Matti Hāyry

Matti Hāyry
Aalto University · Department of Management Studies

PhD

About

121
Publications
23,486
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1,085
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - present
Aalto University
Position
  • Professor of Philosophy of Management
October 2004 - August 2013
The University of Manchester
Position
  • Professor of Bioethics and Philosophy of Law
March 2001 - September 2004
University of Central Lancashire
Position
  • Professor of Moral Philosophy and Head of Centre for Professional Ethics

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has created or revealed scarcities in many domains: medical, civic, economic, and ideological. Responses to these are analyzed in the framework of a map of justice and an imperative of openness. The main argument is that whatever the view of justice chosen by public health authorities, they should be able and willing to disclo...
Article
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When humanity has either suppressed coronavirus disease 2019 or learned to come to terms with its continued existence, governments and corporations probably return to their pre-pandemic stances. Solutions to the world's problems are sought from technology and business innovations, not from considerations of equality and well-being for all. This is...
Article
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Increasingly high-profile research is being undertaken into the socio-environmental challenges associated with the over-production and consumption of food from animals. Transforming food systems to mitigate climate change and hidden hunger, ensure food security and good health all point to reducing animal-based foods as a key lever. Moving beyond a...
Article
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Is there such a thing as corona solidarity? Does voluntary mutual aid solve the problems caused by COVID-19? I argue that the answer to the first question is “yes” and to the second “no.” Not that the answer to the second question could not, in an ideal world, be “yes,” too. It is just that in this world of global capitalism and everybody looking o...
Article
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Utilitarianism could still be a viable moral and political theory, although an emphasis on justice as distributing burdens and benefits has hidden this from current conversations. The traditional counterexamples prove that we have good grounds for rejecting classical, aggregative forms of consequentialism. A nonaggregative, liberal form of utilitar...
Article
In her thorough and thoughtful contribution to the Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics titled “Medical Ethics: Common or Uncommon Morality” Rosamond Rhodes argues that contrary to American mainstream bioethics, medical ethics is not, and should not be, based on common morality, but rather, that the medical profession requires its own distincti...
Article
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Governmental reactions to crises like the COVID-19 pandemic can be seen as ethics communication. Governments can contain the disease and thereby mitigate the detrimental public health impact; allow the virus to spread to reach herd immunity; test, track, isolate, and treat; and suppress the disease regionally. An observation of Sweden and Finland s...
Article
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Finland's first COVID-19 infection was recorded in late January 2020. The person infected was a tourist from China in Lapland. Authorities recommended regular handwashing, coughing in one's sleeve, not touching your face, physical distancing, and home lockdown for those at risk. The pandemic spread at different paces in different regions, and the f...
Article
Moral and political philosophers no longer condemn harm inflicted on nonhuman animals as self-evidently as they did when animal welfare and animal rights advocacy was at the forefront in the 1980s, and sentience, suffering, species-typical behavior, and personhood were the basic concepts of the discussion. The article shows this by comparing the de...
Article
Editorial: Examining the Links - Volume 29 Issue 2 - TUIJA TAKALA, MATTI HÄYRY
Article
This paper explores how Finnish research ethics deals with matters of justice on the levels of practical regulation, political morality, and theoretical studies. The bioethical sets of principles introduced by Tom Beauchamp and James Childress in the United States and Jacob Dahl Rendtorff and Peter Kemp in Europe provide the conceptual background,...
Article
Editorial: Dogmas, Stigmas, and Questionable Arguments for Better Health - Volume 28 Issue 2 - JOHANNA AHOLA-LAUNONEN, TUIJA TAKALA, MATTI HÄYRY
Article
Moralism in bioethics and elsewhere means going beyond accepted moral principles, either by exaggerating good ethical concerns, by applying them to areas where they do not belong, or simply by assuming anything else than concrete physical or mental harm as normative guides. This paper explores the conceptual background of moralism especially in the...
Article
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Background: Scientists have cloned animals since the late 19th century, but the crucial step for ethics was the cloning of the first mammal by somatic cell nuclear transfer in 1997. This suggested that scientists could also clone, and possibly enhance, human beings. Sources of data: This survey examines ethical literature on cloning since the 19...
