Maurice Eisenbruch

Maurice Eisenbruch
Monash University (Australia) · Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health

MD

About

83
Publications
15,021
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2,997
Citations
Citations since 2017
14 Research Items
1033 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Additional affiliations
January 2007 - August 2017
Monash University (Australia)
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Although the cultural deathscapes of acute grief in the early days after a disaster are well-understood, there is a gap in the literature on the role of ritual ceremonies over the months that follow the initial funeral. Drawing upon a case study of the 2010 Diamond Island stampede in Cambodia, which killed 347 people, this article considers the mea...
Article
Funerals play a key role in grief and mourning, but little is known about the culturally scripted processes after a disaster. Cambodia has faced multiple disasters, from the Khmer Rouge killing fields to COVID-19. Drawing upon a case study of the 2010 Diamond Island stampede, which killed 347 people, this article focuses on the period leading up to...
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There are strong cross-cultural differences in the subjective judgment of risk perception of hazards or disasters. This article aims to examine the cultural construction of risk perception and who is at risk of succumbing to a disaster, using the 2010 human stampede at the Diamond Island bridge in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, as a case study. It focuses o...
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Human stampedes are anthropogenic disasters. The purpose of this study is to identify the emic construction of disaster in Cambodia and thus enable a cultural framing. The case study is the 2010 human stampede at Diamond Island in Phnom Penh, which resulted in the deaths of 347 people. An ethnographic study was carried out in Phnom Penh and nine pr...
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Next generation sequencing has revolutionised genomic studies of cancer, having facilitated the development of precision oncology treatments based on a tumour’s molecular profile. We aimed to develop a targeted gene sequencing panel for application to disparate cancer types with particular focus on tumours of the head and neck, plus test for utilit...
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The study explores the cultural and religious meaning behind episodes of mass fainting sweeping through garment factories in Cambodia. An ethnographic study was conducted at 20 garment factories in Kandal, Preah Sihanouk, Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu, Takeo, and Kampong Chhnang provinces. Informants were 50 women who fainted or possessed and their fa...
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In Cambodia, more than half of all children experience physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. This article examines how Cambodians view the causes and effects of child abuse and analyses its underlying cultural forces. Adopting a conceptual framework originally developed for the cultural context of violence against women, 110 cases of child abuse we...
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Objective: Acculturation studies conducted with refugees have predominantly concentrated on investigating the impact of acculturative stress on mental health, and have neglected to investigate the impact of cultural orientations towards the host and ethnic cultures. Furthermore, exposure to traumas is highly prevalent in refugees and strongly asso...
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Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. The study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which Cambodians see its causes and effects and to identify and analyse the cultural forces that underpin and shape its landscape. An ethnographic study was carried out with 102 perpetrat...
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Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. This article brings together two seldom connected fields: Theory of Change (ToC) and cultural responsiveness in international development. It applies these approaches to a priority in global health, which is to prevent violence against women (VAW) and, drawi...
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This article discusses the underpinnings of impunity and justice in Cambodia as the former Khmer Rouge leaders face trial in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC). The extent to which the ECCC achieves its goal can only be assessed by understanding the concept of impunity from a Cambodian cultural perspective. In this ethnogra...
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Any attempt to stop cycles of violence requires an understanding of the cultural meanings of impunity, or freedom from consequences. As Cambodia struggles to combat the tide of violence in daily life, at a time when former Khmer Rouge leaders face the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), this article discusses the cultural under...
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This paper reports an ethnographic study of mass fainting among garment factory workers in Cambodia. Research was undertaken in 2010–2015 in 48 factories in Phnom Penh and 8 provinces. Data were collected in Khmer using nonprobability sampling. In participant observation with monks, factory managers, health workers, and affected women, cultural und...
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Multiethnic societies face challenges in delivering evidence-based culturally competent health care. This study compared health-related quality of life and psychological morbidity in a hospital-based sample of first-generation migrants and Australian-born Anglo cancer patients, controlling for potential confounders related to migrant status. Furthe...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the invariance of a culturally competent multi-lingual unmet needs survey. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among immigrants of Arabic-, Chinese- and Greek-speaking backgrounds, and Anglo-Australian-born controls, recruited through Cancer Registries (n = 591) and oncology clinics (n...
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Recent data shows a falling cancer mortality in the general population without a similar shift in immigrant outcomes, leading to a greater cancer burden and mortality for immigrants. Our aims were to compare perceived patterns of care in immigrants and native-born cancer patients. This was a hospital-based sample of first generation immigrants and...
