Matthew J. Roorda

Matthew J. Roorda
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Civil Engineering

Professor

About

160
Publications
39,771
Reads
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4,655
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2005 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (160)
Article
This study evaluates the potential impacts of off-peak delivery (OPD) for greenhouse gases and air pollutant emissions, with an application to the Greater Toronto Area. Multiple scenarios are formulated. OPD improves network congestion and travel times but increases vehicle kilometers travelled (VKT). The increase in VKT is attributed to road freig...
Article
This paper addresses the problem of accurately estimating traffic conditions based on sparse GPS information. GPS data have limited spatial-temporal availability, particularly at a regional scale. Therefore, it lacks reliability to accurately estimate traffic conditions of a transportation network. This study proposes a novel methodology to address...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the development of a business establishment location choice model for the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) in Canada. The location of establishments is the origin or destination of freight trips and passenger trips (e.g., shopping trips, employment location etc.). The conventional treatment of establishments is that the...
Article
Full-text available
The choice of freight vehicle type and shipment size are among the most important logistics decisions made by firms. An important aspect is the nature of the choice process i.e., whether the two choices are sequential or joint in nature. In this study, we investigate the factors that influence the two choices and develop sequential and nested logit...
Article
Full-text available
An urban consolidation center (UCC) is a logistics facility used to combine deliveries of multiple shippers for reducing freight traffic in dense urban areas. Despite their benefits, such as reducing less-than-truckload deliveries, former applications of UUCs have faced backlash from shippers that were forced to use them even though they did not ex...
Article
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Off-peak-hour delivery (OPHD) has the potential to reduce congestion in busy urban areas and at the same time improve the efficiency of logistics providers, shippers, and receivers. There has been growing interest in OPHD in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA), an important freight hub in Canada. The Government of Ontario is considering pe...
Article
The objective of this paper is to study freight transportation outsourcing and vehicle type choice decisions made by small and medium size firms. Carrier type and vehicle type choices are modelled independently using multinomial logit models and jointly using nested logit models. Mixed logit models are also developed for the defined structures to s...
Article
Full-text available
Gentrification is being experienced by cities around the world. Its drivers and characteristic features are complex and diverse, ranging from the displacement of low-income households to the redevelopment of commercial districts. This paper combines multiple data sources to explore the coevolution of gentrification in the residential market and dev...
Article
Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) can eliminate the burden of finding a parking spot upon arrival to the destination. AVs can park at a strategic location or cruise until summoned by their users. In this study, we investigate AV users’ parking decision considering their cost and time constraints. Each users’ decision has impacts on congestion which can cha...
Article
This paper proposes a two-tier last-mile delivery model that optimally selects mobile depot locations in advance of full information about the availability of crowd-shippers and then transfers packages to crowd-shippers for the final shipment to the customers. Uncertainty in crowd-shipper availability is incorporated by modeling the problem as a tw...
Article
Full-text available
Parking is a cumbersome part of auto travel because travelers have to search for a spot and walk from that spot to their final destination. This conventional method of parking will change with the arrival of autonomous vehicles (AV). In the near future, users of AVs get dropped off at their final destination and the occupant-free AVs search for the...
Article
Full-text available
The choice of vehicle type is one of the important logistics decisions made by firms. The complex nature of the choice process is because of the involvement of multiple agents. This study employs a random forest machine learning algorithm to represent these complex interactions with limited information about shipment transportation. The data are fr...
Article
This study employs two eco-scoring methods to evaluate driving behavior based on real-world GPS data collected from drivers using an insurance mobile application in two provinces of Canada, Ontario and Quebec. Method 1 provides an eco-score based on greenhouse gas emissions (CO2eq) and energy consumption considering vehicle characteristics. For ele...
Article
This paper develops an operational strategy in which urban rail transit is used for freight transport. An environment-friendly urban freight transportation alternative is analyzed by employing optimization techniques to support the collaborative transportation of passengers and freight. Practical cases are investigated to test the technical feasibi...
Article
Full-text available
Off-peak delivery (OPD) is the delivery of goods during the evening and overnight hours. This strategy has the potential to alleviate peak period congestion, improve efficiency of delivery firms, and reduce emissions. This paper investigates benefits and challenges of a pilot OPD program in the Region of Peel, with the goal of informing potential b...
Article
Illegal parking adversely impacts traffic and creates unsafe conditions for other road users. We present parking enforcement policies to maximize social welfare and profit. We use the bilateral meet function to quantify the friction and characterize key factors of illegal parking behavior. The model shows that the citation probability increases wit...
