Matthew D. Weaver

Matthew D. Weaver
Harvard Medical School | HMS · Division of Sleep Medicine

Doctor of Philosophy

About

116
Publications
22,450
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4,984
Citations
Citations since 2017
77 Research Items
4343 Citations
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Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Study objectives: Sleep deficiency can adversely affect the performance of resident physicians resulting in greater medical errors. However, the impact of sleep deficiency on surgical outcomes, particularly among attending surgeons is less clear. Methods: Sixty attending surgeons from academic and community departments of surgery or obstetrics a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Importance: US public health guidance has increasingly shifted responsibility for actions to minimize ongoing impacts of COVID-19 onto individuals. During September to October 2022, the World Health Organization continued to characterize COVID-19 as a pandemic. Yet, public perceptions of the pandemic status of COVID-19 and its associations with COV...
Article
During the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, use of preventive behaviors was associated with perceived risk for contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection (1,2). Over time, perceived risk has declined along with waning COVID-19-related media coverage (3,4). The extent to which communities continue to be aware of local COVID-19 transmission levels and ar...
Article
Full-text available
Background Greater than half of emergency medical services (EMS) clinician shift workers report poor sleep, fatigue, and inadequate recovery between shifts. We hypothesized that EMS clinicians randomized to receive tailored sleep health education would have improved sleep quality and less fatigue compared to wait-list controls after 3 months. Meth...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Medical comorbidities increase the risk of severe COVID-19 infection. In some studies, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been identified as a comorbid condition that is associated with an increased prevalence of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, but few have investigated this association in a general population. Research Question:...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives We evaluated an online Sleep Health and Wellness (SHAW) programme paired with dayzz, a personalised sleep training programme deployed via smartphone application (dayzz app) that promotes healthy sleep and treatment for sleep disorders, among employees at a large healthcare organisation. Design Open-label, randomised, parallel-group cont...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study assessed the associations between parent intent to have their child receive the COVID-19 vaccination, and demographic factors and various child activities, including attendance at in-person education or childcare. Methods: Persons undergoing COVID-19 testing residing in Minnesota and Los Angeles County, California with childr...
Preprint
Background: Sleep deficiency can adversely affect the performance of resident physicians resulting in greater medical errors. However, the impact of sleep deficiency on surgical outcomes, particularly among attending surgeons is less clear. Methods: Sixty attending surgeons from academic and community departments of surgery or obstetrics and gyneco...
Preprint
Objectives: This study assessed the associations between parent intent to have their child receive COVID-19 vaccination, and demographic factors and various child activities including attendance at in-person education or childcare. Methods: Persons undergoing COVID-19 testing residing in Minnesota and Los Angeles County, California with children ag...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a retrospective observational study using remote wearable and mobile application data to evaluate whether US public holidays or Daylight Saving Time transitions were associated with significant changes in sleep behaviors, including sleep duration, sleep onset and offset, and the consistency of sleep timing, as well as changes in the po...
Article
Full-text available
Restorative sleep is a commonly used term but a poorly defined construct. Few studies have assessed restorative sleep in nationally representative samples. We convened a panel of 7 expert physicians and researchers to evaluate and enhance available measures of restorative sleep. We then developed the revised Restorative Sleep Questionnaire (REST-Q)...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Sleep deficiency and undiagnosed or untreated sleep disorders are pervasive among employed adults, yet are often ignored in the context of workplace health promotion. Smartphone applications (apps) are a promising, scalable approach to improving sleep among employees. We evaluated an online sleep education program followed by access to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) enacted a policy in 2011 that restricted first-year resident physicians in the USA to work no more than 16 consecutive hours. This was rescinded in 2017. Methods: We conducted a nationwide prospective cohort study of resident physicians for 5 academic years (2002-2007)...
