of the upper arm definition on shoulder and elbow kinematics during the badminton smash. A method was proposed that corrects the false external rotation when using the shoulder-elbow-wrist plane based on the carrying angle (ISB-2C) and compared to ISB recommendations for defining the upper arm (...
Article
Full-text available
Subject-specific torque-driven computer simulation models employing single-joint torque generators have successfully simulated various sports movements with a key assumption that the maximal torque exerted at a joint is a function of the kinematics of that joint alone. This study investigates the effect on model accuracy of single-joint or two-join...
Article
The back handspring is one of the most commonly performed skills on the balance beam in women’s gymnastics. Despite this, quantitative research on the beam has often been overlooked. This study aimed to investigate the kinetic and kinematic variables during the performance of two back handspring techniques on the beam: the back handspring with two...
Article
Studies in several sports have shown the benefits of adapting the playing environment to fit junior players. Frequently the changes are pragmatic choices based on space constraints or existing line markings, or the result of simple scaling based on stature. In this study, a method of scaling the cricket pitch length is presented which is based on t...
Article
The aim was to determine whether operating a feedforward schema for generating movement pattern parameters was more successful than an open loop strategy for coping with uncertain initial conditions. A computer simulation model was used to determine the optimal solutions that maximised the likelihood of performing a successful upstart. Feedforward...
Article
Cricket fast bowling is a dynamic activity in which a bowler runs up and repeatedly delivers the ball at high speeds. Experimental studies have previously linked ball release speed and several technique parameters with conflicting results. As a result, computer simulation models are increasingly being used to understand the effects of technique on...
Article
In springboard diving consistency of body orientation at water entry is necessary for a good dive and is likely to be dependent on the consistency of conditions at takeoff. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a diver modifies his technique from dive to dive during the board contact phase in order to be more consistent at takeoff...
Article
An angle-driven computer simulation model of aerial movement was used to determine the maximum amount of twist that can be produced in a reverse 1½ somersault dive from a three-metre springboard using various aerial and contact twisting techniques. The segmental inertia parameters of an elite springboard diver were used in the simulations and lower...
Article
When learning swinging skills on a bar there has been conflicting advice in the research literature regarding whether to coach the “gold standard” technique to novices. The present study aimed to determine how technique (joint angle time histories) and (inter-limb) coordination changed as novice gymnasts learned a fundamental gymnastics skill (the...
Article
This study sought to determine whether playing on a shorter cricket pitch would lead batters to make more appropriate decisions about whether to play front foot or back foot shots. Based on an analysis of the shots played by top order batters against seam bowling in county under-10 matches, an age-specific “good length” region between 5.0 yards and...
Article
Full-text available
Efficient throwing mechanics is predicated on a pitcher’s ability to perform a sequence of movements of body segments, which progresses from the legs, pelvis, and trunk to the smaller, distal arm segments. Each segment plays a vital role in achieving maximum ball velocity at ball release. The perturbation of one joint angle has an effect on the bal...
Article
Performance in the flight phase of springboard diving is limited by the amounts of linear and angular momentum generated during the takeoff phase. A planar 8-segment torque-driven simulation model combined with a springboard model was used to investigate optimum takeoff technique for maximising rotation in forward dives from the one metre springboa...
Article
Planar simulation models which assume coincident joint centers at the hip and shoulder are often used to investigate subject-specific maximal performances rather than 3-dimensional models due to the viability of determining subject-specific parameters. To investigate the effect of coincident joint centers on model accuracy, 3 variants of a 16-segme...
Article
In springboard diving, low variability in takeoff conditions and in the somersault orientation angle at water entry is to be expected since consistency and accuracy are necessary for a good dive. A diver's adjustment of body configuration during flight may be a deliberate compensation for variations in takeoff conditions, leading to increased joint...
