Matthijs van der Wiel

Matthijs van der Wiel
Astron · Radio Observatory Unit

About

75
Publications
4,811
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2,342
Citations
Citations since 2017
24 Research Items
1704 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
Context. Physical processes that govern the star and planet formation sequence influence the chemical composition and evolution of protoplanetary disks. Recent studies allude to an early start to planet formation already during the formation of a disk. To understand the chemical composition of protoplanets, we need to constrain the composition and...
Preprint
Context. The relationship between outflow launching and formation of accretion disks around young stellar objects is still not entirely understood, which is why spectrally and spatially resolved observations are needed. Recently, the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) has carried out long-baseline observations towards a handful of...
Preprint
Observations of young stellar objects (YSOs) in centimeter bands can probe the continuum emission from growing dust grains, ionized winds, and magnetospheric activity, which are intimately connected to the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets. We have carried out sensitive continuum observations toward the Ophiuchus A star...
Article
Context. The majority of stars form in binary or higher order systems. The evolution of each protostar in a multiple system may start at different times and may progress differently. The Class 0 protostellar system IRAS 16293–2422 contains two protostars, “A” and “B”, separated by ~600 au and embedded in a single, 10 ⁴ au scale envelope. Their rela...
Preprint
[Abridged] The majority of stars form in binary or higher order systems. The Class 0 protostellar system IRAS16293-2422 contains two protostars, 'A' and 'B', separated by ~600 au and embedded in a single, 10^4 au scale envelope. Their relative evolutionary stages have been debated. We aim to study the relation and interplay between the two protosta...
Article
Studies of deuterated isotopologues of complex organic molecules can provide important constraints on their origin in star formation regions. In particular, the abundances of deuterated species are very sensitive to the physical conditions in the environment where they form. Because the temperatures in star formation regions are low, these isotopol...
Preprint
Studies of deuterated isotopologues of complex organic molecules can provide important constraints on their origin in regions of star formation. In particular, the abundances of deuterated species are very sensitive to the physical conditions in the environment where they form. Due to the low temperatures in regions of star formation, these isotopo...
Article
Context. Hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) and methylamine (CH 3 NH 2 ) have both been suggested as precursors to the formation of amino acids and are therefore, of interest to prebiotic chemistry. Their presence in interstellar space and formation mechanisms, however, are not well established. Aims. We aim to detect both amines and their potential precursor...
Article
Full-text available
The growth of dust grains in protoplanetary disks is a necessary first step towards planet formation. This growth has been inferred via observations of thermal dust emission towards mature protoplanetary systems (age >2 million years) with masses that are, on average, similar to Neptune3. In contrast, the majority of confirmed exoplanets are heavie...
Preprint
Hydroxylamine (NH$_{2}$OH) and methylamine (CH$_{3}$NH$_{2}$) have both been suggested as precursors to the formation of amino acids and are therefore of interest to prebiotic chemistry. Their presence in interstellar space and formation mechanisms, however, are not well established. We aim to detect both amines and their potential precursor molecu...
Article
Disks around young stars are the sites of planet formation. As such, the physical and chemical structure of disks have a direct impact on the formation of planetary bodies. Outflowing winds remove angular momentum and mass and affect the disk structure and therefore potentially planet formation. Until very recently, we have lacked the facilities to...
Article
Context. Much attention has been placed on the dust distribution in protostellar envelopes, but there are still many unanswered questions regarding the physico-chemical structure of the gas. Aims. Our aim is to start identifying the factors that determine the chemical structure of protostellar regions, by studying and comparing low-mass embedded sy...
Preprint
Much attention has been placed on the dust distribution in protostellar envelopes, but there are still many unanswered questions regarding the structure of the gas. We aim to start identifying the factors that determine the chemical structure of protostellar regions, by studying and comparing low-mass embedded systems in key molecular tracers. The...
Article
Context . Complex organic molecules are readily detected in the inner regions of the gaseous envelopes of forming protostars. Their detection is crucial to understanding the chemical evolution of the Universe and exploring the link between the early stages of star formation and the formation of solar system bodies, where complex organic molecules h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Complex organic molecules are readily detected in the inner regions of the gaseous envelopes of forming protostars. In particular, molecules that contain nitrogen are interesting due to the role nitrogen plays in the development of life and the compact scales such molecules have been found to trace around forming protostars. The goal of this work i...
Article
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The evolutionary past of our Solar System can be pieced together by comparing analogous low-mass protostars with remnants of our Protosolar Nebula - comets. Sulphur-bearing molecules may be unique tracers of the joint evolution of the volatile and refractory components. ALMA Band 7 data from the large unbiased Protostellar Interferometric Line Surv...