Article
Objectives To characterize objective sleep patterns among U.S. adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess for associations between adverse mental health symptoms and (1) sleep duration and (2) the consistency of sleep timing before and during the pandemic. Design Longitudinal objective sleep-wake data during January-June 2020 we...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep deficiency is a hidden cost of our 24–7 society, with 70% of adults in the US admitting that they routinely obtain insufficient sleep. Further, it is estimated that 50–70 million adults in the US have a sleep disorder. Undiagnosed and untreated sleep disorders are associated with diminished health for the individual and increased costs for th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Crew Endurance Training program was designed to provide fleet-wide support to the US Navy on the successful implementation of circadian-based watchbills, and guidance on sleep management and crew endurance best practices. The first phase of the study included the evaluation of existing educational programs and the analysis of training needs. Co...
Preprint
We conducted a retrospective observational study using remote wearable and mobile application data to identify US public holidays associated with significant changes in sleep behaviors, including sleep duration, bedtime and waketime, and the consistency of sleep timing, as well as changes in the point prevalence of alcohol use. These metrics were c...
Article
Study Objectives Clinical and population health recommendations are derived from studies that include self-report. Differences in question wording and response scales may significantly affect responses. We conducted a methodological review assessing variation in event definition(s), context (i.e., work- versus free-day), and timeframe (e.g., “in th...
Preprint
Sleep deficiency and undiagnosed or untreated sleep disorders are pervasive among employed adults, yet often ignored in the context of workplace health promotion programs among employers. Smartphone applications (app) are a promising, scalable approach to improving sleep among employees. In this randomized clinical trial, we evaluate the dayzz app,...
Preprint
Sleep deficiency is a hidden cost of our 24-7 society, with 70% of adults in the US admitting that they routinely obtain insufficient sleep. Further, it is estimated that 50-70 million adults in the US have a sleep disorder. Undiagnosed and untreated sleep disorders are associated with diminished health for the individual and increased costs for th...
Chapter
Risk of a fatal or nonfatal injury is higher for workers in EMS than for workers in other settings. While there are few studies exploring occupational safety in EMS, we examine the available literature and data, and highlight factors that contribute to the risk and occurrence of fatal and nonfatal injuries for EMS personnel.
Chapter
EMS personnel work in a stressful and hazardous environment that demands workers maintain optimal wellness. Unfortunately, many EMS clinicians rate their health as poor to fair, most report poor sleep quality and fatigue, and many are overweight and unfit for the mental and physical stressors encountered as part of everyday EMS operations. The shif...
Article
Objective: To evaluate whether caregiving for older adults is associated with insomnia symptoms and diminished workplace productivity. Methods: We analyzed data collected from caregivers to older adults in the US. Participants self-reported awakenings from sleep (caregiving-related or spontaneous) and workplace measures (presenteeism, absenteeis...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rigorous nonpharmaceutical interventions (e.g., stay-at-home orders, remote-work directives) were implemented in early 2020 for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic containment in the U.S. During this time, increased sleep duration and delayed sleep timing were reported through surveys (Leone et al., 2021) and wearable data (Rezaei and Gran...
Article
Objectives: Due to the significant mortality and morbidity consequences of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among older adults, these individuals were urged to avoid going out in public and socializing with others, among other major disruptions to daily life. While these significant and often unavoidable disruptions have been shown to bear...
Article
Early during the COVID-19 pandemic, nearly two thirds of unpaid caregivers of adults reported adverse mental or behavioral health symptoms, compared with approximately one third of noncaregivers† (1). In addition, 27% of parents of children aged <18 years reported that their mental health had worsened during the pandemic (2). To examine mental heal...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in disruptions to medical school training and the transition to residency for new post-graduate year 1 resident-physicians (PGY1s). Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the perspectives of United States PGY1s regarding the impact of the pandemic on these experiences. Our secondary aim...