Article
The pitch lengths used for junior cricket are a subject of debate but to date there have been no studies of their influence on the game. This study evaluated the effect of reducing the pitch length on batting, bowling and fielding. County under 10 and club under 11 matches were analysed, 10 played on pitch lengths currently recommended by the Engla...
Article
An angle-driven computer simulation model of aerial movement was used to determine the maximum amount of twist that can be produced in a forward 1½ somersault dive from a three-metre springboard using various aerial twisting techniques. The segmental inertia parameters of an elite springboard diver were used in the simulations and lower bounds were...
Article
In order to get bounce and movement seam bowlers need to bowl the ball “into” the pitch. Standard deliveries by elite players are typically projected at around 7° below horizontal. In contrast, young players currently often need to release the ball almost horizontally in an effort to get the ball to bounce close enough to the batter. We anticipated...
Article
Subject-specific torque-driven models have ignored biarticular effects at the hip. The aim of this study was to establish the contribution of monoarticular hip flexors and hip extensors to total hip flexor and total hip extensor joint torques for an individual and to investigate whether torque-driven simulation models should consider incorporating...
Article
Full-text available
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1754337117723275 This study aimed to develop a methodology for accurate determination of the impact location of a cricket ball on the bat face, as well as the identification of bat–ball contact timing and post-impact instantaneous ball velocity in a whole-body kinematic data collection environment. Thr...
Article
An angle-driven computer simulation model of aerial movement was used to determine the maximum amount of twist that could be produced in the second somersault of a double somersault on trampoline using asymmetrical movements of the arms and hips. Lower bounds were placed on the durations of arm and hip angle changes based on performances of a world...
Chapter
The angular momentum required for somersault is produced during the approach and final contact phase prior to becoming airborne, while twist may be initiated either during contact or in the aerial phase. The aerial phase of twisting and non-twisting somersaults may be understood in terms of the two modes of rigid body rotations: the twisting somers...
Article
The Kovacs is a release and regrasp skill performed on the horizontal bar in men's artistic gymnastics. It is a popular skill in elite competitive gymnastics with over 40% of male gymnasts performing a variation of the Kovacs at the London 2012 Olympics. In the qualifying competition 84% of Kovacs were successfully regrasped, with the remaining 16%...
Article
The triple jump is an athletic event comprising three phases in which the optimal phase ratio (the proportion of each phase to the total distance jumped) is unknown. This study used a planar whole body torque-driven computer simulation model of the ground contact parts of all three phases of the triple jump to investigate the effect of strength and...
Article
When performing a giant circle on high bar a gymnast flexes at the hips in the lower part of the circle, increasing the kinetic energy, and extends in the upper part of the circle, decreasing the kinetic energy. In order to perform a sequence of giant circles at even tempo, any variation in angular velocity at the end of the flexion phase needs to...
Article
The triple jump is an athletic event comprising three phases in which the optimal proportion of each phase to the total distance jumped, termed the phase ratio, is unknown. This study used a whole-body torque-driven computer simulation model of all three phases of the triple jump to investigate optimal technique. The technique of the simulation mod...
Article
Full-text available
In spite of the Système International d'Unitès (SI) that was published in 1960, there continues to be widespread misuse of the terms and nomenclature of mechanics in descriptions of exercise performance. Misuse applies principally to failure to distinguish between mass and weight, velocity and speed, and especially the terms "work" and "power." The...
Article
In vaulting a gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the optimization of table touchdown conditions and table contact technique for the maximization of rotation potential for forwards rotating vaults....
Article
Minimising joint torque is often used as an optimisation criterion when investigating human movement. Alternatively, an aspect of performance may be chosen to be maximised when investigating sporting movements. The aim of the study was to optimise the technique in the backward giant circle prior to a double layout somersault dismount from the high...
Book
This book is a compilation of the author’s research articles on twisting somersaults from the past forty years with application to gymnastics, tumbling, trampolining, diving and the aerials event in freestyle skiing. A computer simulation model is used to determine which techniques can produce twist and which are used in practice. The ability to co...