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6556 Background: Poor prognosis is difficult to impart, particularly across a cultural divide. This study is the first to compare prognostic communication with immigrants (with and without interpreters) versus native–born patients in audio-taped oncology consultations. Methods: Ten oncologists, 78 patients (31 Australian-born, 47 immigrants) and 11...
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Purpose Social suffering, language difficulties, and cultural factors may all make the cancer experience more difficult for immigrants. This study aimed to document unmet needs, and variables associated with these, in a population-based sample of first-generation immigrants and Anglo-Australians who had survived cancer. Methods Participants were r...
Article
Objective: Poor prognosis is difficult to impart, particularly across a cultural divide. This study compared prognostic communication with immigrants (with and without interpreters) versus native-born patients in audio-taped oncology consultations. Methods: Ten oncologists, 78 patients (31 Australian-born, 47 immigrants) and 115 family members p...
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This study compared health-related quality of life (QOL) and psychological morbidity in a population-based sample of first generation immigrant and Anglo-Australian cancer survivors. Eligible participants, recruited via three State Cancer Registries, included those: with a new diagnosis of one of 12 most incident cancers (all stages) 1-6years earli...
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6111 Background: Immigration is increasing world-wide. Cancer survivorship is now recognised as a period of difficult adjustment for all patients, and possibly more so for immigrants. We explored disparities in quality of life outcomes for immigrant (IM) versus Anglo-Australian (AA) cancer survivors. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, cancer sur...
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e16507 Background: Immigration is increasing world-wide. We explored disparities in quality of life outcomes for immigrant (IM) versus Anglo-Australian (AA) cancer patients having anti-cancer treatment. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, cancer patients were recruited through outpatient Oncology clinics in New South Wales, Victoria, and the Nort...
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Migrant patients comprise a significant proportion of Western oncologists' clientele. Although previous research has found that barriers exist in the communication between ethnically diverse patients and health professionals, little is known about their personal preferences for communication and information, or the concordance of views held between...
Article
To explore with Arabic-Australian patients and their communities, the cultural context of cancer, both sporadic and inherited, by examining their beliefs about its causes and the modes of communication about cancer with family, friends and the community. The design is an ethnographic and qualitative interview study with thematic analysis. Arabic-Au...
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Immigrants with cancer often have professional and/or family interpreters to overcome challenges communicating with their health team. This study explored the rate and consequences of nonequivalent interpretation in medical oncology consultations. Consecutive immigrant patients with newly diagnosed with incurable cancer, who spoke Arabic, Cantonese...
Article
Immigrants report challenges communicating with their health team. This study compared oncology consultations of immigrants with and without interpreters vs Anglo-Australian patients. Patients with newly diagnosed incurable cancer who had immigrated from Arabic, Chinese or Greek speaking countries or were Anglo-Australian, and family members, were...
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Migration is increasing worldwide. In previous research into people with cancer from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, interpreter accuracy, professionalism and continuity have emerged as key concerns for patients. Little is known about interpreters' perceptions of their role and the challenges they face. This study aimed to obtain...
Article
This paper describes cultural competence issues within the scientific and scholarly discourse surrounding cardiac rehabilitation (CR). CR is an important secondary prevention strategy, improving health-related outcomes and reducing the risks of subsequent cardiovascular events. Internationally, it is widely accepted as a discrete health service mod...
Article
Migrants with cancer struggle to communicate with their health care team. This study aimed to identify health-care related unmet needs and communication issues for migrants who develop cancer and factors associated with these challenges. In this paper, the findings related to communication issues are presented. Seventy-three cancer patients diagnos...
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Chinese-language speakers comprise the largest non-English speaking population in Australia but they have among the lowest rates of mental health services utilisation. A bilingual (Mandarin/English) researcher conducted in-depth interviews with China-born mental health patients and members of the general community, and mental health service provide...
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Abstract This paper reviews the current state of research on the relationship between depressed mothers and their children. Several issues are considered: how depressed women function as mothers; the possible origins of depression in the childhood experiences of the mothers; the impact of maternal depression upon the child; the potential consequenc...
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[Full text available at: http://dro.deakin.edu.au/eserv/DU:30018703/green-parentcentredand-2008.pdf]
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Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate risks. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we...
Article
Depression measurement tools in cross-cultural research require careful design and thorough validation to ensure that cognitive concepts in one culture can be appropriately translated and applied to a differing culture. The aim of this study was to validate the Chinese version of a screening measure of state depression, the 10-item Depression in Me...
