Matthias Hoelzl

Matthias Hoelzl
Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics | IPP · Research Unit MHD and Fast Particles

PhD
Large-scale plasma instabilities in magnetically confined fusion plasmas

About

159
Publications
13,968
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Introduction
Non-linear dynamics of large scale instabilities in magnetically confined fusion plasmas, in particular ELMs and disruptions.
Additional affiliations
January 2007 - present
Education
October 2007 - September 2009

Publications

Publications (159)
Preprint
Full-text available
A triggering mechanism responsible for the explosive onset of edge localised modes (ELMs) in fusion plasmas is identified by performing, for the first time, non-linear magnetohydrodynamic simulations of repetitive type-I ELMs. Briefly prior to the ELM crash, destabilising and stabilising terms are affected at different timescales by an increasingly...
Preprint
In recent years, the nonlinear 3D magnetohydrodynamic codes JOREK, M3D-C$^1$ and NIMROD developed the capability of modelling realistic 3D vertical displacement events (VDEs) including resistive walls. In this paper, a comprehensive 3D VDE benchmark is presented between these state of the art codes. The simulated case is based on an experimental NS...
Preprint
The JOREK extended magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) code is a widely used simulation code for studying the non-linear dynamics of large-scale instabilities in divertor tokamak plasmas. Due to the large scale-separation intrinsic to these phenomena both in space and time, the computational costs for simulations in realistic geometry and with realistic par...
Preprint
We present test-particle simulations of electrons during a nonlinear MHD simulation of a type-I edge localized mode (ELM) to explore the effect of an eruptive plasma filament on the kinetic level. The electrons are moderately heated and accelerated during the filamentary eruption on a fast time scale of the order of 0.5ms. A clearly non-thermal tai...
Preprint
Full-text available
Energetic particle (EP) driven instabilities will be strongly increased relevance in future burning plasmas as the EP pressure will be very large compared to the thermal plasma. Understanding the interaction of EPs and bulk plasma is crucial for developing next-generation fusion devices. In this work, the JOREK MHD code is extended to allow for the...
Article
Fully suppressing edge-localized modes (ELMs), e.g., with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), is essential to reach and sustain high-performance steady-state H-mode plasmas because large ELMs can significantly reduce the lifetime of divertor components in future tokamak reactors. RMP-driven ELM suppression in KSTAR has been modeled by coupling...
Article
3D free boundary equilibrium computations have recently been used to model external kinks and edge harmonic oscillations (EHOs), comparing with linear MHD stability codes, and nonlinear analytic theory [Kleiner et al., Phys. Plasma Controlled Fusion 61, 084005 (2019)]. In this study, results of the VMEC equilibrium code are compared further with no...
Article
Runaway electrons (REs) present a high-priority issue for ITER but little is known about the extent to which RE generation is affected by the stochastic field intrinsic to disrupting plasmas. RE generation can be modelled with reduced kinetic models and there has been recent progress in involving losses due to field stochasticity, either via a loss...
Article
Although the basic concept of a stellarator was known since the early days of fusion research, advances in computational technology have enabled the modeling of increasingly complicated devices, leading up to the construction of Wendelstein 7-X, which has recently shown promising results. This recent success has revived interest in the nonlinear 3D...
Article
Alpha particles with energies on the order of megaelectronvolts will be the main source of plasma heating in future magnetic confinement fusion reactors. Instead of heating fuel ions, most of the energy of alpha particles is transferred to electrons in the plasma. Furthermore, alpha particles can also excite Alfvénic instabilities, which were previ...
Preprint
Runaway electrons (REs) present a high-priority issue for ITER but little is known about the extent to which RE generation is affected by the stochastic field intrinsic to disrupting plasmas. RE generation can be modelled with reduced kinetic models and there has been recent progress in involving losses due to field stochasticity, either via a loss...
