## About

363

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December 2013 - present

## Publications

Publications (363)

Topological invariants in the band structure, such as Chern numbers, are important for the understanding and classification of the topological properties of matter and dictate the occurrence of exotic behaviors, yet their direct spectroscopic determination has been largely limited to electronic bands. Here, we use inelastic neutron scattering in co...

Competition among exchange interactions is able to induce novel spin correlations on a bipartite lattice without geometrical frustration. A prototype example is the spiral spin liquid, which is a correlated paramagnetic state characterized by subdimensional degenerate propagation vectors. Here, using spectral graph theory, we show that spiral spin...

Competition among exchange interactions is able to induce novel spin correlations on a bipartite lattice without geometrical frustration. A prototype example is the spiral spin liquid, which is a correlated paramagnetic state characterized by sub-dimensional degenerate propagation vectors. Here, using spectral graph theory, we show that spiral spin...

Traditional spectroscopy, by its very nature, characterizes physical system properties in the momentum and frequency domains. However, the most interesting and potentially practically useful quantum many-body effects emerge from local, short-time correlations. Here, using inelastic neutron scattering and methods of integrability, we experimentally...

The experimental realization of magnetic skyrmion crystals in centrosymmetric materials has been driven by theoretical understanding of how a delicate balance of anisotropy and frustration can stabilize topological spin structures in applied magnetic fields. Recently, the centrosymmetric material Gd2PdSi3 was shown to host a field-induced skyrmion...

Determining and explaining the presence of a gap at a magnon crossing point is a critical step to characterize the topological properties of a material. An inelastic neutron scattering study of a single crystal is a powerful experimental technique to probe the magnetic excitation spectra of topological materials. Here, we show that when the scatter...

Topological invariants in the band structure, such as Chern numbers, are crucial for the classification of topological matters and dictate the occurrence of exotic properties, yet their direct spectroscopic determination has been largely limited to electronic bands. Here, we use inelastic neutron scattering in conjunction with ab initio calculation...

Spin and lattice are two fundamental degrees of freedom in a solid, and their fluctuations about the equilibrium values in a magnetic ordered crystalline lattice form quasiparticles termed magnons (spin waves) and phonons (lattice waves), respectively. In most materials with strong spin-lattice coupling (SLC), the interaction of spin and lattice in...

Magnetic frustration, arising from the competition of exchange interactions, has received great attention because of its relevance to exotic quantum phenomena in materials. In the current work, we report an unusual checkerboard-shaped scattering anomaly in FeGe2, far from the known incommensurate magnetic satellite peaks, by inelastic neutron scatt...

A large body of knowledge about magnetism is attained from models of interacting spins, which usually reside on magnetic ions. Proposals beyond the ionic picture are uncommon and seldom verified by direct observations in conjunction with microscopic theory. Here, using inelastic neutron scattering to study the itinerant near-ferromagnet MnSi, we fi...

Spin and lattice are two fundamental degrees of freedom in a solid, and their fluctuations about the equilibrium values in a magnetic ordered crystalline lattice form quasiparticles termed magnons (spin waves) and phonons (lattice waves), respectively. In most materials with strong spin-lattice coupling (SLC), the interaction of spin and lattice in...

Spin-1/2 chains with alternating antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) couplings have attracted considerable interest due to the topological character of their spin excitations. Here, using density functional theory and density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) methods, we have systematically studied the dimerized chain system Na2Cu2TeO6...

A detailed analysis of the ferrimagnetic ground state of Mn3Si2Te6has been performed using inelastic neutron scattering. Although the proposed valence of the nominal Mn2+ ions would have quenched orbital angular momentum, a significant exchange anisotropy exists in Mn3Si2Te6. This apparent exchange anisotropy is a manifestation of a weak spin-orbit...

Spiral spin liquids are correlated paramagnetic states with degenerate propagation vectors forming a continuous ring or surface in reciprocal space. On the honeycomb lattice, spiral spin liquids present a novel route to realize emergent fracton excitations, quantum spin liquids, and topological spin textures, yet experimental realizations remain el...

CHESS, chopper spectrometer examining small samples, is a planned direct geometry neutron chopper spectrometer designed to detect and analyze weak signals intrinsic to small cross sections (e.g., small mass, small magnetic moments, or neutron absorbing materials) in powders, liquids, and crystals. CHESS is optimized to enable transformative investi...

We report the static and dynamic magnetic properties of LaSrCrO4, a seemingly canonical spin-3/2 square-lattice antiferromagnet that exhibits frustration between magnetic layers—owing to their AB stacking—and offers a rare testbed to investigate accidental-degeneracy lifting in magnetism. Neutron diffraction experiments on single-crystal samples un...