Article
Sleep difficulties have been implicated in the development and progression of dementia and in all-cause mortality. This study examines the relationship between sleep difficulties, incident dementia and all-cause mortality over 8 years of follow-up among a nationally representative sample of older (≥65 years) adults in the United States. We used dat...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with mental health consequences due to direct (i.e., SARS-CoV-2 infection, potentially due to neuronal or astrocytic infection, microvascular, or inflammatory mechanisms) and indirect (i.e., social and economic impacts of COVID-19 prevention measures) mechanisms. Investigation of mental health in a region w...
Article
Introduction Sleep disturbance is associated with poor mental health and may contribute to initiating or continuing use/abuse of alcohol and drugs. Using data from a nationwide survey, we examined the relationship between sleep disturbance and suicide behaviors among youth and adults, including those who report drug/alcohol use and abuse. Methods...
Article
We performed a systematic review of four databases to determine if the evidence supports a short or long duration nap during night shifts to mitigate fatigue, and/or improve health, safety, or performance for emergency services and public safety personnel (PROSPERO CRD42020156780). We focused on experimental research and evaluated the quality of ev...
Article
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health emergency. Social distancing is a key approach to slowing disease transmission. However, more evidence is needed on its efficacy, and little is known on the types of areas where it is more or less effective. We obtained county-level data on COVID-19 incidence and mortality during the first wave, smartphone-ba...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is an emerging body of evidence that links exposure to shift work to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk of coronary events, such as myocardial infarction, is greater among night shift workers compared to day workers. There is reason to believe that repeated exposure to shift work, especially night shift work, creates alteration...
Article
Polyphasic sleep is the practice of distributing multiple short sleep episodes across the 24-hour day rather than having one major and possibly a minor (“nap”) sleep episode each day. While the prevalence of polyphasic sleep is unknown, anecdotal reports suggest attempts to follow this practice are common, particularly among young adults. Polyphasi...
Article
Background: Sleep disturbance and deficiency are common among older adults and have been linked with dementia and all-cause mortality. Using nationally representative data, we examine the relationship between sleep disturbance and deficiency and their risk for incident dementia and all-cause mortality among older adults. Methods: The National He...
Article
Background Poor sleep health, including sleep deficiency and sleep disturbance, is common among employed adults in the U.S. and is associated with undesirable workplace outcomes. Adoption of workplace health promotion programs (WHPPs) is increasing, yet few programs aim to reduce fatigue or improve sleep among employees. Objective We analyzed data...
Article
Full-text available
This cross-sectional study evaluates the association between sleep disorders and burnout symptoms among faculty and staff at a large teaching hospital.
Article
Full-text available
Temporary disruptions in routine and nonemergency medical care access and delivery have been observed during periods of considerable community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). However, medical care delay or avoidance might increase morbidity and mortality risk associated with treatable and p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Clinical practice guidelines and population health recommendations are derived from studies that include self-reported data. Small semantic differences in question wording and response scales, may significantly affect the response. We conducted a methodological review to assess the variation in event definition(s), context (i.e., work- v...
Article
Objectives Higher 24-hour blood pressure (BP) and blunted BP dipping during sleep and night-time hours are associated with adverse health outcomes. Night shift work may affect 24-hour BP and dipping patterns, but empirical data in emergency medical services (EMS) clinician shift workers are sparse. We implemented ambulatory blood pressure monitorin...
Article
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been associated with mental health challenges related to the morbidity and mortality caused by the disease and to mitigation activities, including the impact of physical distancing and stay-at-home orders.* Symptoms of anxiety disorder and depressive disorder increased considerably in the United...
Article
Full-text available
Fatigue and sleep deficiency among public safety personnel are threats to wellness, public and personal safety, and workforce retention. Napping strategies may reduce work‐related fatigue, improve safety and health, yet in some public safety organizations it is discouraged or prohibited. Our aim with this commentary is to define intra‐shift napping...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social distancing policies were implemented in most US states as a containment strategy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The effectiveness of these policy interventions on morbidity and mortality remains unknown. Our analysis examined the associations between statewide policies and objective measures of social d...