Article
The elbow extension angle during bowling in cricket may be calculated from the positions of markers attached around the shoulder, elbow and wrist using an automated laboratory-based motion analysis system. The effects of two elbow-marker sets were compared. In the first, a pair of markers was placed medially and laterally close to the condyles whil...
Article
Full-text available
Computer simulation models have been used to address a range of research questions in sports biomechanics related to understanding the mechanics of sports movements, contributions to performance, optimisation of sports technique and control of sports movements. This paper will describe how theoretical models used in sports biomechanics have been de...
Chapter
Optimisation is often used in an attempt to explain technique adopted in skilled sport performance. This might take the form of minimising joint torques in an expectation that the optimum simulated technique will resemble the actual performance. If a suitable optimisation criterion can be identified then this may give some insight into the adopted...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The badminton shuttlecock has a lower ballistic coefficient, a measure of ability to overcome air resistance, and greater deceleration during flight than any other airborne sporting implement (Nakagawa, Hasegawa, Murakami, & Obayashi, 2012). Indeed, initial shuttlecock velocities of 67 m·s-1 have been reported to decelerate in 0.6 s to close to the...
Article
In vaulting the gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact in order to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the effects of touchdown conditions and contact technique on peak post-flight height of a straight handspring somersault vault. A planar...
Article
The upstart is a fundamental skill in gymnastics, requiring whole body co-ordination in order to transfer the gymnast from a swing beneath the bar to a support position above the bar. The aim of this study was to determine the solution space within which a gymnast could successfully perform an upstart. A previous study had shown that the underlying...
Article
In the takeoff and early flight phase of a twisting somersault, joint coordination is based on feed-forward control whereas in the late stages of the flight phase configuration adjustments are made using feedback control to ensure accurate completion of the movement and appropriate landing orientation. The aim of this study was to use a computer si...
Article
There is conflicting evidence as to whether skilled performance is associated with lower or higher movement variability. The effect of skill level and task difficulty on movement variability during gymnastics swinging was investigated. Four male gymnasts ranging in skill from university standard through to international medallist performed 10 conse...
Article
The triple jump is an athletic event involving three ground contact phases during which athletes must trade off the maintenance of horizontal velocity against the generation of vertical velocity. Previous studies have indicated that individual athletes have a linear relationship between the loss in horizontal velocity and the gain in vertical veloc...
Article
The upstart is a fundamental skill in gymnastics where it is used to transfer a gymnast from a swing beneath the bar to a position above the bar. The aim of this study was to optimize the technique in the upstart on the uneven bars in order to determine the underlying control strategy used by gymnasts. A previous attempt based on minimizing joint t...
Article
In the aerials event of freestyle skiing, athletes perform three somersaults with up to five twists. This study investigated the twisting limits of such movements using a computer simulation model of aerial movement. The abilities of various asymmetrical arm and hip techniques to produce twist during flight were investigated using 10 simulations to...
Article
This study aimed to determine whether subject-specific individual muscle models for the ankle plantar flexors could be obtained from single joint isometric and isovelocity maximum torque measurements in combination with a model of plantar flexion. Maximum plantar flexion torque measurements were taken on one subject at six knee angles spanning full...
Poster
Full-text available
One male (29yrs, 63.5kg, 174cm) was tested. Torque data were collected via dynamometer and, modeled with a suitable function. Eccentric, isometric and concentric contractions were considered. A specific 3-actuator torque driven model could be a successful tool to optimize jumping techniques. The specificity of the model is the most important featur...
Poster
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine differences in technique between a squat jump and a squat jump with added weight by utilizing a subject specific model implemented in Working Model 2D.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study, a forward dynamic subject specific 3-actuator torque-driven model of the human musculoskeletal system was created based on measurements of individual characteristics of a subject. Simulation results were compared with experimental vertical squat jumping with and without adding weights. By analyzing kinematic and kinetic experimental...