Article
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Justice can be approached from many angles in ethical and political debates, including those involving healthcare, biomedical research, and well-being. The main doctrines of justice are liberal egalitarianism, libertarianism, luck egalitarianism, socialism, utilitarianism, capability approach, communitarianism, and care ethics. These can be further...
Article
Fear of life, fear of death, and fear of causing death form a combination that prevents reasoned changes in laws concerning end-of-life situations. This is shown systematically in this article using the methods of conceptual analysis. Prevalent fears are explicated and interpreted to see how their meanings differ depending on the chosen normative s...
Article
Guest Editorial: Yet Another Emerging Technology: Old and New Questions Posed by Synthetic Biology - Volume 26 Issue 2 - TUIJA TAKALA, MATTI HÄYRY
Article
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This article explores the ethical issues that have been identified in emerging technologies, from early genetic engineering to synthetic biology. The scientific advances in the field form a continuum, and some ethical considerations can be raised time and again when new developments occur. An underlying concern is the cumulative effect of scientifi...
Article
Increasing the Sum Total of General Intelligence, As Measured by Individual IQ Scores - Volume 25 Issue 3 - MATTI HÄYRY
Article
This article explicates two approaches to the basis of moral worth and status: Eva Kittay’s relational view and Jeff McMahan’s psychological personhood view. It is argued that these theories alone do not provide adequate support for the conclusions Kittay and McMahan want to draw concerning individuals whose entitlement to fundamental protections c...
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This article provides an overview of approaches to bioethics-practical and theoretical, philosophical and nonphilosophical. It is argued that those who yearn for pragmatism and real-life relevance would do well to concentrate on politics, legislation, social policy, and lobbying. Those, on the other hand, who seek knowledge about our moral thought...
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This paper shows how most modern theories of justice could require or at least condone international aid aimed at alleviating the ill effects of disability. Seen from the general viewpoint of liberal egalitarianism, this is moderately encouraging, since according to the creed people in bad positions should be aided, and disability tends to put peop...
Article
Philosophers should express their ideas clearly. They should do this in any field of specialization, but especially when they address issues of practical consequence, as they do in bioethics. This article dissects a recent and much-debated contribution to philosophical bioethics by Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva, examines how exactly it fa...
Chapter
This entry provides a standard characterization of coercion and its main alternatives and illustrates its contemporary applications in global bioethics. Coercion is defined as a mode of influence that operates by threats and force; aims at controlling the recipient’s being, movement, or will; and leaves, at least initially, its recipient disadvanta...
Article
Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effective...
Article
This article provides an overview of the six other contributions in the Neuroethics and Animals special section. In addition, it discusses the methodological and theoretical problems of interdisciplinary fields. The article suggests that interdisciplinary approaches without established methodological and theoretical bases are difficult to assess sc...
Article
This article describes and introduces a new innovative tool for bioethics education: a rock opera on the ethics of genetics written by two academics and a drummer legend. The origin of the idea, the characters and their development, and the themes and approaches as well as initial responses to the music and the show are described, and the various e...
Article
Should we make people healthier, smarter, and longer-lived if genetic and medical advances enable us to do so? Matti Häyry asks this question in the context of genetic testing and selection, cloning and stem cell research, gene therapies and enhancements. The ethical questions explored include parental responsibility, the use of people as means, th...
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In this article, I present what I believe to be the core of Jürgen Habermas’s views on the morality, ethics, and regulation of emerging genetic and reproductive technologies in his book The Future of Human Nature .
Article
My recently published book Rationality and the Genetic Challenge: Making People Better? analyzes different philosophical responses to developments in genetics.1 In the last two issues of the Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 14 scholars have presented critical comments on my work, and this article is my response to them.
Article
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Picture this. You are having your regular medical checkup, when, all of a sudden, the physician turns to you and says: "Oh, did I remember to mention that you can now live forever?" You look at the doctor enquiringly and she goes on: "Well, it's not actual immortality, you know, but they've invented this treatment-I don't have the full details-that...
Article
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Neuroethics addresses moral, legal, and social questions created or highlighted by theoretical and practical developments in neuroscience. Practices in need of scrutiny currently include at least brain imaging with new techniques, chemical attempts to shift exceptional brain function toward normality, chemical attempts to enhance ordinary brain fun...