The kagome lattice is a fertile platform to explore topological excitations with both Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. While relativistic Dirac fermions and flat bands have been discovered in the electronic structure of kagome metals, the spin excitations have received less attention. Here, we report inelastic neutron scattering studies of...

For topological magnon spectra, determining and explaining the presence of a gap at a magnon crossing point is a key to characterize the topological properties of the system. An inelastic neutron scattering study of a single crystal is a powerful experimental technique that is widely employed to probe the magnetic excitation spectra of topological...

Spin-$1/2$ chains with alternating antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic couplings have attracted considerable interest due to the topological character of their spin excitations. Here, using density functional theory and density matrix renormalization group methods, we have systematically studied the dimerized chain system Na$_2$Cu$_2$TeO$_6$. Near...

We report the static and dynamic magnetic properties of LaSrCrO$_4$, a seemingly canonical spin-3/2 square-lattice antiferromagnet that exhibits frustration between magnetic layers -- owing to their AB stacking -- and offers a rare testbed to investigate accidental-degeneracy lifting in magnetism. Neutron diffraction experiments on single-crystal s...

We investigate the magnetic excitations of elemental gadolinium (Gd) using inelastic neutron scattering, showing that Gd is a Dirac magnon material with nodal lines at K and nodal planes at half integer ℓ. We find an anisotropic intensity winding around the K-point Dirac magnon cone, which is interpreted to indicate Berry phase physics. Using linea...

We have carried out neutron spectroscopic measurements on single crystals of La1.6−xNd0.4SrxCuO4 from 0.12≤x≤0.26 using time-of-flight techniques. These measurements allow us to follow the evolution of parallel spin stripe fluctuations with energies less than ∼33 meV, from x=0.12 to 0.26. Samples at these hole-doping levels are known to display sta...

The experimental realization of magnetic skyrmions in centrosymmetric materials has been driven by theoretical understanding of how a delicate balance of anisotropy and frustration can stabilize topological spin structures in applied magnetic fields. Recently, the centrosymmetric material Gd$_{2}$PdSi$_{3}$ was shown to host a field-induced skyrmio...

Direct-geometry time-of-flight chopper neutron spectroscopy is instrumental in studying dynamics in liquid, powder, and single crystal systems. We report here that real-space techniques in optical imagery can be adapted to obtain reciprocal-space super resolution dispersion for phonon or magnetic excitations from single-crystal neutron spectroscopy...

Traditional spectroscopy, by its very nature, characterizes properties of physical systems in the momentum and frequency domains. The most interesting and potentially practically useful quantum many-body effects however emerge from the deep composition of local, short-time correlations. Here, using inelastic neutron scattering and methods of integr...

Spiral spin-liquids are correlated paramagnetic states with degenerate propagation vectors forming a continuous ring or surface in reciprocal space. On the honeycomb lattice, spiral spin-liquids present a novel route to realize quantum spin liquids and topological spin textures, although their experimental realization remains elusive. Here, using n...

In the lacunar spinel GaV4S8, the interplay of spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom produces a rich phase diagram that includes an unusual Néel-type skyrmion phase composed of molecular spins. To provide insight into the interactions underlying this complex phase diagram, we study the spin excitations in GaV4S8 through inelastic neutron sca...

Background and Objectives: As an mRNA-based vaccine, the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine has stringent cold storage requirements to preserve functionality of the mRNA active ingredient. To this end, lipid components of the vaccine formulation play an important role in stabilizing and protecting the mRNA molecule for long-term storage. The purpose...

In two-dimensional (2D) metallic kagome lattice materials, destructive interference of electronic hopping pathways around the kagome bracket can produce nearly localized electrons, and thus electronic bands that are flat in momentum space. When ferromagnetic order breaks the degeneracy of the electronic bands and splits them into the spin-up majori...

In the lacunar spinel GaV4S8, the interplay of spin, charge, and orbital degrees of freedom produces a rich phase diagram that includes an unusual Neel-type skyrmion phase composed of molecular spins. To provide insight into the interactions underlying this complex phase diagram, we study the spin excitations in GaV4S8 through inelastic neutron sca...

Two dimensional van der Waals ferromagnets with honeycomb structures are expected to host the bosonic version of Dirac particles in their magnon excitation spectra. Using inelastic neutron scattering, we study spin wave excitations in polycrystalline CrCl$_3$, which exhibits ferromagnetic honeycomb layers with antiferromagnetic stackings along the...