Preprint
3D free boundary equilibrium computations have recently been used to model external kinks and edge harmonic oscillations (EHOs), comparing with linear MHD stability codes, and nonlinear analytic theory [Kleiner et al, PPCF 61 084005 (2019)]. In this study, results of the VMEC equilibrium code are compared further with nonlinear reduced MHD simulati...
Article
The development of small- and no-ELM regimes for ITER is a high priority topic due to the risks associated to type-I ELMs. By considering non-linear extended MHD simulations of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak with the JOREK code, we probe a regime that avoids type-I ELMs completely provided that the separatrix density is high enough. The dynamics of the...
Article
The international tokamak ITER is progressing towards assembly completion and first-plasma operation, which will be a physics and engineering challenge for the fusion community. In the preparation for ITER experimental scenarios, non-linear MHD simulations are playing an essential role to actively understand and predict the behaviour and stability...
Article
As part of a reliable disruption mitigation system (SPI) for ITER, pure deuterium shattered pellet injection (SPI) has been proposed as a way of avoiding hot tail runaway electron generation. It offers the possibility of diluting the plasma and, thereby, cooling it down by a large factor without immediately triggering a thermal quench (TQ). However...
Article
Non-axisymmetric simulations of the current quench phase of ITER disruptions are key to predict asymmetric forces acting into the ITER wall. We present for the first time such simulations for ITER mitigated disruptions at realistic Lundquist numbers. For these strongly mitigated disruptions, we find that the edge safety factor remains above 2 and t...
Preprint
Although the basic concept of a stellarator was known since the early days of fusion research, advances in computational technology have enabled the modelling of increasingly complicated devices, leading up to the construction of Wendelstein 7-X, which has recently shown promising results. However, there has been surprisingly little activity in non...
Article
Runaway electrons created during tokamak disruptions pose a threat to a reliable operation of future larger machines. Experiments using Shattered Pellet Injection (SPI) have been carried out at the JET tokamak to investigate ways to prevent their generation or suppress them if avoidance is not sufficient. Avoidance is possible if the SPI contains a...
Preprint
Complete 3D simulations of the current quench phase of ITER disruptions are key to predict asymmetric forces acting into the ITER wall. We present for the first time such simulations for ITER mitigated disruptions at realistic Lundquist numbers. For these strongly mitigated disruptions, we find that the edge safety factor remains above 2 and the ma...
Article
A complete chain from a non-linear MHD plasma model simulation through full-wave code simulations implementing synthetic conventional reflectometry is established. For this purpose, the two-dimensional full-wave code REFMUL is employed together with MHD descriptions obtained from the JOREK code. First results of the integrated modeling are presente...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes recent progress in modeling the interaction between Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) waves and edge plasma with application to ASDEX Upgrade. The basic theories, the development of ICRF and edge plasma codes, the integrated modeling methods and some key results are reviewed. In particular, the following physical aspects...
Preprint
The gyrokinetic particle simulation serves as a powerful tool for the studies of transport, nonlinear phenomenon, and energetic particle physics in tokamak plasmas. While most gyrokinetic simulations make use of the scalar and vector potentials, a new model (GK-E&B) has been developed by using the E and B field in a general and comprehensive form a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tokamak operational regimes with small edge localized modes (ELMs) could be a solution to the problem of large transient heat loads in future fusion reactors because they provide quasi-continuous exhaust while keeping a good plasma confinement. A ballooning mode mechanism near the last closed flux surface (LCFS) governed by an interplay of the pres...
Preprint
Full-text available
The development of small- and no-ELM regimes for ITER is a high priority topic due to the risks associated to type-I ELMs. By considering non-linear extended MHD simulations of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak with the JOREK code, we probe a regime that avoids type-I ELMs completely provided that the separatrix density is high enough. The dynamics of the...
Preprint
A collisional-radiative non-equilibrium impurity treatment for JOREK 3D nonlinear magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations has been developed. The impurities are represented by super-particles flowing along the fluid velocity field lines, while ionizing and recombining independently according to ADAS data and local fluid density and temperature. The...
