Matthieu Boisgontier

Matthieu Boisgontier
University of Ottawa · Faculty of Health Sciences

PhD

About

140
Publications
42,096
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2,424
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Introduction
Website: http://matthieuboisgontier.com --- Twitter: @MattBoisgontier

Publications

Publications (140)
Preprint
Full-text available
Using computerized reaction-time tasks assessing automatic attitudes, studies have shown that healthy young adults have faster reaction times when approaching physical activity stimuli than when avoiding them. The opposite has been observed for sedentary stimuli. However, it is unclear whether these results hold across the lifespan and when error r...
Article
Full-text available
The role of affective responses to effort in the regulation of physical activity behavior is widely accepted. Yet, to investigate these affective responses during physical activity, most studies used direct self-reported measures that are prone to biases (e.g., social desirability, ability to introspect). To reduce these biases, we used an indirect...
Article
Full-text available
Poor sleep quality and physical inactivity are known risk factors for depressive symptoms. Yet, whether these factors differently contribute to depressive symptoms and whether they interact with one another remains unclear. Here, we examined how sleep quality and physical activity influence depressive symptoms in 79,274 adults 50 years of age or ol...
Poster
Full-text available
While physical activity provides substantial health benefits, cardiac rehabilitation patients do not reach the recommended physical activity levels after discharge from clinics (1, 2). Traditional interventions providing knowledge about theses expected health benefits do not appear to be sufficient (3). Recent research on automatically activated pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: A higher level of academic education is associated with higher levels of physical activity across the life course. However, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Cognitive functioning is a potential mediator of this association, as higher levels of education are associated with better cognitive function, which is as...
Preprint
Full-text available
The role of affective responses to effort in the regulation of physical activity behavior is widely accepted. Yet, to investigate these affective responses during physical activity, most studies used direct self-reported measures that are prone to biases (e.g., social desirability, ability to introspect). Here, to reduce these biases, we used an in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Physical activity has been associated with better cognitive function and better sleep quality. Yet, whether the beneficial effect of physical activity on cognitive function can be explained by an indirect pathway involving better sleep quality is unclear. Objective: To investigate whether sleep quality mediates the association betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Reaching for an object in space forms the basis for many activities of daily living and is important in rehabilitation after stroke and in other neurological and orthopedic conditions. It has been the object of motor control and neuroscience research for over a century, but studies often constrain movement to eliminate the effect of gravity or redu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Poor sleep quality and physical inactivity are risk factors for depressive symptoms. Yet, whether these factors differently contribute to depressive symptoms and whether they interact with one another remains unclear. This study aimed to examine how sleep quality and physical activity influence depressive symptoms. 79,274 adults who were 50 years o...
Article
Full-text available
The replication crisis in psychology has led to question popular phenomena such as ego depletion, which has been criticized after studies failed to replicate. Here, we describe limitations in the literature that contributed to these failures and suggest how they may be addressed. At the theoretical level, the literature focuses on two out of at lea...
Article
Health in older age is shaped by early-life socioeconomic circumstances (SECs) and sex. However, whether and why these factors interact is unclear. We examined a cultural explanation of this interaction by distinguishing cultural and material aspects of SECs in the context of physical activity—a major determinant of health. We used data from 56,331...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To investigate the associations of physical-activity trajectories with the level of cognitive performance (CP) and its decline in adults 50 years of age or older. Methods We studied 38 729 individuals (63 ± 9 years; 57% women) enrolled in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Physical activity was self-reported and CP...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Physical activity has been associated with better cognitive functions and sleep quality. Yet, whether the effect of physical activity on cognitive functions could be explained by better sleep quality in adults who are 50 year of age or older is unclear. Objective: To investigate whether sleep quality mediates the association between ph...
Article
Full-text available
Contributions from premotor and supplementary motor areas to reaching behavior in aging humans are not well understood. The objective of these experiments was to examine effects of perturbations to specific cortical areas on the control of unconstrained reaches against gravity by younger and older adults. Double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulat...
