Matthew Horton

Matthew Horton
University of Central Lancashire | UCLAN · School of Computing, Engineering and Physical Sciences

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68
Publications
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Citations

Publications

Publications (68)
Chapter
Current video game titles are primarily designed for players rather than for the experience of those watching the play. Whilst there has been considerable work on understanding the needs of players and their experiences, much less has been done to understand video game ‘audiences’. This paper describes how a Game Audience Experience Survey (GAES) w...
Chapter
Full-text available
Designers frequently use personas to model potential users, but these personas need to be accurate portrayals of people. With personas needed to facilitate a cross-cultural participatory design project, it was recognized that the personas needed to not only describe children appropriately, but also capture differences in behaviours between cultures...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on a study to understand the effects the MemoLine visualization tool has on the interview process for evaluating long term user experience with children. Modifications were made to the MemoLine to try to improve consistency in reporting periods of no play. A within-subject design study was conducted using the MemoLine with interv...
Conference Paper
Tablet games are flooding the market and large numbers of these are designed for children. The expansion of quantity has not seen an associated expansion of quality. Studies of the usability of tablet games for children typically take place in laboratory settings and fail to understand the context of use. This paper describes a study of 'at home' u...
Conference Paper
This paper describes work commissioned by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) to investigate how children with multiple disabilities use tablet games in their homes. An extended study of 20 children in their families, using surveys, diaries, interviews and observations, is described. The findings from the study are captured in themes which b...
Conference Paper
The participation of end users in design, research and evaluation has long been a feature of HCI. Traditionally these end users consent to participate in the general belief that they are contributing some knowledge that will eventually improve things for themselves or others. The involvement of children in research in HCI creates new challenges for...
Chapter
Engaging participants and choosing an appropriate technique in the research process are vitally important in developing successful products, devices and interventions. HCI researchers need to choose techniques that are suitable and appropriate for the user population being considered. In this chapter techniques used within HCI research activities w...
Chapter
TeenCI is a new area for study and, as has been shown in this book, there are many challenges that need to be overcome. These challenges include access to teenagers, understanding the ethics around research, methods to engage with teenagers in research, as well as adjusting research for specialist settings such as healthcare. This chapter contribut...
Article
In this paper, we focus on the MemoLine, a retrospective tool for capturing changes in long-term user experience of games with children, which has had little attention from the Child Computer Interaction community. To investigate the appropriateness of the MemoLine, two studies were performed. In the first study, 16 children aged 7–12 were instruct...
Conference Paper
The development and evaluation of prototypes is an important part of game development. This study aimed to establish whether the form factor, either paper or an iPad, would affect children's ratings of a prototype game. The 42 participants were aged between 7 and 11 and used the Fun Toolkit to measure user experience. The results showed that the fo...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a study to investigate to what extent the use of sensitizing techniques can help children design a serious game for a surrogate population. In total 25 children from a UK primary school aged between 8–9 participated in two design sessions. The first session was designed to inform the children about life in rural China. The seco...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a study to investigate to what extent the use of sensitizing techniques can help children design a serious game for a surrogate population. In total 25 children from a UK primary school aged between 8-9 participated in two design sessions. The first session was designed to inform the children about life in rural China. The seco...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the findings of a low-fidelity participatory design activity for the design of wearable Augmented Reality (AR) experiences for children at play. The aims of the research were to gain insights into the different types of augmentations children find engaging and useful in different play contexts. The papers contribution is both th...
Article
Participatory Design (PD) in various guises is a popular approach with the Interaction Design and Children (IDC) community. In studying it as a method very little work has considered the fundamentals of participation, namely how children choose to participate and how their ideas are included and represented. This paper highlights ethical concerns a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To encourage ethical practices in participatory design with children the CHECk tool was created. This paper reports on an expert review of the CHECk tool and a validating case study. Four main challenges to the CHECk tool are identified: (1) how to inform children on the research and their role herein, (2) distinguishing between project values and...
Article
Full-text available
UX is a widely explored topic within HCI and has a large practitioners' community. However, the users considered in research and practice, are most often adults -- since adults represent the largest technology market share. However teenagers represent a growing market of unique users, and more needs to be understood about this population, from a UX...
Article
Participatory design (PD) methods generally provide little guidance/reporting on how the tasks are introduced to participants and how participants are supported in carrying them out. This area, of understanding how a participant is guided through a design task, is particularly important for child and teenage participants who may be unwilling, for a...
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Full-text available