Article
Full-text available
In many places, streets are still primarily designed for the convenience of motorists, considering mobility function as the principal design goal. There is a scarcity of empirical evidence on the relationship between the design of a street and how it is experienced by pedestrians who use it. This work focuses on quantifying pedestrians’ perception...
Chapter
This paper presents a design study for a novel interactive web-based visualization tool that utilizes a “Complete Streets” model to support urban planners and engineers to design streets in urban areas more effectively. The proposed tool integrates a map and a dashboard view, where streets are analyzed and scored based on their overall completeness...
Article
Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) can be stacked behind each other like valet parking due to their self-parking capability to increase the land utilization and decrease the parking space allocation. However, such parking arrangements cause blockage and necessitate AVs relocation inside the car-park whenever a blocked AV is summoned. In this paper, we inves...
Article
Although Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) will enhance mobility and safety, their impact on congestion is not clear yet. AVs may increase roadway capacity due to their connectivity features. The capacity enhancement highly depends on the AV proportion in traffic. This study models user equilibrium traffic assignment when the link capacity is a function of...
Article
Commercial vehicle movements have a large effect on traffic-related air pollution in metropolitan areas. In the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA), commercial vehicles include large and medium diesel trucks as well as light-duty gasoline-fuelled trucks. In this study, the emissions of various air pollutants associated with diesel commercial v...
Article
This paper presents the Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) routing problem that finds the optimal set and sequence of customers visited by PHEVs to minimize total energy consumption. PHEVs use electricity and gasoline as their two energy sources. A power management model finds the optimal draw of power from the two sources along the vehicle’s pa...
Article
Full-text available
The vehicle routing problem (VRP) and its variants have many city logistics applications, such as goods delivery. The VRP extension with movement synchronization (VRPMS) has potential applications of drone and robot technologies to assist with the delivery of parcels. VRPMS seeks the optimal route for a set of composite resources, e.g. delivery van...
Article
Automated vehicles (AV) will have an impact on the movement of people and goods. Assessing the effects of AVs on land use, congestion and the environment is of utmost importance in order to inform policy and planning decisions. This study explores the effects of AVs and vehicle electrification on greenhouse gas emissions using traffic microsimulati...
Article
Fully autonomous vehicles (AVs) have the potential to considerably change urban mobility in the future. This study simulates potential AV operating scenarios in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada, and assesses transportation system performance on a regional level. For each scenario, the base capacities of certain types of road links are modifie...
Chapter
Behavioral freight transportation modeling has recently emerged as an approach to enhance the quality of freight and logistics-related decisions. Commercial vehicle fleet ownership and composition is one important decision a business establishment faces that has not been adequately addressed in the literature. This research investigates vehicle own...
Chapter
Remote assessment sensors (RAS) are a new technological advancement that relay information to a central server about bin fill‐levels. This chapter proposes an approximate dynamic programing model, which takes into account RAS information on a daily basis and designs routes accordingly. This model is an approximate dynamic program where a vehicle ro...
Article
GPS tracking technology produces large amounts of data which represent samples of the commercial vehicle population that are much larger than conventional commercial travel surveys. However, passively collected GPS data lack behavioral detail that a conventional survey offers. This study develops a data fusion method to impute variables of interest...
Article
Full-text available
Commercial vehicle fleet ownership is a business decision that is fundamental to the transportation operations of a business establishment. This paper develops a model of fleet ownership and composition for the Region of Peel, Canada. A trivariate model is developed to represent a business establishment’s correlated decisions of how many passenger...
Article
Canada signed the Canada–European Union (EU) Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) in October 2016, which was later ratified by the European Parliament in February 2017. This agreement enables Canadian establishments to trade openly with EU members. Despite the Canadian government’s economical analysis, no study has been undertaken to i...
Article
Full-text available
Parking is an important part of transportation planning because a typical vehicle spends 95% of its lifetime sitting in a parking spot. The increasing need to store vehicles has transformed a lot of valuable real-estate into parking garages in many countries. Realizing the high social cost of parking provision, Autonomous Vehicle (AV) industry lead...
Article
Battery-electric trucks (BET) are an alternative to diesel trucks and have the potential for lower life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and total lifetime costs (TCO). This study compares a Class 6 medium-duty BET with a Class 6 medium-duty diesel truck. Vehicle fuel consumption is simulated for Toronto driving conditions, based on different d...