Article
This study aimed to determine whether subject-specific individual muscle models for the ankle plantarflexors could be obtained from single joint isometric and isovelocity maximum torque measurements in combination with a model of plantarflexion. Maximum plantarflexion torque measurements were taken on one subject at six knee angles spanning full fl...
Article
Full-text available
This study determines whether maximal voluntary ankle plantar flexor torque could be more accurately represented using a torque generator that is a function of both knee and ankle kinematics. Isovelocity and isometric ankle plantar flexor torques were measured on a single participant for knee joint angles of 111° to 169° (approximately full extensi...
Article
In this study a method for determining elbow extension and elbow abduction for a cricket bowling delivery was developed and assessed for Jenny Gunn who has hypermobility in both elbows and whose bowling action has been repeatedly queried by umpires. Bowling is a dynamic activity which is assessed visually in real time in a cricket match by an umpir...
Article
Simulation models of human movement comprising pin-linked segments have a potential weakness for reproducing accurate ground reaction forces during high impact activities. While the human body contains many compliant structures such a model only has compliance in wobbling masses and in the foot-ground interface. In order to determine whether accura...
Article
The handstand on rings is a requirement in competition routines in Men’s Artistic Gymnastics, and hence is a key skill in the development of an elite artistic gymnast. This study was carried out to establish the coaching requirements of a training aid for a handstand on the rings, to investigate the biomechanics of the handstand, to design and cons...
Article
The undersomersault, or felge, to handstand on parallel bars has become an important skill in Men's Artistic Gymnastics as it forms the basis of many complex variations. To receive no deductions from the judges, the undersomersault must be performed without demonstrating the use of strength to achieve the final handstand position. Two male gymnasts...
Article
The purpose of this study was to consider whether it is necessary for biarticular effects to be accounted for in subjectspecific representations of maximal voluntary knee extension and knee flexion torques. Isovelocity and isometric knee torques were measured on a single participant at three different hip angles using a Contrex MJ dynamometer. Maxi...
Article
If the magnitude of timing and angle variability in whole body coordinated movements were known, this would allow more realistic levels of variability to be included within optimizations of technique. The aim of this study was to determine the technique for improved consistency of performance of the Tkatchev release and regrasp on high bar, while i...
Article
In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact p...
Article
This study used a subject-specific model with eight segments driven by joint torques for forward dynamics simulation to investigate the effects of initial conditions and takeoff technique on the performance of running jumps for height and distance. The torque activation profiles were varied in order to obtain matching simulations for two jumping pe...
Article
Training the gymnasts to view the landing area when learning aerial skills may lead to more consistent landings but can be problematic and potentially dangerous. A virtual environment allowing gymnasts to get introduced to viewing techniques safely is presented. The system is based on existing simulation models and visualisation software, and is im...
Article
Strength, or maximum joint torque, is a fundamental factor governing human movement, and is regularly assessed for clinical and rehabilitative purposes as well as for research into human performance. This study aimed to identify the most appropriate protocol for fitting a maximum voluntary torque function to experimental joint torque data. Three pa...
Article
Full-text available
Support systems can be used to prevent or reduce the impact during landings in various gymnastics disciplines. A support system typically consists of two ropes, three pulleys attached to steelwork in the roof space of the gymnasium, and a belt around the gymnast's waist. The aim of the study was to determine the forces at the pulleys and the tensio...
Article
Triple jumpers employ either an asymmetrical 'single-arm' action or symmetrical 'double-arm' action in the takeoff of each phase of the jump. This study investigated which technique is more beneficial in each phase using computer simulation. Kinematic data were obtained from an entire triple jump using a Vicon automatic motion capture system. A pla...
Article
The Fouetté turn in classical ballet is performed repeatedly on one leg with swinging of the free limbs, producing a continued sequence of turns with one turn leading into the next. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible time history profiles of the twisting torque between the supporting leg and the remainder of the body that will...