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Research on young drivers directly linking risk factors to serious injury and death outcomes is required. The DRIVE Study was established to facilitate this aim. This paper outlines the study methods and describes the population that has been recruited, in order to demonstrate that the necessary heterogeneity in risk factors has been attained. Desi...
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In societies such as Australia with a strong multicultural makeup, culturally determined attitudes to genetics, testing, and counseling may be incompatible with current genetics service provision. An ethnographic investigation using purposive sampling to increase subject diversity was used to explore the range of beliefs about kinship and inheritan...
Chapter
Mobility of mankind has increased enormously in the past few decades. People leave their homes and native countries for business and study, for vacation or to flee from unsafe conditions like wars and natural disasters. In all cases the sojourner faces a dual challenge of breaking with the familiar home environment and adjusting to new surroundings...
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Studies of depression in the Chinese have long identified low rates and a greater likelihood of somatization, findings which could reflect cultural influences or real differences. We report a study from a western region examining the impact of acculturation on depression to clarify the role of cultural factors. In a Sydney-based study, Chinese subj...
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NSW is one of Australia's most multicultural states, with 29 per cent of residents having been born overseas and 24 per cent speaking a language other than English at home. Given that rates of death and disease and patterns of health service utilisation differ across cultural variables such as region or country of birth, a better understanding of t...
Article
Ethnography was employed to investigate the hypothesis that the cultural meaning of cancer is one of the possible barriers to access of cancer services. The objectives were to identify indigenous terminologies, taxonomies and illness explanatory models of cancer in a community-based sample of 15 Chinese-Australians and a sample of 16 informants who...
Article
Intramuscular injections (depot preparations) offer an advantage over oral medication for treating schizophrenia by reducing poor compliance. The benefits gained by long acting preparations, however, may be offset by a higher incidence of adverse effects. To investigate the clinical effects of fluphenazine decanoate and enanthate. For this update w...
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Chinese living in Sydney represent Australia's largest-growing non-English speaking group. This study seeks to explore the dance between culture and depression. A combined qualitative and quantitative methodology by survey and focus groups enabled comparison of Australian and Chinese groups while exploring meaning. Self-nominated symptoms of depres...
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Hereditary cancer is about families, and clinicians and genetic counsellors need to understand the cultural beliefs of patients and families about cancer and inheritance. In the light of their kinship patterns Chinese-Australians were chosen for the present study, which aims to determine the explanatory models of inheritance, cancer, and inherited...
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The collaborative program of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization (TPO) provides a community-oriented and culturally sensitive public health response to the psychosocial problems of refugees and victims of organized violence. This paper describes the 9-step model that TPO has developed as a blueprint for each new intervention. Beneficiaries...
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To investigate the growth and feeding practices in first-generation Vietnamese infants living in Australia. Cohort study. The study was conducted between 1999 and 2002 in Sydney. A total of 239 Vietnamese women were recruited randomly from antenatal clinics, and of these 210 were initially seen. During the first year, 20 cases (9.5%) were lost to f...
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Although the mental health problems of the hundreds of thousands of Cambodians who fled to other countries during the rule of the Khmer Rouge have been documented, less is known about how those who remained in Cambodia and coped with psychosocial and mental health problems. A program to implement the community mental health approach of the Transcul...
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Anecdotal evidence suggests that people from non-Anglo-Celtic backgrounds are under-represented at familial cancer clinics in the UK, the USA, and Australia. This article discusses cultural beliefs as a potential key barrier to access, reviews previous empirical research on cultural aspects of cancer genetics, draws implications from findings, and...
Article
In the years after the discovery of oral antipsychotic medications, it became clear that there was a link between stopping medication and relapse of psychotic symptoms. A series of long-acting preparations was developed. These depot preparations, are frequently used for those who find taking oral medication on a regular basis difficult or unaccepta...
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Cambodia has undergone massive psychosocial trauma in the last few decades, but has had virtually no western-style mental health services. For the first time in Cambodia a number of mental health clinics in rural areas have been started. This experience is used to discuss the risks and opportunities in introducing these services in the present war-...
Chapter
Western views of somatoform disorders are based on Western cultural assumptions about mind and body; linear time; cause-and-effect; and personal responsibility. Psychiatric research and clinical practice is embedded in these assumptions, but patients from non-Western backgrounds may hold radically different views.
Article
International child mental health has few anthropological signposts. In most developing countries, there are no child mental health professions. Instead, the traditional healers deal with routine physical and emotional disorders. In an effort to better understand how Cambodian families feel about sick children, three child-hood conditions were cons...