Article
Full-text available
Searches for the prebiotically-relevant cyanamide (NH$_2$CN) towards solar-type protostars have not been reported in the literature. We here present the first detection of this species in the warm gas surrounding two solar-type protostars, using data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PIL...
Article
Full-text available
Context. The Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293–2422 is an interesting target for (sub)millimeter observations due to, both, the rich chemistry toward the two main components of the binary and its complex morphology. Its proximity to Earth allows the study of its physical and chemical structure on solar system scales using high angular resoluti...
Article
Full-text available
Context. The enhanced degrees of deuterium fractionation observed in envelopes around protostars demonstrate the importance of chemistry at low temperatures, relevant in pre- and protostellar cores. Formaldehyde is an important species in the formation of methanol and more complex molecules. Aims. Here, we aim to present the first study of formalde...
Article
Full-text available
Far-infrared and (sub)millimeter fluxes can be used to study dust in protoplanetary disks, the building blocks of planets. Here, we combine observations from the Herschel Space Observatory with ancillary data of 284 protoplanetary disks in the Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Ophiuchus star-forming regions, covering from the optical to mm/cm wavelengths....
Article
Full-text available
Organohalogens, a class of molecules that contain at least one halogen atom bonded to carbon, are abundant on the Earth where they are mainly produced through industrial and biological processes ¹. Consequently, they have been proposed as biomarkers in the search for life on exoplanets ². Simple halogen hydrides have been detected in interstellar s...
Article
Full-text available
We describe an update to the Herschel-SPIRE Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) calibration for extended sources, which incorporates a correction for the frequency-dependent far-field feedhorn efficiency, $\eta_\mathrm{FF}$. This significant correction affects all FTS extended-source calibrated spectra in sparse or mapping mode, regardless of the...
Article
Young stars are associated with prominent outflows of molecular gas. The ejection of gas via these outflows is believed to remove angular momentum from the protostellar system, thus permitting young stars to grow by accretion of material from the protostellar disk. The underlying mechanism for outflow ejection is not yet understood, but is believed...
Article
One of the open questions in astrochemistry is how complex organic and prebiotic molecules are formed. Aims. Our aim is to start the process of compiling an inventory of oxygen-bearing complex organic molecules toward the solar-type Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS16293-2422 from an unbiased spectral survey with ALMA (PILS). Here we focus on the ne...
Article
The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterised by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. This paper introduces a systematic survey, "Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)" of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 using...
Article
Full-text available
Aims. We investigate the spatial distribution of a collection of absorbing gas clouds, some associated with the dense, massive star-forming core NGC6334 I, and others with diffuse foreground clouds. For the former category, we aim to study the dynamical properties of the clouds in order to assess their potential to feed the accreting protostellar c...
Article
Full-text available
Formamide (NH2CHO) has previously been detected in several star-forming regions and is thought to be a precursor for different prebiotic molecules. Its formation mechanism is still debated, however. Observations of formamide, related species, and their isopotologues may provide useful clues to the chemical pathways leading to their formation. The P...
Article
Full-text available
Dust grains play a key role in the physics of star-forming regions, even though they constitute only $\sim$1 \% of the mass of the interstellar medium. The derivation of accurate dust parameters such as temperature $T_{dust}$, emissivity spectral index ($\beta$) and column density requires broadband continuum observations at far-infrared wavelength...
Article
The Herschel SPIRE imaging FTS pipeline processing assumed either point-like or uniformly extended emission. This paper describes the interactive processing required to correct partially extended sources to account for the changing beam size with frequency.
Article
Full-text available
A systematic programme of calibration observations was carried out to monitor the performance of the SPIRE FTS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. Observations of planets (including the prime point-source calibrator, Uranus), asteroids, line sources, dark sky, and cross-calibration sources were made in order to monitor repeatability...
Article
The Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) employs a dual-band imaging Fourier-transform-spectrometer (IFTS). We discuss the frequency calibration of both on- and off-axis SPIRE IFTS detectors using CO emission lines from observations of Orion.
Article
We present a summary of the Herschel SPIRE/FTS calibration programme to monitor the repeatability of spectral lines. Observations of planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars are used to assess repeatability and model the asymmetry of the instrument line shape.
Article
Full-text available
Context: The north-west photo-dissociation region (PDR) in the reflection nebula NGC 7023 displays a complex structure. Filament-like condensations at the edge of the cloud can be traced via the emission of the main cooling lines, offering a great opportunity to study the link between the morphology and energetics of these regions. Aims: We study t...