Article
Full-text available
In preparation for extending the JOREK nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code to stellarators, a hierarchy of stellarator-capable reduced and full MHD models has been derived and tested. The derivation was presented at the EFTC 2019 conference. Continuing this line of work, we have implemented the reduced MHD model (Nikulsin et al. , Phys. Plasm...
Article
Full-text available
Reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations are used to study the nonlinear dynamics of external kinks in a quasi-axisymmetric (QA) stellarator with varying fractions of external rotational transform. The large bootstrap currents associated with high beta plasmas may make QA configurations susceptible to low n external modes, limiting their operati...
Article
In this work, an implicit scheme for particle-in-cell/Fourier electromagnetic simulations is developed and applied to studies of Alfvén waves in one dimension and three dimensional tokamak plasmas. An analytical treatment is introduced to achieve efficient convergence of the iterative solution of the implicit field-particle system. First, its appli...
Article
In recent years, the nonlinear 3D magnetohydrodynamic codes JOREK, M3D-C¹, and NIMROD developed the capability of modeling realistic 3D vertical displacement events (VDEs) including resistive walls. In this paper, a comprehensive 3D VDE benchmark is presented between these state-of-the-art codes. The simulated case is based on an experimental NSTX...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time it is experimentally demonstrated on the JET tokamak that a combination of a low impurity concentration bulk plasma and large magnetohydrodynamic instabilities is able to suppress relativistic electron beams without measurable heat loads onto the plasma facing components. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the instability and mod...
Preprint
Full-text available
Injecting frozen deuterium pellets into an ELMy H-mode plasma is a well established scheme for triggering edge localized modes (ELMs) before they naturally occur. Based on an ASDEX Upgrade H-mode plasma, this article presents a comparison of extended MHD simulations of spontaneous type-I ELMs and pellet-triggered ELMs allowing to study their non-li...
Preprint
Reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations are used to study the nonlinear dynamics of external kinks in quasi-axisymmetric (QA) stellarators with varying fractions of external rotational transform. The large bootstrap currents associated with high beta plasmas typically make QA configurations susceptible to low n external modes, limiting their op...
Article
Full-text available
Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) heating is a standard heating method for magnetic confinement fusion devices. ICRF waves can interact with filaments in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and induces a series of important phenomena. Understanding their interaction and the related physics is essential to the success of ICRF heating and plasma confi...
Preprint
The understanding of the halo current properties during disruptions is key to design and operate large scale tokamaks in view of the large thermal and electromagnetic loads that they entail. For the first time, we present a fully self-consistent model for halo current simulations including neutral particles and sheath boundary conditions. The model...
Article
Full-text available
Iron core transformer tokamaks have a distinct element, namely the iron core which can affect the plasma stability of the plasma. As a consequence of the high non-linear dependence of the magneto-hydrodynamic solutions on the iron permeability μ Fe in JET tokamak for example, Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs), equilibrium and stability calculatio...
Preprint
In preparation for extending the JOREK nonlinear MHD code to stellarators, a hierarchy of stellarator-capable reduced and full MHD models has been derived and tested. The derivation was presented at the EFTC 2019 conference. Continuing this line of work, we have implemented the reduced MHD model (arXiv:1907.12486) as well as an alternative model wh...
Preprint
Full-text available
JOREK is a massively parallel fully implicit non-linear extended MHD code for realistic tokamak X-point plasmas. It is a widely used versatile code for studying large-scale plasma instabilities and their control and is continuously developed in an international community with strong involvements in European fusion research. This article gives a com...
Article
Non-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations play an essential role in active research and understanding of tokamak plasmas for the realization of a fusion power plant. The development of MHD codes such as JOREK is a key aspect of this research effort. In this paper, we present an operational version of the full-MHD model implemented in JOREK,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pellet ELM triggering is a well established scheme for decreasing the time between two successive ELM crashes below its natural value. Reliable ELM pacing has been demonstrated experimentally in several devices increasing the ELM frequency considerably. However, it was also shown that the frequency cannot be increased arbitrarily due to a so-called...