Swedenborgite Ca0.5Y0.5BaCo4O7 (CYBCO) with geometrically frustrated kagome and triangular lattices exhibits a disordered ground state in spite of strong antiferromagnetic couplings between the Co spins. The character of the disordered state has been debated due to ambiguous Co states in the triangular layers. Here, we perform single-crystal diffus...

Sc 3 Mn 3 Al 7 Si 5 is a rare example of a correlated metal in which the Mn moments form a kagome lattice. The absence of magnetic ordering to the lowest temperatures suggests that geometrical frustration of magnetic interactions may lead to strong magnetic fluctuations. We have performed inelastic neutron scattering measurements on Sc 3 Mn 3 Al 7...

We have carried out new neutron spectroscopic measurements on single crystals of La$_{1.6-x}$Nd$_{0.4}$Sr$_x$CuO$_4$ from 0.12 to 0.26 using time-of-flight techniques. These measurements allow us to follow the evolution of parallel spin stripe fluctuations with energies less than 33 meV, from x=0.12 to 0.26. Samples at these hole-doping levels are...

Understanding magnetism and its possible correlations to topological properties has emerged to the forefront as a difficult topic in studying magnetic Weyl semimetals. Co3Sn2S2 is a newly discovered magnetic Weyl semimetal with a kagome lattice of cobalt ions and has triggered intense interest for rich fantastic phenomena. Here, we report the magne...

The search for topological spin excitations in recently discovered two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) magnetic materials is important because of their potential applications in dissipationless spintronics. In the 2D vdW ferromagnetic (FM) honeycomb lattice CrI3 (TC=61 K), acoustic and optical spin waves are found to be separated by a gap at t...

Inelastic neutron scattering was used to probe the spin dynamics of the long-range magnetic structure of single crystal $\rm FeGe_2$. An unusual checkerboard-shaped anomaly located far from the magnetic satellite peaks of the incommensurate order was found in the magnetic dynamical structure factor. Using expanded ranges of wave-vector and energy t...

The kagome lattice is a fertile platform to explore topological excitations with both Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. While relativistic Dirac Fermions and flat-bands have been discovered in the electronic structure of kagome metals, the spin excitations have received less attention. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering studies of...

Thermal neutron scattering measurements of yttrium hydride from 5 to 1,200 K were conducted to determine the change in inelastic scattering as a function of temperature and to probe for anharmonic effects. Additionally, measurements on samples of YHx from x = 1.62 to 1.90 were done to determine the effects of varying hydrogen concentration on the i...

Sr2CuTe0.5W0.5O6 is a square-lattice magnet with superexchange between S=12Cu2+ spins mediated by randomly distributed Te and W ions. Here, using sub-K temperature and 20 μeV energy resolution neutron scattering experiments we show that this system transits from a gapless disorder-induced spin liquid to a new quantum state below Tf=1.7(1) K, exhibi...

We investigate the physical properties of the Shastry-Sutherland lattice material BaNd2ZnO5. Neutron diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements reveal antiferromagnetic order below 1.65 K. The magnetic order is found to be a 2−Q magnetic structure with the magnetic moments lying in the Shastry-Sutherland lattice planes com...

Nd-based pyrochlore oxides of the form Nd2B2O7 have garnered a significant amount of interest owing to the moment fragmentation physics observed in Nd2Zr2O7 and speculated in Nd2Hf2O7. Notably this phenomenon is not ubiquitous in this family, as it is absent in Nd2Sn2O7, which features a smaller ionic radius on the B site. Here, we explore the nece...

The search for topological spin excitations in recently discovered two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) magnetic materials is important because of their potential applications in dissipation-less spintronics. In the 2D vdW ferromagnetic (FM) honeycomb lattice CrI$_3$(T$_C$= 61 K), acoustic and optical spin waves were found to be separated by a...

The hierarchy of the coupling strengths in a physical system often engenders an effective model at low energies where the decoupled high-energy modes are integrated out. Here, using neutron scattering, we show that the spin excitations in the breathing pyrochlore lattice compound CuInCr4S8 are hierarchical and can be approximated by an effective mo...

Classical hydrodynamics is a remarkably versatile description of the coarse-grained behaviour of many-particle systems once local equilibrium has been established¹. The form of the hydrodynamical equations is determined primarily by the conserved quantities present in a system. Some quantum spin chains are known to possess, even in the simplest cas...

Graphite has been of great interest since the dawn of the nuclear era. In this work, we will focus on the thermal neutron scattering of two types of nuclear graphite that have different microstructures, namely, the historic PGA which has a very anisotropic medium-grained needle coke, and the new G347A which is a near-isotropic fine-grained graphite...