Over the past decade many new evaluation methods have emerged for evaluating user experience with children, but the results of these studies have tended to be reported in isolation of other techniques. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of 2 user experience evaluations methods with children. A within-subject design was adopted using 20 ch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most modern tablet devices and phones include tilt-based sensing but to-date tilt is primarily used either for input with games or for detecting screen orientation. This paper presents the results of an experiment with teenage users to explore a new tilt-based input technique on mobile devices intended for text entry. The experiment considered the...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a suite of studies that investigated 'cool' as it applies to the design of interactive products for teenagers. Beginning with a hierarchy of cool that situated cool across three dimensions of having, doing, and being cool, the studies reported here are described in terms of their findings and the extent to which they confirm th...
Conference Paper
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There is growing emphasis on teenagers to adopt healthy behaviours and sustainable lifestyles. Innovative interventions delivered through pervasive technology or the internet are increasingly viewed as effective ways to motivate and help people change their behaviour. However, delivering interventions to change teenager's attitude or behaviour via...
Article
Previous research has tended to focus on adults or households as a whole when investigating attitudes and behaviours towards energy use. This study focussed on teenagers, ‘the adults of tomorrow’, and their attitudes towards energy consumption. 114 Teenagers aged 10e19 years took part and multiple data collection methods were used to investigate th...
Conference Paper
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When working with children in participatory design activities ethical questions arise that are not always considered in a standard ethics review. This paper highlights five challenges around the ethics of the value of design and the ethics of the children's participation and presents a new tool, CHECk that deals with three of these challenges by vi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As participants in interaction design, teenagers offer some very unique and valuable insights both into the often-unconventional world that they inhabit and from a viewpoint that can combine elements of both child and adult perspectives. Teenagers as a user group are not often studied within interaction design and, within the field of HCI, fall int...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the methodology through which a set of guidelines that inform the design and development of energy-use reduction technologies for teenagers were created. The presented research forms part of a wider project that aims to design, develop and evaluate mobile solutions to change teen attitudes and behavior to energy consumption. In...
Article
Teenagers are a unique but little studied user group within the field of Interaction Design. Current literature on methodologies for research with children predominantly focuses on working with younger age groups and leaves a distinct gap between this and research methodologies used with adults. The aim of the workshop is to bridge this gap by brin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the past decade many new evaluation methods have emerged for evaluating user experience with children, but the results of these studies have tended to be reported in isolation and cultural implications have been largely ignored. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of the Fun Toolkit and the effect of culture on game preference. In tot...
Article
In this paper, we report the findings from a study investigating children's responses to technologies they have within their home by comparing them with the responses given by their parents. The results indicate that children can report this information accurately as there was an 84% match between the responses of a parent and their child. Furtherm...
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Participatory Design is a common practice in HCI and user based evaluations are also highly recommended. This paper looks at the practice of carrying out design and evaluation sessions with school aged children by describing a general method for carrying out and arranging whole class activities that are school friendly and then by analyzing the aca...
Article
The ability to be or to create 'cool' is universally desirable, for individuals wishing to impress their peers and multinational corporations attempting to gain market share alike. To achieve cool, however, is as challenging as it is desirable; often fleeting, unexpected, uncontrolled and seemingly mysterious. This work builds upon previous work by...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores teenagers' attitudes towards energy consumption. The research is part of a wider project with the goal of designing, developing and evaluating mobile solutions to change teenagers' attitudes and behaviour towards energy. Diaries, stories, written scenarios and focus groups provided initial insight into teenagers' attitudes. The...
Conference Paper
Cool is an essential characteristic when designing technologies that appeal to teenagers, but is very challenging to understand and design for. This paper describes a study that investigated cool with teenagers using a specially constructed 'Cool Wall' that allows items to be rated using a simple scale. We present the design of the Cool Wall protot...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the development and exploration of a tool designed to assist in investigating 'cool' as it applies to the design of interactive products for teenagers. The method involved the derivation of theoretical understandings of cool from literature that resulted in identification of seven core categories for cool, which were mapped to...
Article
Cool can be thought about on three levels; the having of cool things, the doing of cool stuff and the being of cool. Whilst there is some understanding of cool products, the concept, of being cool is much more elusive to designers and developers of systems. This study examines this space by using a set of pre-prepared teenage personas as probes wit...
Conference Paper
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Survey tools are widely used within Child Computer Interaction however the validity and reliability of children's responses are often brought into question. This paper reports on a study on the effects of asking the same questions to the same children over a period of a week to ascertain the validity of children's responses when completing a single...
Conference Paper
This paper describes how initial principles for the designs of an interactive application were informed from a study of 'coolness' with two different ages of teenagers. The study used drawings to examine how teenagers might design their environments and these were then analysed by the research team based on a set of characteristics of cool that wer...
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Full-text available
In this paper we explore the unique challenges and rewards of engaging teenagers in the design process. This work is part of project engaging teenagers in reducing their energy use and making longer lasting changes in energy usage attitudes. This change will be achieved though the creation of mobile and wearable 'teen' technologies that make energy...