Preprint
The radiation response and the MHD destabilization during the thermal quench after a mixed species Shattered Pellet Injection (SPI) with impurity species neon and argon are investigated via 3D non-linear MHD simulation using the JOREK code. Both the $n=0$ global current profile contraction and the local helical cooling at each rational surface caus...
Preprint
In this work, an implicit scheme for particle-in-cell/Fourier electromagnetic simulations is developed and applied to studies of Alfv\'en waves in one dimension and in tokamak plasmas. An analytical treatment is introduced to achieve efficient convergence of the iterative solution of the implicit field-particle system. Its application to the one-di...
Preprint
JOREK 3D non-linear MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) simulations of pure Deuterium Shattered Pellet Injection in ITER are presented. It is shown that such a scheme could allow diluting the plasma by more than a factor 10 without immediately triggering large MHD activity, provided the background impurity density is low enough. This appears as a promising s...
Article
The high heat fluxes to the divertor during edge localised mode (ELM) instabilities have to be reduced for a sustainable future tokamak reactor. A solution to reduce the heat fluxes could be the Super-X divertor, which will be tested on MAST-U. ELM simulations for MAST-U Super-X tokamak plasmas have been obtained, using JOREK. A factor 10 decrease...
Preprint
In the present work a simple analytical approach is presented in order to clarify the physics behind the edge current density behaviour of a hot plasma entering in contact with a resistive conductor. When a plasma enters in contact with a highly resistive wall, large current densities appear at the edge of the plasma. The model shows that this edge...
Article
In the present work, a simple analytical approach is presented in order to clarify the physics behind the edge current density behavior of a hot plasma entering in contact with a resistive conductor. As has been observed in recent simulations [C. R. Sovinec and K. J. Bunkers, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 61(2), 024003 (2019)], when a plasma comes...
Article
A benchmark exercise for the modeling of vertical displacement events (VDEs) is presented and applied to the 3D nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic codes M3D-C¹, JOREK, and NIMROD. The simulations are based on a vertically unstable NSTX equilibrium enclosed by an axisymmetric resistive wall with a rectangular cross section. A linear dependence of the lin...
Article
First simulations of deuterium shattered pellet injection into an ASDEX Upgrade H-Mode plasma with the JOREK MHD code are presented. Resistivity is increased by one order of magnitude in most simulations to reduce computational costs and allow for extensive parameter scans. The effect of various physical parameters on MHD activity and thermal quenc...
Article
Experimentally, it is observed that Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAEs) are difficult to excite with an external antenna when the plasma is in X-point geometry. Here, the effect of the X-point geometry on the efficiency of the TAE excitation with the external antenna is investigated. In the first part of this paper, the influence of the near-last clo...
Article
In this work, we have formulated and implemented a mixed unstructured mesh-based finite element–Fourier decomposition scheme for gyrokinetic simulations in realistic tokamak geometry. An efficient particle positioning (particle-triangle mapping) scheme for the charge deposition and field scattering using an intermediate grid as the search index for...
Preprint
First predictive simulations of deuterium shattered pellet injection (SPI) into an ASDEX Upgrade H-Mode plasma obtained using the non-linear extended MHD code JOREK are presented. It is evaluated how various physical parameters corresponding to the plasma and SPI injection affect the MHD activity and thermal quench (TQ) dynamics. The influence of M...
Poster
Full-text available
Naturally-occurring type-I Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) are of severe concern for ITER since they cause large transient heat fluxes to the divertor targets [Eich, NME 2017]. We present JOREK [Huysmans, NF 2007] simulations of edge localised instabilities arising during the build-up of the H-mode pedestal, which is modelled by perpendicular diffusion...
Article
Within the context of a viscoresistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model with anisotropic heat transport and cross field mass diffusion, we introduce novel three-term representations for the magnetic field (background vacuum field, field line bending, and field compression) and velocity (E→×B→ flow, field-aligned flow, and fluid compression), which a...