Article
Full-text available
(Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) are objects characterized by their extreme infrared (8-1000 $\mu$m) luminosities ($L_{LIRG}>10^{11} $L$_\odot$ and $L_{ULIRG}>10^{12}$ L$_\odot$). The Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey (HerCULES; PI van der Werf) presents a representative flux-limited sample of 29 (U)LIRGs that spans the full...
Article
In most cases, the Standard Product Generation (SPG) processing pipelines for the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) produce well-calibrated spectra of high quality. However, some Astronomical sources, such as those with a faint continuum, require additional processing to achieve more meaningful spectra. In consultation with the as...
Article
We aim to understand the rich chemical composition of AFGL 2591, a prototypical isolated high-mass star-forming region. Based on HIFI and JCMT data, the molecular abundances of species found in the protostellar envelope of AFGL 2591 were derived with the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RATRAN, assuming either constant values or 1D stepwise radi...
Article
Full-text available
The determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds is a key step towards our understanding of their formation and evolution of associated star formation. We investigate the density, temperature, and column density of both dust and gas in the photodissociation regions (PDRs) located at the interface between the atomic and cold molecula...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular gas constitutes the dominant mass component of protoplanetary discs. To date, these sources have not been studied comprehensively at the longest far-infrared and shortest submillimetre wavelengths. This paper presents Herschel SPIRE FTS spectroscopic observations towards 18 protoplanetary discs, covering the entire 450–1540 GHz (666–195 μ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) is one of three scientific instruments on board the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory which ended its operational phase on 29 April 2013. The low to medium resolution spectroscopic capability of SPIRE is provided by an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (iFTS) of the Mach-Ze...
Article
Full-text available
The Herschel SPIRE instrument consists of an imaging photometric camera and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), both operating over a frequency range of 450-1550 GHz. In this paper, we briefly review the FTS design, operation, and data reduction, and describe in detail the approach taken to relative calibration (removal of instrument s...
Article
Full-text available
The Herschel SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) performs spectral imaging in the 447-1546 GHz band. It can observe in three spatial sampling modes: sparse mode, with a single pointing on sky, or intermediate or full modes with 1 and 1/2 beam spacing, respectively. In this paper, we investigate the uncertainty and repeatability for fully sam...
Article
Full-text available
Herbig Ae/Be objects, like their lower mass counterparts T Tauri stars, are seen to form a stable circumstellar disk which is initially gas-rich and could ultimately form a planetary system. We present Herschel SPIRE 460-1540 GHz spectra of five targets out of a sample of 13 young disk sources, showing line detections mainly due to warm CO gas.
Conference Paper
Thermal dust emission is a tracer of mass within star­‐forming regions, so continuum maps trace the distribution of dense material involved in the star formation process. Deriving the mass from measurements of dust continuum emission is complicated by also needing to know (or simultaneously determine) the dust temperature and dust opacity. This opa...
Article
The Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) on the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory utilizes a pioneering design for its imaging spectrometer in the form of a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). The standard FTS data reduction and calibration schemes are aimed at objects with either a spatial extent much larger than th...
Conference Paper
The Herschel-SPIRE imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer employs feed-horn coupled bolometers to provide imaging spectroscopy. We discuss the wavelength dependent beam of the individual SPIRE FTS detectors.
Conference Paper
The spectral imaging capabilities of the Herschel-SPIRE imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer are discussed. The process of data reduction and results from sample observations are presented.
Article
One of the instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory is the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE). SPIRE employs a Fourier transform spectrometer with feed-horn-coupled bolometers to provide imaging spectroscopy. To interpret the resultant spectral images requires knowledge of the wavelength-dependent beam, which in the case o...
Article
Full-text available
The principles and practice of astronomical imaging Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) at far-infrared wavelengths are described. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer design has been widely adopted for current and future imaging FTS instruments; we compare this design with two other common interferometer formats. Examples of three instruments based on...
Article
Full-text available
We aim to reveal the gas energetics in the circumstellar environment of the prototypical high-mass protostellar object AFGL2591 using space-based far-infrared observations of linear rotor molecules. Rotational spectral line signatures of CO, HCO+, CS, HCN and HNC from a 490-1240 GHz survey with Herschel/HIFI, complemented by ground-based JCMT and I...
Article
Hydrogen fluoride has been established to be an excellent tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse clouds. In denser environments, however, the HF abundance has been shown to be approximately two orders of magnitude lower. We present Herschel/HIFI observations of HF J=1-0 toward two high-mass star formation sites, NGC6334 I and AFGL 2591. In NGC6334...