Conference Paper
A Computer Experience questionnaire was piloted with 49 children to validate two new scales of measurement, the Thumbs-Up Scale (TUS) and Frequency of Use Scale (FUS). TUS is a VAS (Visually Analogue Scale) designed to measure perceived skill levels. FUS is a Likert scale for measuring how often a device is used or an event occurs. The two scales g...
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Full-text available
Children are often encouraged to participate in the design of, and the evaluation of, interactive products that are intended for their use. The products they may encounter can vary according to their purpose and their complexity and so, in most cases, children simply offer insights into products rather than being expected to have comprehensive know...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this poster we report the findings from a study of technologies in the home and school and use these results to discuss the validity and variability of children's reports of technologies. The results indicate that children may not understand well the types of interactive technologies that were discussed and that there may be some confusion about...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the work, the vision, and the approach of the Child Computer Interaction (ChiCI) group at the University of Central Lancashire in the UK. This group, formed four years ago, has grown to become one of the leaders in its field whilst maintaining a democratic structure, an open mind, and an invigorating message. The paper describe...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents Bluebells, a design method that balances child-centred design with expert design in a progressive approach that marries the best of both disciplines. The method is described in the context of a museum technologies project. Bluebells comprises several new design techniques; these are evaluated and discussed in the paper. The auth...
Conference Paper
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The paper describes a research study to determine the usability of handwriting recognition technology on a tablet PC for free writing by children. Results demonstrate that recognition error rates vary according to the metrics used, and the authors discuss how some of the errors are created concluding that the error rates say very little about what...
Article
Full-text available
We describe an investigation into the relationship between usability and fun in educational software designed for children. Twenty-five children aged between 7 and 8 participated in the study. Several evaluation methods were used; some collected data from observers, and others collected reports from the users. Analysis showed that in both observati...
Chapter
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This paper describes an empirical study with children that compared the three methods of writing — using pencil and paper, using the QWERTY keyboard at a computer, and using a pen and graphics tablet. The children wrote short stories. Where the graphics tablet was used, the text was recognized and presented to the children as ASCII text. Measures o...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the findings of an investigation of children's performance and attitude towards a paper based and computer based test. Twenty children, aged between 7 and 8 of mixed gender, participated in this study using a commercial software application. The children's attitude towards the software was captured through the use of a smarty-o-m...
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This paper reports the findings of an investigation into the relationship between usability fun and learning in educational software designed for children. Twenty five children from an English primary school aged between 7 and 8 participated in the evaluation. A 3x3 Latin square experimental design methodology was adopted incorporating pre and post...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we describe a two-part study that was used to establish the requirements for an interactive museum environment for children aged between 5 and 10. The paper outlines how the low-tech interactive environment currently used in the museum was used to produce ideas for a technology-enhanced environment.
Article
Full-text available
This poster describes a situated usability study of three digital tools in a primary classroom. The researchers studied seven and eight year old children using digital pens, personal digital assistants and tablet PCs for free-writing activities. Some of the key usability issues with the three technologies are presented and possibilities for further...
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This paper examines the interface for online assessment within WebCT. Students in four undergraduate and one postgraduate module participated in the study. Post test questionnaires were distributed to students to ascertain their experience of online assessment focusing on the usability of the software. The quantitative data indicated that the users...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper describes a novel classroom based project that looked at methods for sharing the contributions of students during activities in undergraduate classes. Initially intended for HCI students, the CRaSh product has wide applicability for creative use of class time and for inspiring students in their design work. The method employed was a prot...
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Full-text available
This paper describes a small pilot study that looked at the immediate usability of two commercial word processors used by children. The study compared an application which was designed for children against one predominately used by adults. The children's performance was assessed whilst carrying out six key tasks. The results showed that there was a...
Article
In this poster we report the findings from a study of technologies in the home and school and use these results to discuss the validity and variability of children's reports of technologies. The results indicate that children may not understand well the types of interactive technologies that were discussed and that there may be some confusion about...
Article
Full-text available
This is a demonstration of a handwriting recognition based writing environment for children aged between 6 and 9. The design of the writing environment is outlined and reference is made to some of the usability issues that had to be overcome to produce a workable prototype. The software that is demonstrated shows the immediate usability of the inte...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the process by which a group of seven and eight year old children designed their own digital writing tools following their own study of digital pens, personal digital assistants and tablet PCs. Some of the children's thoughts about the three technologies are presented and how these were carried through into their own designs is...

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