Article
The power to heal by simple dissolution of the pain is an ancient quest of humanity. Among the Hmong of Laos and Thailand, this power is exerted by the shamans, among the Khmer of Cambodia, by the traditional healers. These two cultural groups consider healing and recovery, whether from the point of view of the healer or the patient, as a holistic...
Article
Le pouvoir de guerir par simple dissolution du mal est une quete ancienne de l'humanite. Chez les Hmong du Laos et de la Thailande, ce pouvoir est exerce par des chamanes, chez les Khmers du Cambodge par des maitres-guerisseurs. Considere comme un phenomene holistique dans ces cultures, ce traitement de la guerison offre un champ d'observation uniq...
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L'espace rituel des patients et des guérisseurs traditionnels au Cambodge par Maurice Eisenbruch Le guerrisseur cambodgien traditionnel, le kruu, est un spécialiste rituel qui traite les gens souffrant de ckuet, terme vernaculaire pour les désordres comportementaux. La maladie provient de trois sphères: celles des divinités, en haut ; des démons, e...
Article
There are pitfalls in the singular application of western categories in diagnosing psychiatric disorders and distress among refugees. Based on my research with Cambodian refugees I argue that cultural bereavement, by mapping the subjective experience of refugees, gives meaning to the refugee's distress, clarifies the 'structure' of the person's rea...
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The large number of refugees in the world must cope with the loss of family and homeland. This paper proposes a new concept of cultural bereavement and presents a framework for its identification in the clinical interview with refugees. The cultural bereavement interview explores reactions to personal losses and to losses of both the social systems...
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This paper describes the background and development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire designed to explore how people from different cultures explain mental distress. A 45-item questionnaire was developed with items derived from the Murdock et al. categories, with additional items covering western notions of physiological causatio...
Article
Although Western medicine helps people understand disease and death in scientific terms, patients often explain their illnesses very differently. The explanations held by patients and their families from 'foreign' cultures can be bewildering to the clinician. In treating immigrant patients, particularly those with terminal illness, it is essential...
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Australian medical education has not kept pace with Australia's increasingly multicultural society. Feedback from ethnic community organizations suggests that medical students and specialist trainees in medicine are not learning how to understand, to interact with and to treat patients in culturally appropriate ways. The first part of this paper re...
Article
A case study of a family referred for clarification of cultural issues illustrates how a transcultural psychiatric service developed in the pediatric hospital setting can be used to advantage. A Vietnamese family with an inherited disorder. Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, MPS VI), resisted genetic counseling and contraceptio...
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This paper describes the development of an instrument to measure explanations for illness among Cambodian patients Despite the need to understand patients' explanations for illness, few culture-relevant typologies of illness exist Murdock's typology was used in pre-testing with a group of Cambodian patients A 23-item Schedule was refined to measure...
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A large proportion of Indochinese refugees are children. This article suggests that uprooted children may experience powerful grief, not only in response to personal loss of loved ones, but also to loss of their culture. It is further postulated that personal bereavement and cultural bereavement are complementary, which can be an important factor i...
Article
A large proportion of Indochinese refugees are children. This article suggests that uprooted children may experience powerful grief, not only in response to personal loss of loved ones, but also to loss of their culture. It is further postulated that personal bereavement and cultural bereavement are complementary, which can be an important factor i...
Article
Despite a growing interest in bereavement in cross-cultural perspective, few reports have described a comparative analysis of bereavement. By examining the social contexts in the transformations of Western bereavement practices, structures common to bereavement in a range of cultures can be identified. The paper compares the contemporary bereavemen...
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This paper reviews some key conceptual questions in the study of cross-cultural aspects of bereavement. Six questions are reviewed in cross-cultural perspective: whether individuals in all societies share the same private experience and public expression of grief; whether the stages of grief occur in the same sequence and at the same rate in all cu...
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The development of video techniques in child psychiatry is reviewed. Application of techniques to teaching the principles of development in child psychiatry as part of the pediatric term for fifth-year medical students is detailed, with utilization of edited tape footage of children of various developmental stages. Reference is made to the use of v...
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A 46-year-old mother with a history of chronic headaches and other symptoms, and a clinical diagnosis (in Western terms) of depression, ascribed her condition to non-observance of Chinese postpartum ritual. The characteristic features of "wind illness' are described. Western medicine proved useless but acupuncture was beneficial. The case underline...

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Projects (2)
Project
Providing culturally appropriate tools to help address gender based and public violence, including monks as transformers of intercultural messages