Article
Full-text available
The theory of effort minimization in physical activity argues that individuals have an automatic attraction toward effort minimization. To engage in a physically active behavior, this automatic attraction needs to be overridden by controlled processes. However, direct evidence showing that inhibitory control is required to avoid effort minimization...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Precursors driving leisure-time sedentary behaviors remain poorly investigated, despite their detrimental consequences. This study aimed to investigate the predictive validity of controlled and automatic motivational precursors toward reducing sedentary behaviors and being physically active on leisure-time sedentary behaviors. The influ...
Article
Full-text available
Declines in subjective energy availability and cognitive functions could explain the decrease in physical activity observed across aging. However, how these factors interact remains unknown. Based on the theory of effort minimization in physical activity (TEMPA), we hypothesized that cognitive functions may help older adults to maintain physical ac...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Weak muscle strength has been associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Yet, whether individuals with weaker muscle strength are more at risk for hospitalization due to severe COVID-19 is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the independent association between muscle strength and COVID-19 hospital...
Article
Acute exercise can modulate the excitability of the non-exercised upper-limb representation in the primary motor cortex (M1). Accumulating evidence demonstrates acute exercise affects measures of M1 intracortical excitability, with some studies also showing altered corticospinal excitability. However, the influence of distinct M1 interneuron popula...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Being physically active is associated with a wide range of health benefits in patients. However, many patients do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA). To date, interventions promoting PA in patients mainly rely on providing knowledge about the benefits associated with PA to develop their motivation to be acti...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Despite the key role of physical activity in the management of diabetes, many individuals with diabetes do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. However, our knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the relationship between diabetes and physical inactivity is limited. Purpose. To investigate the associations between...
Article
Full-text available
Physical activity has been proposed as a protective factor for COVID-19 hospitalization. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We examined the association between physical activity and COVID-19 hospitalization and whether this relationship was explained by other risk factors (chronic conditions, weak muscle strength). We...
Article
Full-text available
While the automatic attraction to effort minimization has been evidenced in multiple fields, its potential role in explaining the pandemic of physical inactivity has been overlooked. The Theory of Effort Minimization in Physical Activity fills this gap. TEMPA seeks to obtain a more accurate understanding of the neuropsychological determinants of mo...
Preprint
Full-text available
La théorie présentée dans cet article vise à expliquer pourquoi de nombreuses personnes ne parviennent pas à transformer leur intention d’être physiquement actif en actions. Les principaux modèles de la motivation humaine indiquent que les processus cognitifs et affectifs sont des déterminants essentiels des comportements de santé, tels que l’activ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Decreasing the intensity of exercise at the end of a session has been associated with greater post-exercise pleasure and enjoyment. Here, we investigated whether this manipulation can enhance affective attitudes toward physical activity (PA) and promotes PA in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Seven patients (72.9±5.6 years, 3 women) were inc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: To investigate the associations of physical-activity trajectories with the level of cognitive performance and its decline in adults 50 years of age or older. Methods: We studied 38729 individuals (63 years; 57% women) enrolled in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Physical activity was self-reported and cogni...
Article
Full-text available
The theory of effort minimization in physical activity (TEMPA) argues that individuals have an automatic attraction toward effort minimization. To engage in a physically active behavior, this automatic attraction needs to be overridden by controlled processes. However, direct evidence showing that inhibitory control is required to avoid effort mini...
Preprint
Full-text available
The replication crisis in psychology has led to question popular psychological phenomena such as ego depletion, which has been criticized after studies failed to replicate. Here, we describe limitations in the literature that contributed to these failures and suggest how they may be addressed. At the theoretical level, the literature focuses on two...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. Habits, defined as well-learned associations between cues and behaviours, are essential for health-related behaviours, including physical activity (PA). Despite the sensitivity of habits to context changes, little remains known about the influence of a context change on the interplay between PA habits and behaviours. We investigated the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives. Physical activity has been proposed as a protective factor for COVID-19 hospitalization. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Here, we examined the association between physical activity and COVID-19 hospitalization and whether this relationship was explained by other risk factors for severe COVID-19. Method....