Article
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Ethics can be understood as a code of behaviour or as the study of codes of behaviour. While the mission of the International Association of Bioethics is a scholarly examination of moral issues in health care and the biological sciences, many people in the field believe that it is also their task to create new and better codes of practice. Both way...
Chapter
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Two questions precede any considerations of reproductive genetics and gender. They are “Should people have children to begin with?” and “Who is responsible for children and why?” If it is irrational or immoral to produce offspring, as I have suggested elsewhere [1–3], reproductive genetics turns out to be a waste of time and gendered family roles o...
Article
ABSTRACT Public health authorities sometimes have to make decisions about the use of preventive medical measures—e.g. vaccination programmes—which could, if realised, save millions of lives, but could also kill a certain (small) number of those subjected to the measures. According to a rough-and-ready utilitarian calculation, such measures should b...
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This article examines Aubrey de Grey's case for allocating substantial funding to interventive biogerontological research immediately. The conclusion is that the case is inconclusive and that scientific analyses of costs and probabilities would be needed to defend it properly.
Article
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This paper explores the historical idea of improving humanity. Developments in genetics and political thought have during the last century contributed to eugenic policies which have sometimes had adverse effects on people's lives. But European philosophy has seen attempts to make better human beings long before the current scientific advances. The...
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This paper examines the logic and morality of the German Stem Cell Act of 2002. After a brief description of the law's scope and intent, its ethical dimensions are analysed in terms of symbolic threats, indirect consequences, and the encouragement of immorality. The conclusions are twofold. For those who want to accept the law, the arguments for it...
Article
Human genetic databanks are, on a local and limited scale, a reality in all countries where healthcare systems are reasonably advanced. Tissue samples, which can be genetically analysed, have for some time been stored in hospitals and laboratories for various medical and scientific reasons. It was not, however, until plans for wider genetic databan...
Article
People have concerns, and in democratic societies we expect these concerns to be somehow addressed by the public authorities. In this chapter, we propose to answer two questions. First, in the light of the sociological studies conducted by the ELSAGEN team, what are the main concerns that people in Estonia, Iceland, Sweden and the United Kingdom ha...
Book
The investigation of ELSAGEN (Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects of Human Genetic Databases: A European Comparison), which was funded by the European Commission from 2002 to 2004, was occasioned by plans to construct population-wide databases in the four participating countries: deCODE's database in Iceland, the Estonian Genome Project, UK Biobank a...
Article
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The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self-evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among...
Article
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The concepts of autonomy as the self governance of individuals and dignity as the inner worth of human beings play an important role in contemporary bioethics. Since both notions are crucial to Immanuel Kant's moral theory, it would be tempting to think that Kantian ethics could ease the friction between the two concepts. It is argued in this paper...
Article
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People have concerns, and ethicists often respond to them with philosophical arguments. But can conceptual constructions properly address fears and anxieties? It is argued in this paper that while it is possible to voice, clarify, create and-to a certain extent-tackle concerns by arguments, more concrete practices, choices, and actions are normally...
Article
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If it is irrational to allow the worst outcome of our actions, and if it is immoral to cause suffering, then it is irrational and immoral to have children.
Article
The authors analyse and assess the Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights published by UNESCO. They argue that the Draft has two main weaknesses. It unnecessarily confines the scope of bioethics to life sciences and their practical applications. And it fails to spell out the intended role of human dignity in international ethical...
Article
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Health care services are constantly assessed by their ability to accommodate values popular in contemporary societies. Autonomy, justice, and human dignity have for some time been among such values in the affluent West. Relative newcomers in the field are the notions of and which seem to attract, in particular, Continental European ethicists. a
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The questions I will address in this paper three questions. These are: Why should bioscientists be ethical decision-makers? What are bioscientists as ethical decision-makers? How can bioscientists act as ethical decision-makers? Answers to these questions should clarify the role of geneticists, molecular biologists and other bioscientists in both p...
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If genetic diagnosis and preimplantation selection could be employed to produce deaf children, would it be acceptable for deaf parents to do so? Some say no, because there is no moral difference between selecting a deaf embryo and deafening a hearing child, and because it would be wrong to deafen infants. It is argued in this paper, however, that t...