Three-dimensional, commensurate long-range magnetic order in La2CuO4 quickly evolves to quasi-two-dimensional, incommensurate correlations upon doping with mobile holes, and superconductivity follows for x as small as 0.05 in the La2−xSrx/BaxCuO4 family of superconductors. The onset of superconductivity in these systems is known to be coincident wi...

In two-dimensional (2D) metallic kagome lattice materials, destructive interference of electronic hopping pathways around the kagome bracket can produce nearly localized electrons, and thus electronic bands that are flat in momentum space. When ferromagnetic order breaks the degeneracy of the electronic bands and splits them into the spin-up majori...

The magnetic ground state of the pyrochlore Yb2GaSbO7 has not been established. The persistent spin fluctuations observed by muon spin-relaxation measurements at low temperatures have not been adequately explained for this material using existing theories for quantum magnetism. Here we report on the synthesis and characterisation of Yb2GaSbO7 to re...

A recent screening study highlighted a molecular compound, apilimod, for its efficacy against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, while another compound, tetrandrine, demonstrated a remarkable synergy with the benchmark antiviral drug, remdesivir. Here, we find that because of significantly reduced potential energy barriers, which also give rise to pronounced qu...

CoSn is a Pauli paramagnet with relatively flat d bands centered about 100 meV below the Fermi energy, EF. Single crystals of CoSn lightly doped with Fe, In, or Ni are investigated using x-ray and neutron scattering, magnetic susceptibility and magnetization, AC susceptibility, specific heat, and resistivity measurements. Within the rigid-band appr...

The question of structural disorder and its effects on magnetism is relevant to a number of spin liquid candidate materials. Although commonly thought of as a route to spin glass behaviour, here we describe a system in which the structural disorder results in long-range antiferromagnetic order due to local symmetry breaking. Nd2ScNbO7is shown to ha...

An indispensable step to understand collective magnetic phenomena in rare-earth compounds is the determination of spatially anisotropic single-ion properties resulting from spin-orbit coupling and crystal field (CF). The CF Hamiltonian has a discrete energy spectrum—accessible to spectroscopic probes such as neutron scattering—controlled by a numbe...

Magnetic order is usually associated with well-defined magnon excitations. Exotic magnetic fluctuations with fractional, topological or multipolar character have been proposed for unconventional forms of magnetic matter such as spin liquids¹. As a result, considerable effort has been expended to search for, and uncover, low-spin materials with supp...

Nd-based pyrochlore oxides of the form Nd$_{2}B_{2}$O$_{7}$ have garnered a significant amount of interest owing to the moment fragmentation physics observed in Nd$_{2}$Zr$_{2}$O$_{7}$ and speculated in Nd$_{2}$Hf$_{2}$O$_{7}$. Notably this phenomenon is not ubiquitous in this family, as it is absent in Nd$_{2}$Sn$_{2}$O$_{7}$, which features a sma...

We investigate the physical properties of the Shastry-Sutherland lattice material BaNd$_2$ZnO$_5$. Neutron diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat measurements reveal antiferromagnetic order below 1.65 K. The magnetic order is found to be a 2-$\boldsymbol{Q}$ magnetic structure with the magnetic moments lying in the Shastry-Sutherla...

Charge density waves (CDWs) are modulations of the electron density and the atomic lattice that develop in some crystalline materials at low temperatures. We report an unusual example of a CDW in BaFe2Al9 below 100 K. In contrast to the canonical CDW phase transition, temperature-dependent physical properties of single crystals reveal a first-order...

The interplay between strong electron correlation and band topology is at the forefront of condensed matter research. As a direct consequence of correlation, magnetism enriches topological phases and also has promising functional applications. However, the influence of topology on magnetism remains unclear, and the main research effort has been lim...

The transverse-field Ising model on the triangular lattice is expected to host an intermediate finite-temperature Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase through a mapping of the spins on each triangular unit to a complex order parameter. TmMgGaO4 is a candidate material to realize such physics due to the non-Kramers nature of the Tm3+ ion and the resulting...

CoSn is a Pauli paramagnet with relatively flat d-bands centered about 100 meV below the Fermi energy Ef. Single crystals of CoSn lightly doped with Fe, In, or Ni are investigated using x-ray and neutron scattering, magnetic susceptibility and magnetization, ac susceptibility, specific heat and resistivity measurements. Within the rigid band approx...

Co$_{3}$Sn$_{2}$S$_{2}$ is a newly discovered magnetic Weyl semimetal with a kagome lattice of cobalt ions that exhibits tunable magnetic orderings coupled to quantum transport properties. Determination of the magnetic interactions in the ground state is crucial to understanding the physical properties. Here, we report the magnetic excitations and...