Article
Full-text available
Airport curbside congestion is a growing problem as airport passenger traffic continues to increase. Many airports accommodate the increase in passenger traffic by relying on policy and design measures to alleviate congestion and optimize operations. This paper presents a mesoscopic simulation model to assess the effectiveness of such policies. The...
Article
Use of traffic microsimulation for emission estimation and traffic analysis has increased over the last decade, increasing the need for a more detailed calibration. This paper calibrates the Toronto Waterfront Area microsimulation network three times based on different objective functions. A genetic algorithm with a multi-criteria objective functio...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a complementarity equilibrium model for electric vehicles (EVs). Under the equilibrium conditions, each EV takes the path that is shortest and does not violate the driving range. When the driving range has to be violated, the EVs are allowed to choose a path with a charging station to extend their driving range. To find the shor...
Article
This paper presents a complementarity equilibrium model for electric vehicles (EVs). Under the equilibrium conditions, each EV takes the path that is shortest and does not violate the driving range. When the driving range has to be violated, the EVs are allowed to choose a path with a charging station to extend their driving range. To find the shor...
Article
A tool for measuring the “completeness” of a complete street has applications in developing policy, prioritising areas for infrastructure investment for a network, and solving the right-of-way allocation problem for individual streets. A literature review was conducted on the state-of-art in the assessment complete street designs. Complete streets...
Article
Full-text available
A continuous approximation (CA) model is proposed for the fleet composition problem in rectangular-grid-networks. The model extends Jabali et al.’s (2012) methodology for radial- networks. In the model, delivery points are assumed to be uniformly distributed in a square- shaped service region. The region is partitioned into zones, each zone is allo...
Article
Efficient parking management strategies are vital in central business districts of mega-cities where parking supply is limited and congestion is intense. Hourly parking pricing is a common parking management strategy where vehicles pay based on their parking duration (dwell time). In this paper, we derive comparative static effects for a small netw...
Article
Parking is a cumbersome part of any trip because travelers have to search for a spot and walk from that spot to their final destination. This conventional method of parking will change with the arrival of autonomous vehicles (AV). In the near future, users of AVs get dropped off at their final destination and the occupant-free AVs search for the ne...
Article
The two-echelon delivery structure is a strategy that can be implemented in urban areas to lower delivery costs by reducing the movement of heavy goods vehicles. In a two-echelon delivery structure, large trucks deliver shipments from a consolidation center to several terminals, where packages are transferred to smaller trucks for last-mile deliver...
Article
Behavioral freight transportation modeling is an approach to enhance the quality of freight and logistics policy assessments. Outsourcing of freight activities is one of the essential decisions that firms make. Such decisions are influenced by factors such as economic conditions, competition, the industry, firm strategies, and firm characteristics....
Article
Full-text available
Validation is an essential part of the model development process for practical applications in the real world context. This paper focuses on how and at which level the validation of activity-based travel demand models must be performed. It then examines the spatial transferability, as a validation test, of an activity-based model, TASHA (Travel Act...
Article
Freight on Transit (FOT) refers to an operational strategy where public transit vehicles and/or infrastructure are used to move freight. Examples include moving goods alongside passengers on buses, attaching cargo trailers to transit vehicles, and operating freight vehicles between trains on subway lines. This paper describes the methods and result...
Article
Commercial vehicles are of particular interest in parking enforcement because of their heavy presence in central business districts and their recurrent behavior of illegal parking. To deter illegal commercial vehicle parking, enforcement policies are defined by the citation fine and level of enforcement. This paper investigates how rational carrier...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) is a technology which can reduce the cost for power distribution network operators by storing electricity in the batteries of electric-drive vehicles and retrieving it when energy demands increase during the course of a day. Participants of V2G are reimbursed for offering their vehicles which can lead to changes in trip schedu...
Article
Full-text available
As the City of Toronto implements stricter parking enforcement in its downtown core, commercial vehicles have become targets of increased ticketing and towing, often without alternate legal means of parking and loading. This paper investigates the feasibility of a commercial vehicle parking permit to provide lawful and affordable parking options, w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
High quality, comprehensive data on travel behaviour, transport network performance and land use characteristics are essential to the planning and design of urban transport systems. Such information is derived from a variety of sources. In order to gain an understanding of current Canadian collection practice, issues and needs, a survey of transpor...
Article
Despite the complex political and economic trade environment, the generalized costs of transportation still play an important role in determining trade patterns. This paper analyzes how global trade patterns would simultaneously change as a result of new global transportation costs and for which countries the new patterns of global trade would be b...