Article
Introduction There has been a rise in workplace health promotion programs (WHPP)’s in the U.S., designed to improve a variety of employee health behaviors such as exercise and nutrition. Yet, relatively few focus on the third pillar of health: Sleep. Methods The CDC collected data from a nationally-representative cohort of companies in 2017. Parti...
Article
Introduction Caregiving for older spouses or family members is common with an aging population. The responsibilities caregivers maintain can disrupt sleep, which may present workplace productivity consequences. We sought to test whether caregiving-related sleep disturbance was associated with workplace productivity among adults caring for older spo...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Public health officials have acted swiftly to curb the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), often resulting in significant alterations to daily routines among the general population. Sleep deficiency adversely affects immune function and could negat...
Article
Background Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, public health policies to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease, COVID-19, have resulted in significant alterations to daily routines (eg, work-from-home policies) that may have enabled longer sleep duration among the general population. Objective We aimed to examine changes in estimated sle...
Article
Background: Compared to day workers, shift workers face an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. We reviewed the evidence to address the research question: Does acute exposure to shift work impact (blunt) the natural drop (dip) in Blood Pressure (BP) occurring during sleep and/or nighttime hours? (PROSPERO CRD42018110847). Methods: We performed...
Article
Background: In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) instituted a 16-h limit on consecutive hours for first-year resident physicians. We sought to examine the effect of these work-hour regulations on physician safety. Methods: All medical students matched to a United States residency program from 2002-2007 and 20...
Poster
Full-text available
Background Following a recent decision by the United States Navy’s Commander of Surface Forces, all US Navy ships were directed to adopt circadian-based watchbills (COMNAVSURFOR, P200042Z SEP 17). The decision did not mandate a specific circadian-based watch schedule but instead, left it up to the command of each ship to decide on which one and how...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Sleep deficiency and poor sleep hygiene are common among college students. These modifiable factors contribute to adverse mental health, physical health, and academic performance. Sleep health education has been shown to change behavior, improve sleep quality, and reduce the risk of depression. We sought to compare methods of deliverin...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Occupational burnout is common among healthcare providers. Approximately half of physicians and nurses report symptoms of burnout, including emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of accomplishment. Faculty wellness surveys at our institution found that the most commonly reported driver of burnout was sleep-related...
Article
Introduction Sleep deficiency is associated with detrimental health, mood and performance. Sleep health education, combined with screening and access to treatment for common sleep disorders, may be an effective countermeasure. We conducted a 6-month prospective evaluation of a quality improvement initiative designed to improve sleep health in the w...
Article
Introduction Sleep duration and regularity are important for learning, development, and mental health. Recent work has revealed that both sleep duration and consistency of sleep timing are suboptimal in many college students. We characterized sleep duration and timing in college students over an entire semester. Methods We recruited students throu...
Article
Introduction Long work hours and extended-duration (≥24 hours) work shifts are associated with higher risks of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), near-crashes, percutaneous injuries (PIs), medical errors, and adverse events among resident physicians in their first postgraduate year (PGY1). We sought to determine if these same associations were present i...
Article
Background Greater than half of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) shift workers report fatigue at work and most work long duration shifts. We sought to compare the alertness level of EMS shift workers by shift duration. Methods We used a multi‐site, 14‐day prospective observational cohort study design of EMS clinician shift workers at four air‐medi...
Article
Objective: The aims of this study were: 1) to determine the short-term impact of the SleepTrackTXT2 intervention on air-medical clinician fatigue during work shifts; and 2) determine the longer-term impact on sleep quality over 120 days. Methods: We used a multi-site randomized controlled trial study design with a targeted enrollment of 100 (Clinic...
Article
Youths in America are sleeping less than ever before. More than 70% of high school students average less than 8 hours of sleep,¹ falling short of the 8 to 10 hours that adolescents need for optimal health.² Insufficient sleep negatively affects learning and development and acutely alters judgment, particularly among youths.³ We estimated associatio...