Article
This study investigated how changes in the material properties of a landing mat could minimise ground reaction forces (GRF) and internal loading on a gymnast during landing. A multi-layer model of a gymnastics competition landing mat and a subject-specific seven-link wobbling mass model of a gymnast were developed to address this aim. Landing mat p...
Article
When a gymnast contacts the vaulting table the hands initially slide in the direction tangential to the table surface and then remain stationary. The force resisting the motion in the tangential direction is friction: dynamic friction when the hands are moving and static friction (stiction) when the hands are stationary. An angle-driven simulation...
Article
In landings from a flight phase the mass centre of an athlete experiences rapid decelerations. This study investigated the extent to which co-contraction is beneficial or necessary in drop landings, using both experimental data and computer simulations. High speed video and force recordings were made of an elite martial artist performing drop landi...
Article
This study was carried out to design, construct and assess a training aid to assist in the learning of a backward handspring. A backward handspring is often the first backward dynamic skill gymnasts will learn and so its performance can be accompanied by anxiety. International high performance coaches were surveyed to establish the key coaching req...
Article
This study used optimisation procedures in conjunction with an 8-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the takeoff phase in springboard diving to determine appropriate subject-specific strength parameters for use in the simulation of forward dives. Kinematic data were obtained using high-speed video recordings of performances of a forw...
Article
The aim of this study was to use a subject-specific seven-link wobbling mass model of a gymnast, and a multi-layer model of a landing mat, to determine landing strategies that minimise ground reaction forces (GRF) and internal forces. Subject-specific strength parameters were determined that defined the maximum voluntary torque/angle/angular veloci...
Article
Full-text available
In the optimisation of sports movements using computer simulation models, the joint actuators must be constrained in order to obtain realistic results. In models of a gymnast, the main constraint used in previous studies was maximum voluntary active joint torque. In the stalder, gymnasts reach their maximal hip flexion under the bar. The purpose of...
Article
This book chapter is closed access. It was published in the book Biomechanics in Sport: http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0632053925.html Most sports movements have an aerial phase. In sprinting the runner spends less than half of the time in contact with the ground (Hopper, 1973) while in the triple jump the aerial phases are much...
Article
The dismount from the high bar is one of the most spectacular skills performed in Men's Artistic Gymnastics. Hiley and Yeadon [2005. Maximal dismounts from high bar. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 2221-2227] optimised the technique in the backward giant circle prior to release using a computer simulation model to show that a gymnast could generate suf...
Article
To reduce the effects of skin movement artefacts and apparent joint dislocations in the kinematics of whole body movement derived from marker locations, global optimisation procedures with a chain model have been developed. These procedures can also be used to reduce the number of markers when self-occlusions are hard to avoid. This paper assesses...
Article
Evaluating landing technique using a computer simulation model of a gymnast and landing mat could be a useful tool when attempting to assess injury risk. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate whether a subject-specific torque-driven or a subject-specific muscle-driven model of a gymnast is better at matching experimental ground reaction f...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to optimise springboard diving takeoff technique for maximum forward rotation using a computer simulation model. A planar eight-segment model of a diver with torque generators together with a springboard model was developed. The model was evaluated by comparing simulation output with an elite diver's performance. The model...
Article
The release window for a given dismount from the asymmetric bars is the period of time within which release results in a successful dismount. Larger release windows are likely to be associated with more consistent performance because they allow a greater margin for error in timing the release. A computer simulation model was used to investigate opt...
Article
Full-text available
The Tkatchev on the high bar is a release and re-grasp skill in which the gymnast rotates in a direction during flight opposite to that of the preceding swing. Since the release window is defined as the time during which the gymnast has appropriate linear and angular momentum to ensure the bar can be re-grasped, it was speculated that the release w...
Article
This study used a computer simulation model to investigate various considerations that affect optimum peak height in a running jump. A planar eight-segment computer simulation model with extensor and flexor torque generators at five joints was formulated and customised to an elite male high jumper. A simulation was matched to a recorded high jumpin...