Article
Distribution of humanitarian supplies is vital in saving lives during disasters. Investment in retrofitting critical transportation links reduces casualties as intact links improve flow of relief supplies. In finding critical links, link importance values are derived using the concept of network reliability. A network improvement problem is then so...
Article
This paper presents a new method for estimating regional trade flows using transportation survey data describing commodity origin–destination flows. Explicit attention is paid to the difference between commodity flows and trade flows that arises from the presence of transhipment points. Observed commodity flows in the transportation survey data are...
Article
Dynamic ridesharing involves a service provider that matches potential drivers and passengers with similar itineraries allowing them to travel together and share the costs. Centralized (binary integer programming) and decentralized (dynamic auction-based multi-agent) optimization algorithms are formulated to match passengers and drivers. Numerical...
Article
A solution to the imbalance of vehicles in one-way carsharing systems is vehicle relocation which involves staff members to redistribute the vehicles between stations. Vehicle relocation, however, can lead to an imbalance of staff members between stations. Thus, staff members, themselves, need to be relocated between stations to perform the vehicle...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial transferability has been recognized as a useful validation test for travel demand models. To date, however, transferability of activity-based models has not been frequently assessed. This paper assesses the spatial transferability of an activity-based model, TASHA (Travel Activity Scheduler for Household Agents), which has been developed fo...
Article
Full-text available
Activity generation models are relatively poorly developed in activity-based travel demand modelling frameworks. This research investigates whether observed distributions of activity attributes (activity frequency, start time and duration) used as inputs in the activity generation component of an activity-based travel demand model have changed over...
Article
Full-text available
Carsharing organizations are shared-mobility services which allow users to share vehicles of a fleet. These services are divided into one-way and two-way systems. Two-way systems require users to return the vehicles to their original pick up stations whereas one-ways systems do not. We present a hybrid system that has features of both. Two integer...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past several decades, road space and curb space have become increasingly scarce in urban areas. Commercial vehicles are then forced to compete with passenger vehicles for this limited space; this situation leads to an increase in illegal commercial vehicle parking. Increased commercial vehicle parking causes increased congestion, reduced s...
Article
Driving cycles are an important input for state-of-the-art vehicle emission models. Development of a driving cycle requires second-by-second vehicle speed for a representative set of vehicles. Current standard driving cycles cannot reflect or forecast changes in traffic conditions. This paper introduces a method to develop representative driving cy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As urban areas develop and grow, road space and curb space begin to become scarce resources. In these urban areas, commercial vehicles are forced to compete with passenger vehicles for this limited space, leading to an increase in illegal commercial vehicle parking. This causes three major problems: increased congestion, reduced safety for other ro...
Article
Driving cycles are an important input for state-of-the-art vehicle emission models. Development of a driving cycle requires second-by-second vehicle speed for a representative set of vehicles. Current standard driving cycles cannot reflect or forecast changes in traffic conditions. This paper introduces a method to develop representative driving cy...
Article
Full-text available
Many efforts have recently been devoted to developing global multi-region input–output (GMRIO) models. Unfortunately, the scales of GMRIO models do not allow them to capture the heterogeneity of regions within a single country. Multi-scale models can provide more comprehensive analyses capable of capturing the interdependencies of the global econom...
Article
Full-text available
Purolator is a Canadian courier company that recently introduced hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) into their fleets. This paper estimates the fuel savings and greenhouse gas reductions for Purolator’s hybrid trucks using a life-cycle assessment executed with GHGenius, a Government of Canada model. Overall, it was found that Purolator’s hybrid diesel...
Article
Full-text available
An introduction to random-utility-based multiregional input–output models used for the purpose of spatial economic and transport interaction modelling is provided. The main methodological developments and important results of a dozen applications from the years 1996–2013 are described. This is followed by an outlook of potential future directions....
Article
This paper proposes a dynamic optimization–simulation model as a decision support system for one-way carsharing organizations. To reduce the vehicle imbalance in one-way systems, a Vehicle Relocation Optimization model is solved successively in a discrete event simulation. Each event is the arrival of a new user. The model is compared to an a prior...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates the travel cost benefits of truck-only lanes (TOL) on arterial roads, from a value of time perspective. A simple three-lane TOL corridor is developed and demand and value of time scenarios are systematically analysed using a user equilibrium assignment procedure. It is concluded that implementing a TOL when truck proportions ar...