Article
The objective of the study was to determine if sleep disorder, depression or anxiety screening status was associated with safety outcomes in a diverse population of hospital workers. A sample of shift workers at four hospitals participated in a prospective cohort study. Participants were screened for five sleep disorders, depression and anxiety at...
Article
Introduction In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education instituted a 16-hour limit on the number of consecutive hours that first-year resident physicians (PGY1 physicians) may be scheduled to work. We sought to examine the effect of these duty hour regulations on patient and physician safety. Methods All graduating medical s...
Article
Background: Circadian misalignment may increase the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to examine the association between distance from time zone meridian, a proxy for circadian misalignment, and HCC risk in the U.S. adjusting for known HCC risk factors. Methods: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Resul...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study comprehensively reviewed the literature on the impact of shorter versus longer shifts on critical and important outcomes for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel and related shift worker groups. Methods: Six databases (e.g., PubMed/MEDLINE) were searched, including one website. This search was guided by a research qu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study sought to systematically search the literature to identify reliable and valid survey instruments for fatigue measurement in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) occupational setting. Methods: A systematic review study design was used and searched six databases, including one website. The research question guiding the searc...
Article
Introduction In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education instituted a 16-hour limit on the number of consecutive hours that resident physicians may be scheduled to work in their first postgraduate year. We sought to examine the effect of these work hour limitations on resident safety, patient safety, and resident education. M...
Article
Introduction Adverse safety outcomes are associated with extended-duration (≥ 24 hour) shifts worked by resident physicians. In 2011 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) implemented an 80-hour work week (averaged over 4 weeks) and a 16-hour limit on the number of consecutive hours that resident physicians may be schedule...
Article
Introduction Little is known about how policies enacted in 2011 by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), which limited the number of extended-duration shifts for first-year medical residents, have affected the lifestyle of resident physicians in the United States. We sought to test whether measures of sleep, health, and...
Article
Methods: Measures were collected using archival shift records, workplace injury data, and cross-sectional surveys from a nationally representative sample of 14 EMS agencies employing paramedics, prehospital nurses, and other EMS clinicians. One thousand EMS clinicians were selected at random to complete a teamwork survey for each of their recent p...
Article
Objectives: This study sought to estimate charges associated with USA hospital visits for traumatic brain injury (TBI), compare charges from 2006–2010 and evaluate factors associated with higher charges. Methods: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database, 2006–2010, was used to estimate charges for emergency department visits and inpatien...
Article
Objective: We investigated the association between teammate familiarity and workplace injury in the emergency medical services (EMS) setting. Methods: From January 2011 to November 2013, we abstracted a mean of 29 months of shift records and Occupational Safety Health Administration injury logs from 14 EMS organisations with 37 total bases locat...
Article
OBJECTIVES: Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians are shift workers deployed in two-person teams. Extended shift duration, workplace fatigue, poor sleep and lack of familiarity with teammates are common in the EMS workforce and may contribute to workplace injury. We sought to examine the relationship between shift length and occupational inju...
Article
BACKGROUND: We assessed performance characteristics and impact of a mobile phone text-message intervention for reducing intra-shift fatigue among emergency clinician shift workers. METHODS: We used a randomized controlled trial of 100 participants. All participants received text-message assessments at the start, every 4 hr during, and at end of sch...
Article
Objective Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers are shift workers in a high-risk, uncontrolled occupational environment. EMS-worker fatigue has been associated with self-reported injury, but the influence of extended weekly work hours is unknown.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was designed using historical shift schedules and occupational in...
Article
Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians often work 24-hour shifts. There is a growing body of literature, with an elevated level of concern among EMS leaders that longer shifts contribute to fatigued workers and negative safety outcomes. However, many questions remain about shift length, fatigue, and outcomes. We describe a case of a 26-year-ol...
Chapter
Risk of a fatal or non-fatal injury is higher for workers in emergency medical services than for workers in other settings. While there are few studies exploring occupational safety in EMS, we examine the available literature and data, and highlight factors that contribute to the risk and occurrence of fatal and non-fatal injuries for EMS workers.