Preprint
Full-text available
The theory of effort minimization in physical activity (TEMPA) argues that individuals have an automatic attraction toward effort minimization. To engage in a physically active behavior, this automatic attraction needs to be overridden by controlled processes. However, direct evidence showing that inhibitory control is required to avoid effort mini...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Muscle strength has been associated with a wide range of health outcomes. Yet, whether individuals with weaker strength are more at risk for severe COVID-19 is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the independent association between muscle strength and COVID-19 hospitalization. Methods. Data from 3600 adults 50...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The specific and dynamic contributions of premotor and supplementary motor areas to reaching movements in aging humans are not well understood. Objective To better understand the role of cortical motor regions and age on the control of unconstrained reaches against gravity by neurologically intact, younger and older adults. Methods Dou...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reaching for an object in space forms the basis for many activities of daily living and is important in rehabilitation after stroke and in other neurological and orthopedic conditions. It has been the object of motor control and neuroscience research for over a century, but studies often constrain movement to eliminate the effect of gravity or redu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective. Habits, defined as well-learned associations between cues and behaviours, are essential for health-related behaviours, including physical activity (PA). Despite the sensitivity of habits to context changes, little remains known about the influence of a context change on the interplay between PA habits and behaviours. Here, we investigate...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. To assess whether changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour during the COVID-19 lockdown are associated with changes in mental and physical health. Design. Observational longitudinal study. Method. Participants living in France or Switzerland responded to online questionnaires measuring physical activity, physical and mental...
Preprint
Full-text available
Physical activity and cognitive functioning are strongly intertwined. However, the causal relationships underlying this association are still unclear. Physical activity can enhance brain functions, but healthy cognition may also promote engagement in physical activity. Here, we used Latent Heritable Confounder Mendelian Randomization (LHC-MR) to as...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective. This study aimed to investigate the predictive validity of controlled and automatic motivational precursors toward reducing sedentary behaviors and being physically active on leisure-time sedentary behaviors. Moreover, the influence of demographic, physical, socio-professional, interpersonal, and environmental variables on leisure-time s...
Article
Full-text available
Background.: Concussion is a common injury in an adolescent population with up to 30% experiencing persistent symptoms. Rehabilitation programs that include aerobic exercises can reduce persistent postconcussion symptoms. However, it is unclear if daily life physical activities can also reduce symptoms. Purpose.: To investigate whether the level...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Adverse childhood experiences, depressive symptoms, and functional dependence are interrelated. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. The authors investigated the potential of depressive symptoms to mediate the effect of adverse childhood experiences on functional dependence in older age and whether phys...
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence suggests humans have an automatic attraction to effort minimization. Yet, how this attraction is associated with response inhibition is still unclear. Here, we used go/no-go tasks to capture inhibitory control in response to stimuli depicting physical activity versus physical inactivity in 59 healthy young individuals. Higher commis...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent evidence suggests humans have an automatic attraction to effort minimization. Yet, how this attraction is associated with response inhibition is still unclear. Here, we used go/nogo tasks to capture inhibitory control in response to stimuli depicting physical activity versus physical inactivity in 59 healthy young individuals. Higher commiss...
Article
Full-text available
In health, the gold standard is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. This state is weakened by physical inactivity, which involves a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, depression, and obesity. Moreover, 6% to 10% of all deaths from non-communicable diseases worldwide can be attributed to p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective. To assess whether changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours during the COVID-19 lockdown are associated with changes in mental and physical health. Design. Observational longitudinal study. Method. Participants living in France or Switzerland responded to online questionnaires. Paired sample t-tests were used to assess diffe...