Article
Full-text available
The understanding of the formation process of massive stars (>8 Msun) is limited, due to theoretical complications and observational challenges. We investigate the physical structure of the large-scale (~10^4-10^5 AU) molecular envelope of the high-mass protostar AFGL2591 using spectral imaging in the 330-373 GHz regime from the JCMT Spectral Legac...
Article
Full-text available
High resolution line spectra of star-forming regions are mines of information: they provide unique clues to reconstruct the chemical, dynamical, and physical structure of the observed source. We present the first results from the Herschel key project "Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions", CHESS. We report and discuss observations towa...
Article
We report the first detection of chloronium, H2Cl+, in the interstellar medium, using the HIFI instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The 212-101 lines of ortho-H_235Cl+ and ortho-H_237Cl+ are detected in absorption towards NGC 6334I, and the 111-000 transition of para-H_235Cl+ is detected in absorption towards NGC 6334I and Sgr B2(S). T...
Article
Full-text available
Context. In contrast to the more extensively studied dense star-forming cores, little is known about diffuse gas surrounding star-forming regions. Aims: We study the molecular gas in the Galactic high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I, which contains diffuse, quiescent components that are inconspicuous in widely used molecular tracers such as CO....
Article
Full-text available
Context. Despite the low elemental deuterium abundance in the Galaxy, enhanced molecular D/H ratios have been found in the environments of low-mass star-forming regions, and in particular the Class 0 protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Aims: The CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions) key program aims to study the molecular complexity of...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen is the fifth most abundant element in the Universe, yet the gas-phase chemistry of N-bearing species remains poorly understood. Nitrogen hydrides are key molecules of nitrogen chemistry. Their abundance ratios place strong constraints on the production pathways and reaction rates of nitrogen-bearing molecules. We observed the class 0 proto...
Article
Full-text available
In contrast with numerous studies on the physical and chemical structure of low- and high-mass protostars, much less is known about their intermediate-mass counterparts, a class of objects that could help to elucidate the mechanisms of star formation on both ends of the mass range. We present the first results from a rich HIFI spectral dataset on a...
Article
Full-text available
In the past decade, much progress has been made in characterising the processes leading to the enhanced deuterium fractionation observed in the ISM and in particular in the cold, dense parts of star forming regions such as protostellar envelopes. Very high molecular D/H ratios have been found for saturated molecules and ions. However, little is kno...
Article
Full-text available
We present observations of twelve rotational transitions of H2O-16, H2O-18, and H2O-17 toward the massive star-forming region NGC 6334 I, carried out with Herschel/HIFI as part of the guaranteed time key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS). We analyze these observations to obtain insights into physical processes in thi...
Article
Full-text available
We report the first detection of chloronium, H$_2$Cl$^+$, in the interstellar medium, using the HIFI instrument aboard the \emph{Herschel} Space Observatory. The $2_{12}-1_{01}$ lines of ortho-H$_2^{35}$Cl$^+$ and ortho-H$_2^{37}$Cl$^+$ are detected in absorption towards NGC~6334I, and the $1_{11}-0_{00}$ transition of para-H$_2^{35}$Cl$^+$ is dete...
Article
Full-text available
Context. The outflow driven by the low-mass class 0 protostar L1157 is the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The bright bowshock B1 in the southern outflow lobe is a privileged testbed of magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) shock models, for which dynamical and chemical processes are strongly interdependent. Aims. We present the firs...
Article
Full-text available
We present the first results of the unbiased survey of the L1157-B1 bow shock, obtained with HIFI in the framework of the key program Chemical HErschel Survey of Star forming regions (CHESS). The L1157 outflow is driven by a low-mass Class 0 protostar and is considered the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The bright blue-shift...
Article
Full-text available
The outflow driven by the low-mass class 0 protostar L1157 is the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The bright bowshock B1 in the southern outflow lobe is a privileged testbed of magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) shock models, for which dynamical and chemical processes are strongly interdependent. We present the first results of the...
Article
Full-text available
We identify a prominent absorption feature at 1115 GHz, detected in first HIFI spectra towards high-mass star-forming regions, and interpret its astrophysical origin. The characteristic hyperfine pattern of the H2O+ ground-state rotational transition, and the lack of other known low-energy transitions in this frequency range, identifies the feature...
Article
Full-text available
The integrated line intensities in Table 1 of Van der Wiel et al. (2009, A&A 498, 161) should be modified due to an error in the adopted channel widths: values are reduced by similar to 20% for C2H, H2CO and SO, reduced by a factor similar to 5 for (CO)-O-18 and HCN, and increased by similar to 40% for (CO)-C-13. Derived column densities for C2H, H...