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In many Western jurisdictions cannabis, unlike most other psychoactive drugs, cannot be prescribed to patients even in cases where medical professionals believe that it would ease the patient's pain or anxiety. The reasons for this prohibition are mostly ideological, although medical and moral arguments have been formulated to support it. In this p...
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Since human reproduction is arguably both irrational and immoral, those who seek help before conceiving could be advised it is all right not to have children.
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This article provides an overview of the reasons why people should or should not have children, and of two attempts to define what we can do to make sure that the lives of the children we have are as good as they can be. It is suggested that the answers to these questions are more complex than we tend to think, and that rational arguments can be fo...
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Can philosophers come up with persuasive reasons to allow or to ban human reproductive cloning? Yes. Can philosophers agree, locally and temporarily, which practices related to cloning should be condoned and which should be rejected? Some of them can. Can philosophers produce universally convincing arguments for or against different kinds of human...
Article
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Are there distinctly European values in bioethics, and if there are, what are they? Some Continental philosophers have argued that the principles of dignity, precaution, and solidarity reflect the European ethos better than the liberal concepts of autonomy, harm, and justice. These principles, so the argument goes, elevate prudence over hedonism, c...
Article
Finland is internationally known as one of the leading centers of twentieth century analytic philosophy. This volume offers for the first time an overall survey of the Finnish analytic school. The rise of this trend is illustrated by original articles of Edward Westermarck, Eino Kaila, Georg Henrik von Wright, and Jaakko Hintikka. Contributions of...
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Rights, autonomy, privacy, and confidentiality are concepts commonly used in discussions concerning genetic information. When these concepts are thought of as denoting absolute norms and values which cannot be overriden by other considerations, conflicts among them naturally occur. In this paper, these and related notions are examined in terms of t...
Article
The idea of cloning adult human beings often gives rise to objections involving mad dictators producing copies of themselves, or deranged billionaires who want to live forever. But what about situations where we can more readily understand and accept the reasons for creating a clone? Consider, for instance, the case of parents who have simulta...
Article
The idea of cloning adult human beings often gives rise to objections involving mad dictators producing copies of themselves, or deranged billionaires who want to live forever. But what about situations where we can more readily understand and accept the reasons for creating a clone? Consider, for instance, the case of parents who have simultaneous...
Article
Abortions are legally permitted in most Western societies if there is a reasonable expectation that the child, if born, would be physically or mentally disabled. Even late-term abortions, which would not be allowed in the case of healthy fetuses, are accepted on the basis of foreseen disability.
Chapter
Since the invention of recombinant-DNA techniques in the 1970s, the development of modern biotechnology has presented a constant challenge to our views of ourselves as natural and moral beings. Somatic cell therapies, which cure diseases only in those individuals who are actually being treated, are the least problematic form of medical genetics, as...
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In a contribution to The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Professor Rosamond Rhodes argues that individuals sometimes have an obligation to know about their genetic disorders, because this is required by their status as autonomous persons. Her analysis, which is based on Kant's concept of autonomy and Aristotle's notion of friendship, is extende...
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Ben Mepham has proposed that a ``matrix'' beused in the analysis of ethical problems in foodproduction and elsewhere. In particular cases, thismatrix would ideally cross the most important moralprinciples involved, and the individuals and groupsaffected by the decisions. In the following, Mepham'smodel is assessed in the case of geneticallyengineer...
Book
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This is a historical account, in Finnish, of how philosophers have defined just societies and ideal states, and how they have justified their definitions.
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When ethics committees evaluate the research proposals submitted to them by biomedical scientists, they can seek guidance from laws and regulations, their own beliefs, values and experiences, and from the theories of philosophers. The starting point of this paper is that philosophers can only be helpful to the members of ethics committees if they t...
Article
The study reports one part of a 3-year BIOMED 1 project financed by the European community. The objective was to propose a strategy to combat AIDS that would be acceptable to all the European countries, and this has involved carrying out a survey of the measures taken by each of the countries participating in the project (14 states, including 7 fro...

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Projects (2)
Project
In an Academy of Finland funded consortium, we try to find out what kinds of decisions could lead (or not lead) to a future of bioeconomy, as opposed to the continuation of the current fossil economy. Futures studies researchers build scenarios to see what is likely to happen, and philosophers study who are responsible for the relevant decisions and in what sense.