\rm{Sr_2CuTe_{0.5}W_{0.5}O_6}$ is a square-lattice magnet with super-exchange between S=1/2 $\rm{Cu^{2+}}$ spins mediated by randomly distributed Te and W ions. Here, using sub-K temperature and 20 $\rm{\mu}$eV energy resolution neutron scattering experiments we show that this system transits from a gapless disorder-induced quantum spin liquid to a...

The hierarchy of the coupling strengths in a physical system often engenders an effective model at low energies where the decoupled high-energy modes are integrated out. Here, using neutron scattering, we show that the spin excitations in the breathing pyrochlore lattice compound CuInCr$_4$S$_8$ are hierarchical and can be approximated by an effect...

In quantum magnets, magnetic moments fluctuate heavily and are strongly entangled with each other, a fundamental distinction from classical magnetism. Here, with inelastic neutron scattering measurements, we probe the spin correlations of the honeycomb lattice quantum magnet YbCl 3 . A linear spin wave theory with a single Heisenberg interaction on...

Charge density waves (CDW) are modulations of the electron density and the atomic lattice that develop in some crystalline materials at low temperature. We report an unusual example of a CDW in BaFe$_2$Al$_9$ below 100\,K. In contrast to the canonical CDW phase transition, temperature dependent physical properties of single crystals reveal a first-...

We use neutron scattering to investigate spin excitations in Sr(Co1−xNix)2As2, which has a c-axis incommensurate helical structure of the two-dimensional (2D) in-plane ferromagnetic (FM) ordered layers for 0.013≤x≤0.25. By comparing the wave vector and energy dependent spin excitations in helical ordered Sr(Co0.9Ni0.1)2As2 and paramagnetic SrCo2As2...

We use neutron scattering to investigate spin excitations in Sr(Co$_{1-x}$Ni$_{x})_2$As$_2$, which has a $c$-axis incommensurate helical structure of the two-dimensional (2D) in-plane ferromagnetic (FM) ordered layers for $0.013\leq x \leq 0.25$. By comparing the wave vector and energy dependent spin excitations in helical ordered Sr(Co$_{0.9}$Ni$_...

The thermally activated dynamics of methyl groups are important for biochemical activity as they allow for a more efficient sampling of the energy landscape. Here, we compare methyl rotations in the dry and variously hydrated states of three primary drugs under consideration to treat the recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19), namely, hydroxychloroq...

The broken symmetry in the atomic-scale ordering of glassy versus crystalline solids leads to a daunting challenge to provide suitable metrics for describing the order within disorder, especially on length scales beyond the nearest neighbor that are characterized by rich structural complexity. Here, we address this challenge for silica, a canonical...

A triangular-lattice antiferromagnet of Ag2FeO2 was synthesized under high pressure. Its magnetism was studied in terms of electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, powder neutron scattering, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The magnetic state of Ag2FeO2 changes successively through a second-order phase transition at Tp=36 K and a...

The transverse-field Ising model on the triangular lattice is expected to host an intermediate finite-temperature Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase through a mapping of the spins on each triangular unit to a complex order parameter. TmMgGaO$_4$ is a candidate material to realize such physics due to the non-Kramers nature of Tm$^{3+}$ ion and the resul...

We carried out inelastic neutron scattering to study the spin-orbit (SO) exciton in a single crystal sample of CoTiO3 as a function of temperature. CoTiO3 is a honeycomb magnet with dominant XY-type magnetic interaction and an A-type antiferromagnetic order below TN≈38 K. We found that the SO exciton becomes softer but acquires a larger bandwidth i...

A promising route to realize entangled magnetic states combines geometrical frustration with quantum-tunneling effects. Spin-ice materials are canonical examples of frustration, and Ising spins in a transverse magnetic field are the simplest many-body model of quantum tunneling. Here, we show that the tripod-kagome lattice material Ho3Mg2Sb3O14 uni...

Classical hydrodynamics is a remarkably versatile description of the coarse-grained behavior of many-particle systems once local equilibrium has been established. The form of the hydrodynamical equations is determined primarily by the conserved quantities present in a system. Quantum spin chains are known to possess, even in the simplest cases, a g...

We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the pyrochlore Tb$_2$Ge$_2$O$_7$, an exemplary realization of a material whose properties are dominated by competition between magnetic dipolar and electric quadrupolar correlations. Tb$_2$Ge$_2$O$_7$ possesses a low-lying crystal field level that disrupts the clean separation of ener...