Article
Full-text available
Attentional capture by exercise-related stimuli is important for the regulation of physical activity. Attentional processing underlying this capture has been investigated with indirect behavioral measures based on reaction times. To investigate more direct measures of visual spatial attention toward physical activity (vs. inactivity) stimuli, we us...
Article
Objectives: This study aimed to examine the cumulative disadvantage of different forms of childhood misfortune and adult-life socioeconomic conditions with regard to trajectories and levels of self-rated health in old age and whether these associations differed between welfare regimes (Scandinavian, Bismarckian, Southern European, and Eastern Euro...
Book
Full-text available
https://www.dunod.com/sciences-humaines-et-sociales/syndrome-du-paresseux-petit-precis-inactivite-physique ///////////////////////////// Vous rendre à la salle du sport ou sortir de votre canapé semble être une lutte ? Rassurez-vous, cette lutte est réelle. Depuis des décennies, la société encourage les gens à être plus actifs physiquement, mais l...
Article
Full-text available
The primary means of disseminating sport and exercise science research is currently through journal articles. However, not all studies, especially those with null findings, make it to formal publication. This publication bias towards positive findings may contribute to questionable research practices. Preregistration is a solution to prevent the pu...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study aimed to test whether the level of cognitive resources explains engagement in physical activity across aging and whether the age-related decline of cognitive resources precede the decline in physical activity. Methods: Data from 105,206 adults aged 50 to 90 years from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHAR...
Article
Full-text available
https://theconversation.com/we-are-programmed-to-be-lazy-128893
Preprint
Full-text available
Physical activity is considered a strategy to improve health. This reasoning implies that physical inactivity is the reference behavior, which is not the case. In health, the gold standard is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.1 Physical inactivity involves a higher risk of cardiovascular disease2, hypertension3, diabetes2,4...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study aimed to assess whether cumulative disadvantage in childhood misfortune and adult-life socioeconomic conditions influence the risk of frailty in old age and whether welfare regimes influence these associations. Methods: Data from 23358 participants aged 50 years and older included in the longitudinal SHARE survey were used...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Concussion is a common injury in an adolescent population with up to 20% experiencing persistent symptoms. Rehabilitation programs that include aerobic exercises can reduce persistent postconcussion symptoms. However, it is unclear if daily-life physical activities can also reduce symptoms. Purpose: To investigate whether the level of d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Attentional capture by exercise-related stimuli is important for the regulation of physical activity. Attentional processing underlying this capture has been investigated with indirect behavioral measures based on reaction times. To investigate more direct measures of visual spatial attention toward physical activity (vs. inactivity) stimuli, we us...
Article
De Morgen, 13 juli 2019: "Waarom lukt het maar niet om te sporten?" Je hebt vakantie en het is mooi weer zodat yoga in het park of joggen perfect zou kunnen. De vakantie is echter halverwege en ondanks je voornemens heb je nog geen vin verroerd. Mensen zijn geneigd om zo energiezuinig mogelijk te bewegen, ontdekten neurowetenschappers. Er zijn echt...
Article
Full-text available
Si le cuesta trabajo levantarse del sofá para realizar una actividad física, no se preocupe, no es el único. https://theconversation.com/estamos-programados-para-la-pereza-121890
Article
Full-text available
Background: Childhood misfortune is associated with late-life depressive symptoms, but it remains an open question whether adult socioeconomic and relational reserves could reduce the association between childhood misfortune and late-life depressive symptoms. Methods: Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), data from...
Article
Full-text available
Poor neighborhood conditions are associated with lower levels of physical activity for older adults but socio-ecological models posit that physical activity depends on both environmental and individual factors. Older adults’ ability to overcome environmental barriers to physical activity may partially rely on cognitive resources. However, evidence...
Article
Full-text available
Aujourd’hui, tout le monde sait que le sport est bon pour la santé. Pourtant, une personne sur deux rechigne à en faire. Pourquoi? https://www.sport-et-vie.com/numero-174/trail-calculez-vitesse-maximale-ascensionnelle/enquete-aux-sources-paresse.47961.php#article_47961